Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(5)2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792755

ABSTRACT

The major advantage of mRNA vaccines over more conventional approaches is their potential for rapid development and large-scale deployment in pandemic situations. In the current COVID-19 crisis, two mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have been conditionally approved and broadly applied, while others are still in clinical trials. However, there is no previous experience with the use of mRNA vaccines on a large scale in the general population. This warrants a careful evaluation of mRNA vaccine safety properties by considering all available knowledge about mRNA molecular biology and evolution. Here, I discuss the pervasive claim that mRNA-based vaccines cannot alter genomes. Surprisingly, this notion is widely stated in the mRNA vaccine literature but never supported by referencing any primary scientific papers that would specifically address this question. This discrepancy becomes even more puzzling if one considers previous work on the molecular and evolutionary aspects of retroposition in murine and human populations that clearly documents the frequent integration of mRNA molecules into genomes, including clinical contexts. By performing basic comparisons, I show that the sequence features of mRNA vaccines meet all known requirements for retroposition using L1 elements-the most abundant autonomously active retrotransposons in the human genome. In fact, many factors associated with mRNA vaccines increase the possibility of their L1-mediated retroposition. I conclude that is unfounded to a priori assume that mRNA-based therapeutics do not impact genomes and that the route to genome integration of vaccine mRNAs via endogenous L1 retroelements is easily conceivable. This implies that we urgently need experimental studies that would rigorously test for the potential retroposition of vaccine mRNAs. At present, the insertional mutagenesis safety of mRNA-based vaccines should be considered unresolved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Biology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements , Mice , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Retroelements , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , mRNA Vaccines
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512381

ABSTRACT

Tumor-associated cell-free DNAs (cfDNA) play an important role in the promotion of metastases. Previous studies proved the high antimetastatic potential of bovine pancreatic DNase I and identified short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) and long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs)and fragments of oncogenes in cfDNA as the main molecular targets of enzyme in the bloodstream. Here, recombinant human DNase I (commercial name Pulmozyme®), which is used for the treatment of cystic fibrosis in humans, was repurposed for the inhibition of lung metastases in the B16 melanoma model in mice. We found that Pulmozyme® strongly reduced migration and induced apoptosis of B16 cells in vitro and effectively inhibited metastases in lungs and liver in vivo. Pulmozyme® was shown to be two times more effective when administered intranasally (i.n.) than bovine DNase I, but intramuscular (i.m.) administration forced it to exhibit as high an antimetastatic activity as bovine DNase I. Both DNases administered to mice either i.m. or i.n. enhanced the DNase activity of blood serum to the level of healthy animals, significantly decreased cfDNA concentrations, efficiently degraded SINE and LINE repeats and c-Myc fragments in the bloodstream and induced apoptosis and disintegration of neutrophil extracellular traps in metastatic foci; as a result, this manifested as the inhibition of metastases spread. Thus, Pulmozyme®, which is already an approved drug, can be recommended for use in the treatment of lung metastases.


Subject(s)
Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/blood , Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism , Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Melanoma, Experimental/drug therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/antagonists & inhibitors , Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements/genetics , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Deoxyribonuclease I/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Repositioning , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Male , Melanoma, Experimental/genetics , Melanoma, Experimental/metabolism , Melanoma, Experimental/pathology , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/blood , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology
3.
JCI Insight ; 6(24)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501860

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 promotes an imbalanced host response that underlies the development and severity of COVID-19. Infections with viruses are known to modulate transposable elements (TEs), which can exert downstream effects by modulating host gene expression, innate immune sensing, or activities encoded by their protein products. We investigated the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on TE expression using RNA-Seq data from cell lines and from primary patient samples. Using a bioinformatics tool, Telescope, we showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection led to upregulation or downregulation of TE transcripts, a subset of which differed from cells infected with SARS, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV or MERS), influenza A virus (IAV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3). Differential expression of key retroelements specifically identified distinct virus families, such as Coronaviridae, with unique retroelement expression subdividing viral species. Analysis of ChIP-Seq data showed that TEs differentially expressed in SARS-CoV-2 infection were enriched for binding sites for transcription factors involved in immune responses and for pioneer transcription factors. In samples from patients with COVID-19, there was significant TE overexpression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and downregulation in PBMCs. Thus, although the host gene transcriptome is altered by infection with SARS-CoV-2, the retrotranscriptome may contain the most distinctive features of the cellular response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics , Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements/genetics , A549 Cells , Cell Line , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , DNA Transposable Elements/genetics , Down-Regulation , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human , RNA-Seq , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respirovirus Infections/genetics , Retroelements/genetics , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Transcriptome , Up-Regulation
4.
Cell Rep ; 36(7): 109530, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330686

ABSTRACT

A recent study proposed that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) hijacks the LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition machinery to integrate into the DNA of infected cells. If confirmed, this finding could have significant clinical implications. Here, we apply deep (>50×) long-read Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing to HEK293T cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 and do not find the virus integrated into the genome. By examining ONT data from separate HEK293T cultivars, we completely resolve 78 L1 insertions arising in vitro in the absence of L1 overexpression systems. ONT sequencing applied to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive liver cancer tissues located a single HBV insertion. These experiments demonstrate reliable resolution of retrotransposon and exogenous virus insertions by ONT sequencing. That we find no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 integration suggests that such events are, at most, extremely rare in vivo and therefore are unlikely to drive oncogenesis or explain post-recovery detection of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , DNA, Viral/genetics , Genome, Human , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Virus Integration , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/virology , Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements , Male , Nanopore Sequencing , Vero Cells
6.
Brief Funct Genomics ; 20(1): 28-41, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045889

ABSTRACT

The human genome has an almost equal distribution of unique and transposable genetic elements. Although at the transcriptome level, a relatively higher contribution from transposable elements derived RNA has been reported. This is further highlighted with evidence from pervasive transcription. Of the total RNA, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are significant contributors to the transcriptome pool with sizeable fraction from repetitive elements of the human genome, inclusive of Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs) and Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs). ncRNAs are increasingly being implicated in diverse functional roles especially during conditions of stress. These stress responses are driven through diverse mediators, inclusive of long and short ncRNAs. ncRNAs such as MALAT1, GAS5, miR-204 and miR-199a-5p have been functionally involved during oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). Also, within SINEs, Alu RNAs derived from primate-specific Alu repeats with ~11% human genome contribution, playing a significant role. Pathogenic diseases, including the recent COVID-19, leads to differential regulation of ncRNAs. Although, limited evidence suggests the need for an inquest into the role of ncRNAs in determining the host response towards pathogen challenge.


Subject(s)
Infections/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/physiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/physiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Infections/metabolism , Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements , Oxidative Stress , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements , Unfolded Protein Response
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL