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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 67, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497893

ABSTRACT

Adverse consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination which have been reported in scientific papers are varied. One possible but rare consequence is myocarditis, which may have a diversity of clinical manifestations. We report a case of a 70-year-old man who presented to the hospital for some syncope, 3 days after his first COVID-19 AstraZeneca Vaccination. Initial electrocardiogram (ECG) showed a long QT interval (QTc = 600 milliseconds). Laboratory tests revealed elevated troponin and lack of evidence of viral infection. Further investigations revealed the vaccine-induced myocarditis and arrhythmias linked to it. Within one week of magnesium treatment, the QT interval was completely corrected, and the patient discharged with no typical syncope attacks. This case like the previous reported one confirms that myocarditis is a complication of COVID-19 vaccine, but implies its clinical manifestations may be varied and even may happen after the single dose of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/etiology , Syncope/etiology , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Electrocardiography , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/drug therapy , Magnesium/administration & dosage , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Syncope/diagnosis , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26787, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lopinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and saquinavir had been reportedly used or suggested for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment. They may cause electrocardiography changes. We aim to evaluate risk of PR prolongation, QRS widening, and QT prolongation from lopinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and saquinavir. METHODS: In accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines, our search was conducted in PubMed Central, PubMed, EBSCOhost, and ProQuest from inception to June 25, 2020. Titles and abstracts were reviewed for relevance. Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool 2.0 and Downs and Black criteria was used to evaluate quality of studies. RESULTS: We retrieved 9 articles. Most randomized controlled trials have low risk of biases while all quasi-experimental studies have a positive rating. Four studies reporting PR prolongation however only 2 studies with PR interval >200 ms. One of which, reported its association after treatment with ritonavir-boosted saquinavir treatment while another, during treatment with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir. No study reported QRS widening >120 ms with treatment. Four studies reporting QT prolongation, with only one study reaching QT interval >450 ms after ritonavir-boosted saquinavir treatment on healthy patients. There is only one study on COVID-19 patients reporting QT prolongation in 1 out of 95 patients after ritonavir-boosted lopinavir treatment. CONCLUSION: Limited evidence suggests that lopinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and saquinavir could cause PR prolongation, QRS widening, and QT prolongation. Further trials with closer monitoring and assessment of electrocardiography are needed to ascertain usage safety of antivirals in COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Atazanavir Sulfate/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/etiology , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Saquinavir/adverse effects , Adult , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/standards , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Saquinavir/therapeutic use
4.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 158, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159221

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The cause-and-effect relationship of QTc prolongation in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has not been studied well. OBJECTIVE: We attempt to better understand the relationship of QTc prolongation in COVID-19 patients in this study. METHODS: This is a retrospective, hospital-based, observational study. All patients with normal baseline QTc interval who were hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection at two hospitals in Ohio, USA were included in this study. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients had QTc prolongation, and 210 patients continued to have normal QTc during hospitalization. The baseline QTc intervals were comparable in the two groups. Patients with QTc prolongation were older (mean age 67 vs. 60, P 0.003), more likely to have underlying cardiovascular disease (48% versus 26%, P 0.001), ischemic heart disease (29% versus 17%, P 0.026), congestive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (16% versus 8%, P 0.042), chronic kidney disease (23% versus 10%, P 0.005), and end-stage renal disease (12% versus 1%, P < 0.001). Patients with QTc prolongation were more likely to have received hydroxychloroquine (75% versus 59%, P 0.018), azithromycin (18% vs. 14%, P 0.034), a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (29% vs 7%, P < 0.001), more than 1 QT prolonging agents (59% vs. 32%, P < 0.001). Patients who were on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) were less likely to develop QTc prolongation (11% versus 26%, P 0.014). QTc prolongation was not associated with increased ventricular arrhythmias or mortality. CONCLUSION: Older age, ESRD, underlying cardiovascular disease, potential virus mediated cardiac injury, and drugs like hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin, contribute to QTc prolongation in COVID-19 patients. The role of ACEi in preventing QTc prolongation in COVID-19 patients needs to be studied further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Electrocardiography , Long QT Syndrome , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Correlation of Data , Electrocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Long QT Syndrome/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , United States/epidemiology
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 332: 109299, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885217

ABSTRACT

COVID-2019 pandemic is affecting people worldwide in the absence of an effective treatment strategy. Several suggestive therapeutic options through drug repurposing are recommended, but a complete consensus is not reached. A combination of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Azithromycin (AZM) has been widely tried and discussed but its administration has also led to potential adversities in patients. Studies are suggesting that most prominent adverse event with HCQ and AZM combination is QT interval prolongation. We studied interaction of HCQ with AZM and subsequent effect of this drug combination on QT interval prolongation. We performed system biological investigation of HCQ and AZM targets and screened important targets and pathways possibly involved in QT interval prolongation. The best core hub protein drug targets involved in QT interval prolongation were identified as HSP90AA1 exclusively associated with HCQ, while AKT1 exclusively associated with AZM on the basis of node degree value. It was found that PI3K/Akt, VEGF, ERBB2 pathways must be given consideration for understanding the role of HCQ and AZM in QT interval prolongation. Conclusion: Computational methods have certain limitations based on source database coverage and prediction algorithms and therefore this data needs experimental correlation to draw final conclusion, but current findings screen targets for QT interval prolongation associated with HCQ and AZM. These proteins and pathways may provide ways to reduce this major risk associated with this combination.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Long QT Syndrome/etiology , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Combinations , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Pandemics , Protein Interaction Maps , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects
6.
J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother ; 34(4): 237-239, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-786937

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 brings with it unprecedented challenges in clinical management. An important component of care is the provision of safe and effective symptom control. Given the emerging literature reporting on the risk of QT prolongation and arrhythmias associated with COVID-19 disease and experimental therapies, we highlight some considerations for the prescribing of palliative care medications in this context. Based on the experience gained from palliative care referrals at our institution prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and in collaboration with our clinical pharmacology colleagues, we outline some general prescribing principles which may assist with weighing the risks and benefits of prescribing symptomatic medications in and beyond the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Long QT Syndrome/etiology , Palliative Care/methods , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Referral and Consultation
7.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(9): 1472-1479, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-353443

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are now being widely used for treatment of COVID-19. Both medications prolong the QT interval and accordingly may put patients at increased risk for torsades de pointes and sudden death. Published guidance documents vary in their recommendations for monitoring and managing these potential adverse effects. Accordingly, we set out to conduct a systematic review of the arrhythmogenic effect of short courses of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. We searched on MEDLINE and Embase, as well as in the gray literature up to April 17, 2020, for the risk of QT prolongation, torsades, ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden death with short-term chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine usage. This search resulted in 390 unique records, of which 41 were ultimately selected for qualitative synthesis and which included data on 1515 COVID-19 patients. Approximately 10% of COVID-19 patients treated with these drugs developed QT prolongation. We found evidence of ventricular arrhythmia in 2 COVID-19 patients from a group of 28 treated with high-dose chloroquine. Limitations of these results are unclear follow-up and possible publication/reporting bias, but there is compelling evidence that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine induce significant QT-interval prolongation and potentially increase the risk of arrhythmia. Daily electrocardiographic monitoring and other risk mitigation strategies should be considered in order to prevent possible harms from what is currently an unproven therapy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Death, Sudden/etiology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Long QT Syndrome/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Torsades de Pointes/etiology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
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