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2.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003766, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial similar to chloroquine that is used extensively for the treatment and prevention of malaria. Data on the cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine are scarce, although transient effects on cardiac electrophysiology (electrocardiographic QT interval prolongation and sinus bradycardia) have been observed. We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis to characterise the cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine and thereby support development of risk minimisation measures to improve the safety of this important antimalarial. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies of amodiaquine for the treatment or prevention of malaria were identified from a systematic review. Heart rates and QT intervals with study-specific heart rate correction (QTcS) were compared within studies and individual patient data pooled for multivariable linear mixed effects regression. The meta-analysis included 2,681 patients from 4 randomised controlled trials evaluating artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) containing amodiaquine (n = 725), lumefantrine (n = 499), piperaquine (n = 716), and pyronaridine (n = 566), as well as monotherapy with chloroquine (n = 175) for uncomplicated malaria. Amodiaquine prolonged QTcS (mean = 16.9 ms, 95% CI: 15.0 to 18.8) less than chloroquine (21.9 ms, 18.3 to 25.6, p = 0.0069) and piperaquine (19.2 ms, 15.8 to 20.5, p = 0.0495), but more than lumefantrine (5.6 ms, 2.9 to 8.2, p < 0.001) and pyronaridine (-1.2 ms, -3.6 to +1.3, p < 0.001). In individuals aged ≥12 years, amodiaquine reduced heart rate (mean reduction = 15.2 beats per minute [bpm], 95% CI: 13.4 to 17.0) more than piperaquine (10.5 bpm, 7.7 to 13.3, p = 0.0013), lumefantrine (9.3 bpm, 6.4 to 12.2, p < 0.001), pyronaridine (6.6 bpm, 4.0 to 9.3, p < 0.001), and chloroquine (5.9 bpm, 3.2 to 8.5, p < 0.001) and was associated with a higher risk of potentially symptomatic sinus bradycardia (≤50 bpm) than lumefantrine (risk difference: 14.8%, 95% CI: 5.4 to 24.3, p = 0.0021) and chloroquine (risk difference: 8.0%, 95% CI: 4.0 to 12.0, p < 0.001). The effect of amodiaquine on the heart rate of children aged <12 years compared with other antimalarials was not clinically significant. Study limitations include the unavailability of individual patient-level adverse event data for most included participants, but no serious complications were documented. CONCLUSIONS: While caution is advised in the use of amodiaquine in patients aged ≥12 years with concomitant use of heart rate-reducing medications, serious cardiac conduction disorders, or risk factors for torsade de pointes, there have been no serious cardiovascular events reported after amodiaquine in widespread use over 7 decades. Amodiaquine and structurally related antimalarials in the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended dose regimens alone or in ACTs are safe for the treatment and prevention of malaria.


Subject(s)
Amodiaquine/adverse effects , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Adolescent , Adult , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/physiopathology , Cardiotoxicity , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Humans , Infant , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Young Adult
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(12): e017144, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255736

ABSTRACT

Background Despite a lack of clinical evidence, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin are being administered widely to patients with verified or suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Both drugs may increase risk of lethal arrhythmias associated with QT interval prolongation. Methods and Results We analyzed a case series of COVID-19-positive/suspected patients admitted between February 1, 2020, and April 4, 2020, who were treated with azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, or a combination of both drugs. We evaluated baseline and postmedication QT interval (corrected QT interval [QTc]; Bazett) using 12-lead ECGs. Critical QTc prolongation was defined as follows: (1) maximum QTc ≥500 ms (if QRS <120 ms) or QTc ≥550 ms (if QRS ≥120 ms) and (2) QTc increase of ≥60 ms. Tisdale score and Elixhauser comorbidity index were calculated. Of 490 COVID-19-positive/suspected patients, 314 (64%) received either/both drugs and 98 (73 COVID-19 positive and 25 suspected) met study criteria (age, 62±17 years; 61% men). Azithromycin was prescribed in 28%, hydroxychloroquine in 10%, and both in 62%. Baseline mean QTc was 448±29 ms and increased to 459±36 ms (P=0.005) with medications. Significant prolongation was observed only in men (18±43 ms versus -0.2±28 ms in women; P=0.02). A total of 12% of patients reached critical QTc prolongation. Changes in QTc were highest with the combination compared with either drug, with much greater prolongation with combination versus azithromycin (17±39 ms versus 0.5±40 ms; P=0.07). No patients manifested torsades de pointes. Conclusions Overall, 12% of patients manifested critical QTc prolongation, and the combination caused greater prolongation than either drug alone. The balance between uncertain benefit and potential risk when treating COVID-19 patients should be carefully assessed.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 26(5): e12853, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220259

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients frequently develop QT interval prolongation that predisposes them to Torsades de Pointes and sudden cardiac death. Continuous cardiac monitoring has been recommended for any COVID-19 patient with a Tisdale Score of seven or more. This recommendation, however, has not been validated. METHODS: We included 178 COVID-19 patients admitted to a non-intensive care unit setting of a tertiary academic medical center. A receiver operating characteristics curve was plotted to determine the accuracy of the Tisdale Score to predict QT interval prolongation. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify additional predictors. RESULTS: The area under the curve of the Tisdale Score was 0.60 (CI 95%, 0.46-0.75). Using the cutoff of seven to stratify COVID-19, patients had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 7.6%. Risk factors independently associated with QT interval prolongation included a history of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (OR, 6.42; CI 95%, 1.28-32.13), QTc ≥450 ms on admission (OR, 5.90; CI 95%, 1.62-21.50), and serum potassium ≤3.5 mmol/L during hospitalization (OR, 4.97; CI 95%, 1.51-16.36). CONCLUSION: The Tisdale Score is not a useful tool to stratify hospitalized non-critical COVID-19 patients based on their risks of developing QT interval prolongation. Clinicians should initiate continuous cardiac monitoring for patients who present with a history of ESRD, QTc ≥450 ms on admission or serum potassium ≤3.5 mmol/L.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography/methods , Long QT Syndrome/complications , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Circulation ; 143(13): 1274-1286, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation, whether secondary to drugs, genetics including congenital long QT syndrome, and/or systemic diseases including SARS-CoV-2-mediated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can predispose to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Currently, QTc assessment and monitoring relies largely on 12-lead electrocardiography. As such, we sought to train and validate an artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled 12-lead ECG algorithm to determine the QTc, and then prospectively test this algorithm on tracings acquired from a mobile ECG (mECG) device in a population enriched for repolarization abnormalities. METHODS: Using >1.6 million 12-lead ECGs from 538 200 patients, a deep neural network (DNN) was derived (patients for training, n = 250 767; patients for testing, n = 107 920) and validated (n = 179 513 patients) to predict the QTc using cardiologist-overread QTc values as the "gold standard". The ability of this DNN to detect clinically-relevant QTc prolongation (eg, QTc ≥500 ms) was then tested prospectively on 686 patients with genetic heart disease (50% with long QT syndrome) with QTc values obtained from both a 12-lead ECG and a prototype mECG device equivalent to the commercially-available AliveCor KardiaMobile 6L. RESULTS: In the validation sample, strong agreement was observed between human over-read and DNN-predicted QTc values (-1.76±23.14 ms). Similarly, within the prospective, genetic heart disease-enriched dataset, the difference between DNN-predicted QTc values derived from mECG tracings and those annotated from 12-lead ECGs by a QT expert (-0.45±24.73 ms) and a commercial core ECG laboratory [10.52±25.64 ms] was nominal. When applied to mECG tracings, the DNN's ability to detect a QTc value ≥500 ms yielded an area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.97, 80.0%, and 94.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using smartphone-enabled electrodes, an AI DNN can predict accurately the QTc of a standard 12-lead ECG. QTc estimation from an AI-enabled mECG device may provide a cost-effective means of screening for both acquired and congenital long QT syndrome in a variety of clinical settings where standard 12-lead electrocardiography is not accessible or cost-effective.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Rate/physiology , Adult , Aged , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Electrocardiography/instrumentation , Female , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Smartphone
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6918, 2021 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152879

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine has recently received attention as a treatment for COVID-19. However, it may prolong the QTc interval. Furthermore, when hydroxychloroquine is administered concomitantly with other drugs, it can exacerbate the risk of QT prolongation. Nevertheless, the risk of QT prolongation due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between hydroxychloroquine and concomitant medications has not yet been identified. To evaluate the risk of QT prolongation due to DDIs between hydroxychloroquine and 118 concurrent drugs frequently used in real-world practice, we analyzed the electrocardiogram results obtained for 447,632 patients and their relevant electronic health records in a tertiary teaching hospital in Korea from 1996 to 2018. We repeated the case-control analysis for each drug. In each analysis, we performed multiple logistic regression and calculated the odds ratio (OR) for each target drug, hydroxychloroquine, and the interaction terms between those two drugs. The DDIs were observed in 12 drugs (trimebutine, tacrolimus, tramadol, rosuvastatin, cyclosporin, sulfasalazine, rofecoxib, diltiazem, piperacillin/tazobactam, isoniazid, clarithromycin, and furosemide), all with a p value of < 0.05 (OR 1.70-17.85). In conclusion, we found 12 drugs that showed DDIs with hydroxychloroquine in the direction of increasing QT prolongation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Drug Interactions , Electrocardiography , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 25(3): 184-190, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The effects of treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a triple combination composed of hydroxychloroquine, an an-tiviral, and an antibiotic on electrocardiography (ECG) parameters in patients with mild-to-moderate symptoms are not wholly understood. We aimed to explore the changes in ECG parameters after treatment with triple combination therapy in patients with mild-to-moderate symptomatic COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center case series analyzed 91 patients with mild-to-moderate symptomatic COVID-19 at Ankara Gazi Mus-tafa Kemal State Hospital of Ankara City, Turkey, from April 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020. Forty-three patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine+oseltamivir+azithromycin (Group 1) and 48 patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine+oseltamivir+levofloxacin (Group 2). Heart rate, P wave duration, P wave dispersion, PR interval, QRS duration, corrected QT interval (QTc), QTc dispersion (QTD), delta QTc, Tp-e, Tp-e dispersion, and Tp-e/QTc ratio were all calculated from the baseline and posttreatment 12-lead ECG recordings. RESULTS: The QTc, QRS duration, Tp-e, PR interval, and P wave duration were significantly increased after treatment (p<0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001; p=0.001; p=0.001). The posttreatment C-reactive protein level was significantly lower than at baseline in Group 1 (p=0.014). At admission, 30% of patients had QT prolongation, and 4.3% of them had a QT duration >500 ms. Both Group 1 and Group 2 showed significant prolongation of the QTc interval (Group 1; p<0.001 vs. Group 2; p<0.001), QRS duration (Group 1; p=0.006 vs. Group 2; p=0.014), Tp-e (Group 1; p=0.036 vs. Group 2; p<0.001), and PR interval (Group 1; p=0.002 vs. Group2; p=0.05). The QTD was significantly decreased in Group 1 (p<0.001). None of the patients experienced any overt ventricular arrhythmia. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate QT prolongation in a population of COVID-19 patients treated with triple combination therapy. We found that there was a significant decrease in the QTD after the treatment in patients who were taking triple therapy including azithromycin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Levofloxacin/administration & dosage , Levofloxacin/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Oseltamivir/administration & dosage , Oseltamivir/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
8.
Cardiol Young ; 31(3): 344-351, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101608

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a huge influence in almost all areas of life, affecting societies, economics, and health care systems worldwide. The paediatric cardiology community is no exception. As the challenging battle with COVID-19 continues, professionals from the Association for the European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology receive many questions regarding COVID-19 in a Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology setting. The aim of this paper is to present the AEPC position on frequently asked questions based on the most recent scientific data, as well as to frame a discussion on how to take care of our patients during this unprecedented crisis. As the times are changing quickly and information regarding COVID-19 is very dynamic, continuous collection of evidence will help guide constructive decision-making.


Subject(s)
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Brugada Syndrome/drug therapy , Brugada Syndrome/epidemiology , Brugada Syndrome/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Cardiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Long QT Syndrome/drug therapy , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocardium , Pediatrics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/drug therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/epidemiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology
10.
Circulation ; 143(13): 1274-1286, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation, whether secondary to drugs, genetics including congenital long QT syndrome, and/or systemic diseases including SARS-CoV-2-mediated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can predispose to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Currently, QTc assessment and monitoring relies largely on 12-lead electrocardiography. As such, we sought to train and validate an artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled 12-lead ECG algorithm to determine the QTc, and then prospectively test this algorithm on tracings acquired from a mobile ECG (mECG) device in a population enriched for repolarization abnormalities. METHODS: Using >1.6 million 12-lead ECGs from 538 200 patients, a deep neural network (DNN) was derived (patients for training, n = 250 767; patients for testing, n = 107 920) and validated (n = 179 513 patients) to predict the QTc using cardiologist-overread QTc values as the "gold standard". The ability of this DNN to detect clinically-relevant QTc prolongation (eg, QTc ≥500 ms) was then tested prospectively on 686 patients with genetic heart disease (50% with long QT syndrome) with QTc values obtained from both a 12-lead ECG and a prototype mECG device equivalent to the commercially-available AliveCor KardiaMobile 6L. RESULTS: In the validation sample, strong agreement was observed between human over-read and DNN-predicted QTc values (-1.76±23.14 ms). Similarly, within the prospective, genetic heart disease-enriched dataset, the difference between DNN-predicted QTc values derived from mECG tracings and those annotated from 12-lead ECGs by a QT expert (-0.45±24.73 ms) and a commercial core ECG laboratory [10.52±25.64 ms] was nominal. When applied to mECG tracings, the DNN's ability to detect a QTc value ≥500 ms yielded an area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.97, 80.0%, and 94.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using smartphone-enabled electrodes, an AI DNN can predict accurately the QTc of a standard 12-lead ECG. QTc estimation from an AI-enabled mECG device may provide a cost-effective means of screening for both acquired and congenital long QT syndrome in a variety of clinical settings where standard 12-lead electrocardiography is not accessible or cost-effective.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Rate/physiology , Adult , Aged , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Electrocardiography/instrumentation , Female , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Smartphone
11.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 21(4): 314-321, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002172

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine is used in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 infection, although there is no substantial evidence for a beneficial effect. Chloroquine is known to prolong the QRS and QTc interval on the ECG. To assess the effect of chloroquine on QRS and QTc intervals in COVID-19 patients, we included all inpatients treated with chloroquine for COVID-19 in the Spaarne Gasthuis (Haarlem/Hoofddorp, the Netherlands) and had an ECG performed both in the 72 h before and during or at least 48 h after treatment. We analyzed the (change in) QRS and QTc interval using the one-sample t-test. Of the 106 patients treated with chloroquine, 70 met the inclusion criteria. The average change in QRS interval was 6.0 ms (95% CI 3.3-8.7) and the average change in QTc interval was 32.6 ms (95% CI 24.9-40.2) corrected with the Bazett's formula and 38.1 ms (95% CI 30.4-45.9) corrected with the Fridericia's formula. In 19 of the 70 patients (27%), the QTc interval was above 500 ms after start of chloroquine treatment or the change in QTc interval was more than 60 ms. A heart rate above 90 bpm, renal dysfunction, and a QTc interval below 450 ms were risk factors for QTc interval prolongation. Chloroquine prolongs the QTc interval in a substantial number of patients, potentially causing rhythm disturbances. Since there is no substantial evidence for a beneficial effect of chloroquine, these results discourage its use in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Electrocardiography/trends , Female , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Risk Factors
12.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(10): 153-157, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess and identify the risk of prolonged QT about hydroxychloroquine (HQ) and azithromycin (AZ) used in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Kartal Dr. Lütfi Kirdar City Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from March to May 2020. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and forty-four patients with the diagnosis of COVID-19, confirmed by Rt-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), were restrospectively reviewed. Patients who were hospitalised, received HQ or HQ plus AZ treatment, had a baseline electrocardiogram (ECG), and had at least one ECG after treatment were included in the study. Patients with missing data were excluded. RESULTS: Fifty-one (35.4%) patients were given hydroxychloroquine monoterapy (HQ), 93 (64.6%) were given hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (HA), and 70 (48.6%) were women. Pre-treatment mean QTc measurements were calculated as 410.61 ± 29.44 milliseconds (ms) for HQ group and 412.02 ± 25.37 ms for HA group, while the mean values of post-treatment QTc measurements were calculated as 432.31 ± 33.97 ms for HQ group and 432.03 ± 27.0 ms for the HA group. Post-treatment QTc measurements of both HA group and HQ group were prolonged compared to pre-treatment measurements. Ventricular arrhythmia was not observed in any patient. CONCLUSION: For COVID-19, no globally accepted definite treatment has yet been found. Both of hydroxychloroquine monotherapy and hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin treatment regimens cause QTc measurement to increase at a statistically significant level. We concluded that this increase in QTc did not cause ventricular arrhythmia. Key Words: COVID-19, QTc interval, Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
14.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(4): 106142, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726536

ABSTRACT

This longitudinal, prospective cohort study aimed to assess risk of QTc interval prolongation and its predicting factors in subjects treated with combinations containing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for COVID-19. Moderate-to-severe QTc prolongation during therapy was defined as a QTc interval >470 ms in men or >480 ms in women. Patients were treated under strict cardiac supervision. A total of 105 adults were included [56% male; median (IQR) age 69 (57-79) years]. All patients received therapy with HCQ in combination with azithromycin (AZM), and 95 (90%) also with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). Concomitant medications classified as having risk of developing torsades de pointes (TdP) were simultaneously used in 81 patients (77%). Moderate-to-severe QTc prolongation was observed in 14 patients (13%), mostly at Days 3-5 from baseline, with 6 (6%) developing severe prolongation (>500 ms). There was no evidence of TdP arrhythmia or TdP-associated death. Adding LPV/r to HCQ+AZM did not significantly prolong the QTc interval. Multivariable Cox regression revealed that comedications with known risk of TdP (HR = 11.28, 95% CI 1.08-117.41), higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR) ratio (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18 per unit increase) and higher serum hs-cardiac troponin I (HR = 4.09, 95% CI 1.36-12.2 per unit increase) were major contributors to moderate-to-severe QTc prolongation. In this closely screened and monitored cohort, no complications derived from QTc prolongation were observed during pharmacological therapy containing HCQ for COVID-19. Evidence of myocardial injury with elevated troponin and strong inflammatory response, specifically higher NLR, are conditions requiring careful QTc interval monitoring.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Troponin I/blood
15.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725618

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China and its declaration as a global pandemic by WHO has left the medical community under significant pressure to rapidly identify effective therapeutic and preventative strategies. Chloroquine (CQ) and its analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were found to be efficacious against SARS-CoV-2 when investigated in preliminary in vitro experiments. Reports of success in early clinical studies were widely publicised by news outlets, politicians and on social media. These results led several countries to approve the use of these drugs for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Despite having reasonable safety profiles in the treatment of malaria and certain autoimmune conditions, both drugs are known to have potential cardiotoxic side effects. There is a high incidence of myocardial injury and arrhythmia reported with COVID-19 infection, and as such this population may be more susceptible to this side-effect profile. Studies to date have now demonstrated that in patients with COVID-19, these drugs are associated with significant QTc prolongation, as well as reports of ventricular arrhythmias. Furthermore, subsequent studies have failed to demonstrate clinical benefit from either drug. Indeed, clinical trials have also been stopped early due to safety concerns over HCQ. There is an urgent need for credible solutions to the global pandemic, but we argue that in the absence of high-quality evidence, there needs to be greater caution over the routine use or authorisation of drugs for which efficacy and safety is unproven.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Risk Assessment , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Incidence , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 8: 2324709620948407, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695218

ABSTRACT

Recent reports have suggested an increased risk of QT prolongation and subsequent life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, particularly torsade de pointes, in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. In this article, we report the case of a 75-year-old female with a baseline prolonged QT interval in whom the COVID-19 illness resulted in further remarkable QT prolongation (>700 ms), precipitating recurrent self-terminating episodes of torsade de pointes that necessitated temporary cardiac pacing. Despite the correction of hypoxemia and the absence of reversible factors, such as adverse medication effects, electrolyte derangements, and usage of hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin, the QT interval remained persistently prolonged compared with the baseline with subsequent degeneration into ventricular tachycardia and death. Thus, we highlight that COVID-19 illness itself can potentially lead to further prolongation of QT interval and unmask fatal ventricular arrhythmias in patients who have a prolonged QT and low repolarization reserve at baseline.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Aged , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Long QT Syndrome/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology
18.
Heart Vessels ; 36(1): 115-120, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-649079

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Most of the drugs associations that have been used to treat patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection increase the risk of prolongation of the corrected QT interval (QTc). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of an association therapy of hydroxychloroquine (HY) plus ritonavir/darunavir (RD) or azithromycin (AZ) on QTc intervals. METHODS: At the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic patients admitted to our hospital were treated with the empiric association of HY/RD; one week later the therapeutic protocol was modified with the combination of HY/AZ. Patients underwent an ECG at baseline, then 3 and 7 days after starting therapy. We prospectively enrolled 113 patients (61 in the HY/RD group-52 in the HY/AZ group). RESULTS: A significant increase in median QTc was reported after seven days of therapy in both groups: from 438 to 452 ms in HY/RD patients; from 433 to 440 ms in HY/AZ patients (p = 0.001 for both). 23 patients (21.2%) had a QTc > 500 ms at 7 days. The risk of developing a QTc > 500 ms was greater in patients with prolonged baseline QTc values (≥ 440 ms for female and ≥ 460 ms for male patients) (OR 7.10 (95% IC 1.88-26.81); p = 0.004) and in patients with an increase in the QTc > 40 ms 3 days after onset of treatment (OR 30.15 (95% IC 6.96-130.55); p = 0.001). One patient per group suffered a malignant ventricular arrhythmia. CONCLUSION: Hydroxychloroquine with both ritonavir/darunavir or azithromycin therapy significantly increased the QTc-interval at 7 days. The risk of developing malignant arrhythmias remained relatively low when these drugs were administered for a limited period of time.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Darunavir/adverse effects , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
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