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1.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1507(1): 70-83, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673249

ABSTRACT

For many years, it was believed that the aging process was inevitable and that age-related diseases could not be prevented or reversed. The geroscience hypothesis, however, posits that aging is, in fact, malleable and, by targeting the hallmarks of biological aging, it is indeed possible to alleviate age-related diseases and dysfunction and extend longevity. This field of geroscience thus aims to prevent the development of multiple disorders with age, thereby extending healthspan, with the reduction of morbidity toward the end of life. Experts in the field have made remarkable advancements in understanding the mechanisms underlying biological aging and identified ways to target aging pathways using both novel agents and repurposed therapies. While geroscience researchers currently face significant barriers in bringing therapies through clinical development, proof-of-concept studies, as well as early-stage clinical trials, are underway to assess the feasibility of drug evaluation and lay a regulatory foundation for future FDA approvals in the future.


Subject(s)
Aging/genetics , Aging/metabolism , Congresses as Topic/trends , Longevity/physiology , Research Report , Autophagy/physiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Metabolomics/methods , Metabolomics/trends , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Stem Cell Transplantation/trends
2.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167670

ABSTRACT

Depression and anxiety disorders are widespread diseases, and they belong to the leading causes of disability and greatest burdens on healthcare systems worldwide. It is expected that the numbers will dramatically rise during the COVID-19 pandemic. Established medications are not sufficient to adequately treat depression and are not available for everyone. Plants from traditional medicine may be promising alternatives to treat depressive symptoms. The model organism Chaenorhabditis elegans was used to assess the stress reducing effects of methanol/dichlormethane extracts from plants used in traditional medicine. After initial screening for antioxidant activity, nine extracts were selected for in vivo testing in oxidative stress, heat stress, and osmotic stress assays. Additionally, anti-aging properties were evaluated in lifespan assay. The extracts from Acanthopanax senticosus, Campsis grandiflora, Centella asiatica, Corydalis yanhusuo, Dan Zhi, Houttuynia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Valeriana officinalis, and Withaniasomnifera showed antioxidant activity of more than 15 Trolox equivalents per mg extract. The extracts significantly lowered ROS in mutants, increased resistance to heat stress and osmotic stress, and the extended lifespan of the nematodes. The plant extracts tested showed promising results in increasing stress resistance in the nematode model. Further analyses are needed, in order to unravel underlying mechanisms and transfer results to humans.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Caenorhabditis elegans/physiology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Aging/drug effects , Aging/physiology , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics , Gene Knockout Techniques , Heat-Shock Response/drug effects , Longevity/drug effects , Longevity/genetics , Longevity/physiology , Mutation , Osmotic Pressure/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
3.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(6-7): 642-646, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851322

ABSTRACT

TITLE: Épidémies: Leçons d'Histoire. ABSTRACT: Jusqu'au milieu du XVIIIe siècle, l'espérance de vie était de 25 ans dans les pays d'Europe, proche alors de celle de la préhistoire. À cette époque, nos ancêtres succombaient, pour la plupart, à une infection bactérienne ou virale, quand la mort n'était pas le résultat d'un épisode critique, comme la guerre ou la famine. Un seul microbe suffisait à terrasser de nombreuses victimes. L'épidémie de SARS-CoV-2 est là pour nous rappeler que ce risque est désormais à nouveau d'actualité. Si son origine zoonotique par la chauve-souris est probable, la contamination interhumaine montre son adaptation rapide à l'homme et permet d'évoquer ainsi la transmission des épidémies, qu'elle soit ou non liée à des vecteurs, ces derniers pouvant représenter dans d'autres occasions un des maillons de la chaîne.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Epidemics/history , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Animals , Bacterial Infections/history , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cattle , Chiroptera/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/history , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/microbiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs/microbiology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Dogs , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , Humans , Life Expectancy/history , Life Expectancy/trends , Longevity/physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep/microbiology , Sheep/virology , Swine/microbiology , Swine/virology , Virus Diseases/history , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
4.
Cell Metab ; 32(1): 31-43, 2020 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635840

ABSTRACT

For centuries, people believed that bats possessed sinister powers. Bats are thought to be ancestral hosts to many deadly viruses affecting humans including Ebola, rabies, and most recently SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. However, bats themselves tolerate these viruses without ill effects. The second power that bats have is their longevity. Bats live much longer than similar-sized land mammals. Here we review how bats' ability to control inflammation may be contributing to their longevity. The underlying mechanisms may hold clues to developing new treatments for age-related diseases. Now may be the time to use science to exploit the secret powers of bats for human benefit.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Chiroptera/physiology , Longevity/physiology , Aging/immunology , Animals , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/immunology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Telomere Homeostasis/genetics
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