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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(2): e28737, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of vaccines, the US incidence of new COVID-19 cases per day nearly doubled from the beginning of July to the end of August 2021, fueled largely by the rapid spread of the Delta variant. While the "Delta wave" appears to have peaked nationally, some states and municipalities continue to see elevated numbers of new cases. Vigilant surveillance including at a metropolitan level can help identify any reignition and validate continued and strong public health policy responses in problem localities. OBJECTIVE: This surveillance report aimed to provide up-to-date information for the 25 largest US metropolitan areas about the rapidity of descent in the number of new cases following the Delta wave peak, as well as any potential reignition of the pandemic associated with declining vaccine effectiveness over time, new variants, or other factors. METHODS: COVID-19 pandemic dynamics for the 25 largest US metropolitan areas were analyzed through September 19, 2021, using novel metrics of speed, acceleration, jerk, and 7-day persistence, calculated from the observed data on the cumulative number of cases as reported by USAFacts. Statistical analysis was conducted using dynamic panel data models estimated with the Arellano-Bond regression techniques. The results are presented in tabular and graphic forms for visual interpretation. RESULTS: On average, speed in the 25 largest US metropolitan areas declined from 34 new cases per day per 100,000 population, during the week ending August 15, 2021, to 29 new cases per day per 100,000 population, during the week ending September 19, 2021. This average masks important differences across metropolitan areas. For example, Miami's speed decreased from 105 for the week ending August 15, 2021, to 40 for the week ending September 19, 2021. Los Angeles, San Francisco, Riverside, and San Diego had decreasing speed over the sample period and ended with single-digit speeds for the week ending September 19, 2021. However, Boston, Washington DC, Detroit, Minneapolis, Denver, and Charlotte all had their highest speed of the sample during the week ending September 19, 2021. These cities, as well as Houston and Baltimore, had positive acceleration for the week ending September 19, 2021. CONCLUSIONS: There is great variation in epidemiological curves across US metropolitan areas, including increasing numbers of new cases in 8 of the largest 25 metropolitan areas for the week ending September 19, 2021. These trends, including the possibility of waning vaccine effectiveness and the emergence of resistant variants, strongly indicate the need for continued surveillance and perhaps a return to more restrictive public health guidelines for some areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health Surveillance/methods , SARS-CoV-2
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e24251, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 transmission rates in South Asia initially were under control when governments implemented health policies aimed at controlling the pandemic such as quarantines, travel bans, and border, business, and school closures. Governments have since relaxed public health restrictions, which resulted in significant outbreaks, shifting the global epicenter of COVID-19 to India. Ongoing systematic public health surveillance of the COVID-19 pandemic is needed to inform disease prevention policy to re-establish control over the pandemic within South Asia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to inform public health leaders about the state of the COVID-19 pandemic, how South Asia displays differences within and among countries and other global regions, and where immediate action is needed to control the outbreaks. METHODS: We extracted COVID-19 data spanning 62 days from public health registries and calculated traditional and enhanced surveillance metrics. We use an empirical difference equation to measure the daily number of cases in South Asia as a function of the prior number of cases, the level of testing, and weekly shifts in variables with a dynamic panel model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. RESULTS: Traditional surveillance metrics indicate that South Asian countries have an alarming outbreak, with India leading the region with 310,310 new daily cases in accordance with the 7-day moving average. Enhanced surveillance indicates that while Pakistan and Bangladesh still have a high daily number of new COVID-19 cases (n=4819 and n=3878, respectively), their speed of new infections declined from April 12-25, 2021, from 2.28 to 2.18 and 3.15 to 2.35 daily new infections per 100,000 population, respectively, which suggests that their outbreaks are decreasing and that these countries are headed in the right direction. In contrast, India's speed of new infections per 100,000 population increased by 52% during the same period from 14.79 to 22.49 new cases per day per 100,000 population, which constitutes an increased outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Relaxation of public health restrictions and the spread of novel variants fueled the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in South Asia. Public health surveillance indicates that shifts in policy and the spread of new variants correlate with a drastic expansion in the pandemic, requiring immediate action to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. Surveillance is needed to inform leaders whether policies help control the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(3): 233-236, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184782
5.
Elife ; 92020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155739

ABSTRACT

Temporal inference from laboratory testing results and triangulation with clinical outcomes extracted from unstructured electronic health record (EHR) provider notes is integral to advancing precision medicine. Here, we studied 246 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive (COVIDpos) patients and propensity-matched 2460 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative (COVIDneg) patients subjected to around 700,000 lab tests cumulatively across 194 assays. Compared to COVIDneg patients at the time of diagnostic testing, COVIDpos patients tended to have higher plasma fibrinogen levels and lower platelet counts. However, as the infection evolves, COVIDpos patients distinctively show declining fibrinogen, increasing platelet counts, and lower white blood cell counts. Augmented curation of EHRs suggests that only a minority of COVIDpos patients develop thromboembolism, and rarely, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), with patients generally not displaying platelet reductions typical of consumptive coagulopathies. These temporal trends provide fine-grained resolution into COVID-19 associated coagulopathy (CAC) and set the stage for personalizing thromboprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Coagulation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e187, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150943

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has increased infectivity and immune escape compared with previous variants, and caused the surge of massive COVID-19 waves globally. Despite a vast majority (~90%) of the population of Santa Fe city, Argentina had been vaccinated and/or had been infected by SARS-CoV-2 when Omicron emerged, the epidemic wave that followed its arrival was by far the largest one experienced in the city. A serosurvey conducted prior to the arrival of Omicron allowed to assess the acquired humoral defences preceding the wave and to conduct a longitudinal study to provide individual-level real-world data linking antibody levels and protection against COVID-19 during the wave. A very large proportion of 1455 sampled individuals had immunological memory against COVID-19 at the arrival of Omicron (almost 90%), and about half (48.9%) had high anti-spike immunoglobulin G levels (>200 UI/ml). However, the antibody titres varied greatly among the participants, and such variability depended mainly on the vaccine platform received, on having had COVID-19 previously and on the number of days elapsed since last antigen exposure (vaccine shot or natural infection). A follow-up of 514 participants provided real-world evidence of antibody-mediated protection against COVID-19 during a period of high risk of exposure to an immune-escaping highly transmissible variant. Pre-wave antibody titres were strongly negatively associated with COVID-19 incidence and severity of symptoms during the wave. Also, receiving a vaccine shot during the follow-up period reduced the COVID-19 risk drastically (15-fold). These results highlight the importance of maintaining high defences through vaccination at times of high risk of exposure to immune-escaping variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoglobulin G
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e30460, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The UK National Health Service (NHS) classified 2.2 million people as clinically extremely vulnerable (CEV) during the first wave of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, advising them to "shield" (to not leave home for any reason). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure the determinants of shielding behavior and associations with well-being in a large NHS patient population for informing future health policy. METHODS: Patients contributing to an ongoing longitudinal participatory epidemiology study (Longitudinal Effects on Wellbeing of the COVID-19 Pandemic [LoC-19], n=42,924) received weekly email invitations to complete questionnaires (17-week shielding period starting April 9, 2020) within their NHS personal electronic health record. Question items focused on well-being. Participants were stratified into four groups by self-reported CEV status (qualifying condition) and adoption of shielding behavior (baselined at week 1 or 2). The distribution of CEV criteria was reported alongside situational variables and univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Longitudinal trends in physical and mental well-being were displayed graphically. Free-text responses reporting variables impacting well-being were semiquantified using natural language processing. In the lead up to a second national lockdown (October 23, 2020), a follow-up questionnaire evaluated subjective concern if further shielding was advised. RESULTS: The study included 7240 participants. In the CEV group (n=2391), 1133 (47.3%) assumed shielding behavior at baseline, compared with 633 (13.0%) in the non-CEV group (n=4849). CEV participants who shielded were more likely to be Asian (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% CI 1.49-2.76), female (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.45), older (OR per year increase 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), living in a home with an outdoor space (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.70) or three to four other inhabitants (three: OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.15-1.94; four: OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.10-2.01), or solid organ transplant recipients (OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.18-3.77), or have severe chronic lung disease (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.30-2.04). Receipt of a government letter advising shielding was reported in 1115 (46.6%) CEV participants and 180 (3.7%) non-CEV participants, and was associated with adopting shielding behavior (OR 3.34, 95% CI 2.82-3.95 and OR 2.88, 95% CI 2.04-3.99, respectively). In CEV participants, shielding at baseline was associated with a lower rating of mental well-being and physical well-being. Similar results were found for non-CEV participants. Concern for well-being if future shielding was required was most prevalent among CEV participants who had originally shielded. CONCLUSIONS: Future health policy must balance the potential protection from COVID-19 against our findings that shielding negatively impacted well-being and was adopted in many in whom it was not indicated and variably in whom it was indicated. This therefore also requires clearer public health messaging and support for well-being if shielding is to be advised in future pandemic scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Mental Health/trends , Public Health/trends , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Middle Aged , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(8): e29029, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Widespread fear surrounding COVID-19, coupled with physical and social distancing orders, has caused severe adverse mental health outcomes. Little is known, however, about how the COVID-19 crisis has impacted LGBTQ+ youth, who disproportionately experienced a high rate of adverse mental health outcomes before the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to address this knowledge gap by harnessing natural language processing methodologies to investigate the evolution of conversation topics in the most popular subreddit for LGBTQ+ youth. METHODS: We generated a data set of all r/LGBTeens subreddit posts (n=39,389) between January 1, 2020 and February 1, 2021 and analyzed meaningful trends in anxiety, anger, and sadness in the posts. Because the distribution of anxiety before widespread social distancing orders was meaningfully different from the distribution after (P<.001), we employed latent Dirichlet allocation to examine topics that provoked this shift in anxiety. RESULTS: We did not find any differences in LGBTQ+ youth anger and sadness before and after government-mandated social distancing; however, anxiety increased significantly (P<.001). Further analysis revealed a list of 10 anxiety-provoking topics discussed during the pandemic: attraction to a friend, coming out, coming out to family, discrimination, education, exploring sexuality, gender pronouns, love and relationship advice, starting a new relationship, and struggling with mental health. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, LGBTQ+ teens increased their reliance on anonymous discussion forums when discussing anxiety-provoking topics. LGBTQ+ teens likely perceived anonymous forums as safe spaces for discussing lifestyle stressors during COVID-19 disruptions (eg, school closures). The list of prevalent anxiety-provoking topics in LGBTQ+ teens' anonymous discussions can inform future mental health interventions in LGBTQ+ youth.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Natural Language Processing , Pandemics , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/trends , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e25728, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented stress on economies, food systems, and health care resources in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Existing surveillance provides a proxy of the COVID-19 caseload and mortalities; however, these measures make it difficult to identify the dynamics of the pandemic and places where outbreaks are likely to occur. Moreover, existing surveillance techniques have failed to measure the dynamics of the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide additional surveillance metrics for COVID-19 transmission to track changes in the speed, acceleration, jerk, and persistence in the transmission of the pandemic more accurately than existing metrics. METHODS: Through a longitudinal trend analysis, we extracted COVID-19 data over 45 days from public health registries. We used an empirical difference equation to monitor the daily number of cases in the LAC as a function of the prior number of cases, the level of testing, and weekly shift variables based on a dynamic panel model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. COVID-19 transmission rates were tracked for the LAC between September 30 and October 6, 2020, and between October 7 and 13, 2020. RESULTS: The LAC saw a reduction in the speed, acceleration, and jerk for the week of October 13, 2020, compared to the week of October 6, 2020, accompanied by reductions in new cases and the 7-day moving average. For the week of October 6, 2020, Belize reported the highest acceleration and jerk, at 1.7 and 1.8, respectively, which is particularly concerning, given its high mortality rate. The Bahamas also had a high acceleration at 1.5. In total, 11 countries had a positive acceleration during the week of October 6, 2020, whereas only 6 countries had a positive acceleration for the week of October 13, 2020. The TAC displayed an overall positive trend, with a speed of 10.40, acceleration of 0.27, and jerk of -0.31, all of which decreased in the subsequent week to 9.04, -0.81, and -0.03, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Metrics such as new cases, cumulative cases, deaths, and 7-day moving averages provide a static view of the pandemic but fail to identify where and the speed at which SARS-CoV-2 infects new individuals, the rate of acceleration or deceleration of the pandemic, and weekly comparison of the rate of acceleration of the pandemic indicate impending explosive growth or control of the pandemic. Enhanced surveillance will inform policymakers and leaders in the LAC about COVID-19 outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e25695, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted Europe, resulting in a high caseload and deaths that varied by country. The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic has breached the borders of Europe. Public health surveillance is necessary to inform policy and guide leaders. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide advanced surveillance metrics for COVID-19 transmission that account for weekly shifts in the pandemic, speed, acceleration, jerk, and persistence, to better understand countries at risk for explosive growth and those that are managing the pandemic effectively. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal trend analysis and extracted 62 days of COVID-19 data from public health registries. We used an empirical difference equation to measure the daily number of cases in Europe as a function of the prior number of cases, the level of testing, and weekly shift variables based on a dynamic panel model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. RESULTS: New COVID-19 cases slightly decreased from 158,741 (week 1, January 4-10, 2021) to 152,064 (week 2, January 11-17, 2021), and cumulative cases increased from 22,507,271 (week 1) to 23,890,761 (week 2), with a weekly increase of 1,383,490 between January 10 and January 17. France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom had the largest 7-day moving averages for new cases during week 1. During week 2, the 7-day moving average for France and Spain increased. From week 1 to week 2, the speed decreased (37.72 to 33.02 per 100,000), acceleration decreased (0.39 to -0.16 per 100,000), and jerk increased (-1.30 to 1.37 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: The United Kingdom, Spain, and Portugal, in particular, are at risk for a rapid expansion in COVID-19 transmission. An examination of the European region suggests that there was a decrease in the COVID-19 caseload between January 4 and January 17, 2021. Unfortunately, the rates of jerk, which were negative for Europe at the beginning of the month, reversed course and became positive, despite decreases in speed and acceleration. Finally, the 7-day persistence rate was higher during week 2 than during week 1. These measures indicate that the second wave of the pandemic may be subsiding, but some countries remain at risk for new outbreaks and increased transmission in the absence of rapid policy responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies
11.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e24277, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With conflicting information about COVID-19, the general public may be uncertain about how to proceed in terms of precautionary behavior and decisions about whether to return to activity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with COVID-19-related concerns, precautionary behaviors, and willingness to return to activity. METHODS: National survey data were obtained from the Democracy Fund + UCLA Nationscape Project, an ongoing cross-sectional weekly survey. The sample was provided by Lucid, a web-based market research platform. Three outcomes were evaluated: (1) COVID-19-related concerns, (2) precautionary behaviors, and (3) willingness to return to activity. Key independent variables included age, gender, race or ethnicity, education, household income, political party support, religion, news consumption, number of medication prescriptions, perceived COVID-19 status, and timing of peak COVID-19 infections by state. RESULTS: The data included 125,508 responses from web-based surveys conducted over 20 consecutive weeks during the COVID-19 pandemic (comprising approximately 6250 adults per week), between March 19 and August 5, 2020, approved by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Institutional Review Board for analysis. A substantial number of participants were not willing to return to activity even after the restrictions were lifted. Weighted multivariate logistic regressions indicated the following groups had different outcomes (all P<.001): individuals aged ≥65 years (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.93-2.18; precautionary behaviors: OR 2.38, 95% CI 2.02-2.80; return to activity: OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.37-0.46 vs 18-40 years); men (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.75; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.67-0.81; return to activity: OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.88-2.12 vs women); taking ≥4 medications (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.40-1.54; precautionary behaviors: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.555; return to activity: OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.69-0.81 vs <3 medications); Republicans (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.38-0.42; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.40-0.50; return to activity: OR 2.22, 95% CI 2.09-2.36 vs Democrats); and adults who reported having COVID-19 (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.12-1.39; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.81; return to activity: OR 3.99, 95% CI 3.48-4.58 vs those who did not). CONCLUSIONS: Participants' age, party affiliation, and perceived COVID-19 status were strongly associated with their COVID-19-related concerns, precautionary behaviors, and willingness to return to activity. Future studies need to develop and test targeted messaging approaches and consider political partisanship to encourage preventative behaviors and willingness to return to activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Status , Politics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Ann Afr Med ; 21(4): 383-389, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144097

ABSTRACT

Background: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening fungal disease in immunocompromised patients. There has been increase in the number of mucormycosis associated with COVID-19 patients in second wave. Now country battle with both COVID-19 and mucormycosis. An invasive mucormycosis infection has been a significant burden in India after COVID-19. It has been recently emerged a notifiable disease by the Rajasthan government. Our aim is to develop awareness regarding the importance of early detection and treatment of mucormycosis with COVID-19 and reduce the morbidity and mortality. Materials and Methods: This is a Prospective longitudinal study including 34 patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal infection by contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging studies of paranasal, orbit and brain or nasal biopsy for KOH/culture. Diagnosis is made through routine blood tests, biopsy, and radiological imaging. The patients taken for the study were COVID-19 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction positive or recent post COVID-19 (within 15 days) or symptoms of COVID-19 with bilateral pneumonitis. The study was conducted with 34 patients admitted to the department of medicine with mucormycosis within a month may 2021. Results: A total of 34 patients with a mean age of 50.92 years old and male female ratio 24/10 (70.5/29.41) were included in this study. The most common comorbidity was diabetes mellitus (23 patients 67.64%). Nine patients were newly diagnosed or recent onset of diabetes with or after COVID-19 infection. Twenty-four (70.58%) patients were COVID-19 positive or recent (within 15 days) history of COVID-19 positive. Seven (20.58) patients had the history of steroid as a treatment during COVID-19 and 5 (14.70) patients was on oxygen inhalation. One (2.94%) patient was fully vaccinated, and 5 (14.70) patients had the history of steam inhalation. The most common involvement was naso-orbital mucormycosis found in 28 patients (82.35%) followed by nasal-and orbital 26 (76.47) and 18 (52.94), respectively. Naso-Orbito-Cerebral was seen in 16 (47.05) patients. The more common reported symptoms and signs were headache (76.47), facial numbness (64.70), Nasal discharge (52.94), and ophthalmoplegia (52.94). Cranial nerve involvement was seen in 10 patients (facial palsy in 8 patients and bulbar palsy in 2 patients). Total mortality was 7 (7/34 20.58%). Conclusion: COVID-19 infection associated with the wide range of invasive mucormycosis. Early diagnosis and Clinical suspicion of acute invasive fungal sinusitis among COVID-19 patients is essential for better outcomes and higher survival.


Résumé Contexte: La mucormycose est une maladie fongique mortelle chez les patients immunodéprimés. Il y a eu une augmentation du nombre de mucormycose associée aux patients Covid - 19 en deuxième vague. Maintenant, le pays se bat contre le Covid-19 et la mucormycose. Une infection invasive en mucormycose a été une charge significative en Inde après Covid - 19. Il a récemment émergé une maladie notifiable du gouvernement du Rajasthan. Notre objectif est de sensibiliser à l'importance de la détection et du traitement précoce de la mucormycose avec Covid-19 et de réduire la morbidité et la mortalité. Matériaux et méthodes: Il s'agit d'une étude longitudinale prospective comprenant 34 patients diagnostiqués avec une infection fongique invasive aiguë par un contraste d'imagerie magnétique des études d'imagerie par résonance magnétique de biopsie paranasale, en orbite et au cerveau ou nasale pour le KOH / la culture. Le diagnostic est posé par des tests sanguins de routine, une biopsie et une imagerie radiologique. Les patients pris pour l'étude ont été la réaction en chaîne de la transcription inverse de Covid-19, la réaction en chaîne de polymérase positive ou le post-COVID-19 récent (dans les 15 jours) ou les symptômes de Covid-19 avec une pneumonite bilatérale. L'étude a été menée avec 34 patients admis au Département de médecine avec mucormycose dans un mois en mai 2021. Résultats: Un total de 34 patients avec un âge moyen de 50,92 ans et un rapport féminine masculin 24/10 (70,5 / 29,41) ont été inclus dans cette étude. La comorbidité la plus courante était le diabète sucré (23 patients 67,64%). Neuf patients ont été récemment diagnostiqués ou un début récent du diabète avec ou après l'infection à Covid - 19. Vingt-quatre (70,58%) patients étaient des antécédents de Covid - 19 positifs ou récents (dans les 15 jours) de Covid - 19 positifs. Sept (20,58) patients avaient des antécédents de stéroïde comme traitement pendant les patients COVID-19 et 5 (14,70) étaient sous inhalation d'oxygène. Un patient (2,94%) a été entièrement vacciné et 5 (14,70) patients avaient des antécédents d'inhalation de vapeur. L'atteinte la plus courante était la mucormycose naso-orbitale trouvée chez 28 patients (82,35%), suivie respectivement par l'orbital nasal et orbital 26 (76,47) et 18 (52,94). Le naso - orbito-cervebral a été observé chez 16 (47,05) patients. Les symptômes et les signes rapportés les plus courants étaient des maux de tête (76,47), un engourdissement facial (64,70), une décharge nasale (52,94) et une ophtalmoplégie (52,94). Une atteinte du nerf crânien a été observée chez 10 patients (paralysie faciale chez 8 patients et paralysie bulbaire chez 2 patients). La mortalité totale était de 7 (7/34 20,58%). Conclusion: Infection Covid - 19 associée à la large gamme de mucormycose invasive. Le diagnostic précoce et la suspicion clinique de sinusite fongique invasive aiguë chez les patients COVID-19 sont essentiels pour de meilleurs résultats et une survie plus élevée. Mots-clés: Covid - 19, fongique, invasive, nasal, rhinocéros orbital cerebral.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , India/epidemiology
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 874426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141856

ABSTRACT

Background: Several reports suggested that acute kidney injury (AKI) is a relatively common occurrence in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, but its prevalence is inconsistently reported across different populations. Moreover, it is unknown whether AKI results from a direct infection of the kidney by SARS-CoV-2 or it is a consequence of the physiologic disturbances and therapies used to treat COVID-19. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of AKI since it varies by geographical settings, time periods, and populations studied and to investigate whether clinical information and laboratory findings collected at hospital admission might influence AKI incidence (and mortality) in a particular point in time during hospitalization for COVID-19. Methods: Herein we conducted a prospective longitudinal study investigating the prevalence of AKI and associated factors in 997 COVID-19 patients admitted to the Baqiyatallah general hospital of Tehran (Iran), collecting both clinical information and several dates (of: birth; hospital admission; AKI onset; ICU admission; hospital discharge; death). In order to examine how the clinical factors influenced AKI incidence and all-cause mortality during hospitalization, survival analysis using the Cox proportional-hazard models was adopted. Two separate multiple Cox regression models were fitted for each outcome (AKI and death). Results: In this group of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the prevalence of AKI was 28.5% and the mortality rate was 19.3%. AKI incidence was significantly enhanced by diabetes, hyperkalemia, higher levels of WBC count, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). COVID-19 patients more likely to die over the course of their hospitalization were those presenting a joint association between ICU admission with either severe COVID-19 or even mild/moderate COVID-19, hypokalemia, and higher levels of BUN, WBC, and LDH measured at hospital admission. Diabetes and comorbidities did not increase the mortality risk among these hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: Since the majority of patients developed AKI after ICU referral and 40% of them were admitted to ICU within 2 days since hospital admission, these patients may have been already in critical clinical conditions at admission, despite being affected by a mild/moderate form of COVID-19, suggesting the need of early monitoring of these patients for the onset of eventual systemic complications.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278031, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140678

ABSTRACT

Little is publicly known about the conditions surrounding the emergence of COVID in China. Using two nationally representative datasets, the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) and the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), we engage in a descriptive analysis of spatiotemporal patterns of lung and other diseases before 2019. In both datasets, the incidence of lung disease in 2018 was elevated in Hubei province relative to other provinces. The incidence of psychiatric and nervous system disease was elevated as well. Overall, the evidence is consistent with many possible explanations. One conjecture is that there was an outbreak of influenza in central China, which implies the conditions that increased the susceptibility to influenza also facilitated the later spread of COVID. Another conjecture, though less likely, is that COVID was circulating at low levels in the population in central China during 2018. This study calls for more investigation to understand the conditions surrounding the emergence of COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Retirement
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1403, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women undergoing treatment for breast cancer require frequent clinic visits for maintenance of therapy. With COVID-19 causing health care disruptions, it is important to learn about how this population's access to health care has changed. This study compares self-reported health care utilization and changes in factors related to health care access among women treated at a cancer center in the mid-South US before and during the pandemic. METHODS: Participants (N = 306) part of a longitudinal study to improve adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) adherence completed pre-intervention baseline surveys about their health care utilization prior to AET initiation. Questions about the impact of COVID-19 were added after the pandemic started assessing financial loss and factors related to care. Participants were categorized into three time periods based on the survey completion date: (1) pre-COVID (December 2018 to March 2020), (2) early COVID (April 2020 - December 2020), and later COVID (January 2021 to June 2021). Negative binomial regression analyses used to compare health care utilization at different phases of the pandemic controlling for patient characteristics. RESULTS: Adjusted analyses indicated office visits declined from pre-COVID, with an adjusted average of 17.7 visits, to 12.1 visits during the early COVID period (p = 0.01) and 9.9 visits during the later COVID period (p < 0.01). Hospitalizations declined from an adjusted average 0.45 admissions during early COVID to 0.21 during later COVID, after vaccines became available (p = 0.05). Among COVID period participants, the proportion reporting changes/gaps in health insurance coverage increased from 9.5% participants during early-COVID to 14.8% in the later-COVID period (p = 0.05). The proportion reporting financial loss due to the pandemic was similar during both COVID periods (34.3% early- and 37.7% later-COVID, p = 0.72). The proportion of participants reporting delaying care or refilling prescriptions decreased from 15.2% in early-COVID to 4.9% in the later-COVID period (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 caused disruptions to routine health care for women with breast cancer. Patients reported having fewer office visits at the start of the pandemic that continued to decrease even after vaccines were available. Fewer patients reported delaying in-person care as the pandemic progressed.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Longitudinal Studies , beta-Aminoethyl Isothiourea , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Health Services Accessibility , Ambulatory Care Facilities
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 894, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The drive to vaccinate large populations is nowadays the main instrument for combating the pandemic and preventing serious disease and death. However, breakthrough infection (post-vaccination infection) still happens after vaccination among fully vaccinated people. We aimed to assess the severity outcomes and to determine its associated factors among vaccinated COVID-19 cases in the governorate of Sousse, Tunisia. METHODS: We carried out a five-month observational longitudinal study including all the population of Sousse. Confirmed infections of SARS-CoV-2 and the vaccination status are recorded in the daily COVID- 19 database of the Regional Office of the Tunisian Ministry of Health. We included all post-vaccination COVID-19 cases for the analysis of the COVID-19 serious outcomes. Data were collected via 15-min telephonic call interviews conducted by trained interviewers. Descriptive analysis with calculating incidence rates of confirmed COVID-19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants was conducted. In binary logistic regression, adjusted odds ratios along with 95% intervals confidence were performed to determine factors related to severe or critical COVID-19. RESULTS: As of 31 July 2021, 107,545 persons over 19 years old have received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination. Among the vaccinated population, we traced and included 765 breakthrough infection cases, and the incidence rate was 711.3 per week. The majority were female (sex-ratio = 0.8), and the average age of the overall cases was 55.7 years. The prevalence of severe or critical cases in vaccinated COVID-19 patients occurs in 10.8% of cases. Patients with a medical history of cardiovascular diseases had more than two times increased odds to have a severe or critical disease. We also found the highest self-estimation of adherence to preventive measures was inversely correlated to serious cases and having an incomplete vaccination schema was strongly associated with complications. CONCLUSIONS: We tried to provide evidence about the breakthrough infections to improve measures of prevention and control of COVID-19. Boosting immunity for vulnerable patients added to maintaining and promoting preventive measures are not only essential to prevent severe cases of breakthrough infections of COVID-19, but also other influenza-like diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Risk Factors
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e051976, 2022 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137677

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of different phase-out measures approved by several European governments. DESIGN: This is a longitudinal observational study. SETTINGS: European countries, from 20 February 2020 to 11 May 2020. PARTICIPANTS: All European countries that implemented at least one phase-out measure dictated by governments, during the follow-up period. MAIN OUTCOME: New COVID-19 cases, analysed as daily rate by countries. METHODS: We compared the observed versus the predicted rates of new confirmed cases, hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and deaths by regions in Spain, to assess the accuracy of the proposed generalised estimating equations and hurdle models. Based on these models, we defined and calculated two indices to quantify the impact of the phase-out measures approved in several European countries. RESULTS: After 2-month follow-up, we confirmed the good performance of these models for the prediction of the incidence of new confirmed cases, hospital admission, ICU admission and death in a 7-day window. We found that certain phase-out measures implemented in Italy, Spain and Denmark showed moderate impact in daily new confirmed cases. Due to these different phase-out measures, in Italy, the estimated increment of new confirmed cases per 100 000 inhabitants was 4.61, 95% CI (4.42 to 4.80), in Spain 2.58, 95% CI (2.54 to 2.62) and in Denmark 2.55, 95% CI (2.40 to 2.69). Other significant measures applied in other countries had no impact. CONCLUSION: The two indices proposed can be used to quantify the impact of the phase-out measures and to help other countries to make the best decision. Monitoring these phase-out measures over time can minimise the negative effects on citizens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Spain/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Hospitalization
18.
J Infect Dis ; 226(11): 1934-1942, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term studies of vaccine recipients are necessary to understand severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody durability and assess the impact of booster doses on antibody levels and protection from infection. The identification of vaccine breakthrough infections among fully vaccinated populations will be important in understanding vaccine efficacy and SARS-CoV-2 vaccine escape capacity. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) receptor-binding domain and nucleocapsid (N) immunoglobulin (Ig) G levels were measured in a longitudinal study of 1000 Chicago healthcare workers who were infection naive or previously infected and then vaccinated. Changes in S and N IgG were followed up through 14 months, and vaccine breakthrough infections were identified by increasing levels of N IgG. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 S IgG antibody levels among previously infected and previously noninfected individuals decreased steadily for 11 months after vaccination. Administration of a booster 8-11 months after vaccination increased S IgG levels >2-fold beyond those observed after 2 doses, resulting in S IgG levels that were indistinguishable between previously infected and uninfected individuals. Increases in N IgG identified vaccine breakthrough infections and showed >15% breakthrough infection rates during the Omicron wave starting in December 2021. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 antibody changes after vaccination and breakthrough infections and identify high levels of vaccine breakthrough infections during the Omicron wave, based on N IgG increases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Longitudinal Studies , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nucleocapsid , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel , Postoperative Complications
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20346, 2022 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133603

ABSTRACT

To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the variables of sleep quality, fatigue, anxiety, and depression in healthy Brazilian women. Longitudinal observational study conducted through an online questionnaire with women in 2020 and 2021. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used. The data were analyzed descriptively and the comparison between the data obtained in the first and second evaluation was performed using the McNemar test. A logistic regression was applied to test the association between the variables that showed a significant difference. A total of 235 women responded to the questionnaires. There was a significant increase in fatigue between the two moments (p < 0.05). In the first assessment, depression (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.14-4.99), anxiety (OR: 2.68; 95% CI: 1.37-5.22) and sleep quality (OR: 4.01; 95% CI: 1.71-9.67) were associated with fatigue. In the second assessment, depression (OR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.19-7.18) and anxiety (OR: 2.69; 95% CI: 1.27-5.71) were associated with fatigue. There was an impact on biopsychosocial aspects during the COVID-19 pandemic, with worsening of fatigue symptoms within a 6-month interval. In addition, fatigue was associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and worse sleep quality in the first year of the pandemic, remaining associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in the second year of the pandemic in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Female , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Sleep Quality , Depression/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Fatigue/psychology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim is to analyze whether people with low resilience are at higher risk of mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spanish adults. METHODS: a longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Resilience was measured with the CD-RISC. Mental health problems that were assessed included: Major Depressive Episode (MDE), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors (STB), and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. RESULTS: we found statistically significant differences between groups and resilience scores in MDE [F (3; 48.40) = 19.55], GAD [F (3; 19.63) = 6.45] and STB [F (3; 111.74) = 31.94]. Multivariable analyses showed individuals with very low resilience were at a 5-fold risk of Incidence of MDE and a 4-fold risk of STB. Persistent group presented a 21-fold risk of MDE and 54-fold risk of STB. No evidence of higher risk was found for GAD. Individuals with low resilience and exposed to COVID-19 were not at higher risk. Individuals with low resilience were at higher risk of PTSD in general population [ß(95% CI) = -3.25 (-3.969 to -2.54)], but not for individuals with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: in the general population, having low or very low resilience increases the risk of suffering MDE, STB, and PTSD, but not GAD during the COVID-19 pandemic, and not in the population with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Health , Pandemics , Risk Factors
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