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1.
Cell Rep ; 37(13): 110169, 2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616407

ABSTRACT

The importance of pre-existing immune responses to seasonal endemic coronaviruses (HCoVs) for the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the course of COVID-19 is the subject of an ongoing scientific debate. Recent studies postulate that immune responses to previous HCoV infections can either have a slightly protective or no effect on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and, consequently, be neglected for COVID-19 risk stratification. Challenging this notion, we provide evidence that pre-existing, anti-nucleocapsid antibodies against endemic α-coronaviruses and S2 domain-specific anti-spike antibodies against ß-coronavirus HCoV-OC43 are elevated in patients with COVID-19 compared to pre-pandemic donors. This finding is particularly pronounced in males and in critically ill patients. Longitudinal evaluation reveals that antibody cross-reactivity or polyclonal stimulation by SARS-CoV-2 infection are unlikely to be confounders. Thus, specific pre-existing immunity to seasonal coronaviruses may increase susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and predispose individuals to an adverse COVID-19 outcome, guiding risk management and supporting the development of universal coronavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Germany , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05029, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614230

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic prompted movement restrictions in countries worldwide, impacting on physical activity (PA), a major non-communicable disease risk factor, and thus may have unintentional long-term health implications. In semi-rural areas of low-middle-income-countries (LMICs), where occupational activity is the main source of PA, changes in PA associated with COVID-19 restrictions are unknown. We investigated the impact of Movement Control Order (MCO) restrictions in a semi-rural region of Malaysia. Methods: The South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) is a dynamic prospective community cohort. We contacted a random sample of 1007 adults (18+) who had previously provided PA data in 2018. We asked about PA during the MCO (March-May 2020) and at the time of interview (June 2020). Results: During the MCO, PA reduced by a mean of 6.7 hours/week (95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.3, 8.0) compared to 2018, with the largest reductions among those in employment. By June, PA was 3.4 hours/week (95% CI = 2.0, 4.8) less than 2018, leaving 34% of adults currently inactive (20% in 2018). Reductions in occupational PA were not replaced with active travel or activity at home. Despite these observed reductions, most participants did not think the MCO had affected their PA. Conclusions: Movement restrictions are associated with lower PA lasting beyond the period of strict restrictions; such longer-term reductions in PA may have a detrimental impact on health. Future MCOs should encourage people to be active, but may additionally need targeted messaging for those who don't necessarily realise they are at risk. In particular, policies developed in more affluent countries may not easily translate to LMICs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Exercise , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Malaysia , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613627

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic drastically highlighted the vulnerability of the elderly population towards viral and other infectious threats, illustrating that aging is accompanied by dysregulated immune responses currently summarized in terms like inflammaging and immunoparalysis. To gain a better understanding on the underlying mechanisms of the age-associated risk of adverse outcome in individuals experiencing a SARS-CoV-2 infection, we analyzed the impact of age on circulating monocyte phenotypes, activation markers and inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the context of COVID-19 disease progression and outcome in 110 patients. Our data indicate no age-associated differences in peripheral monocyte counts or subset composition. However, age and outcome are associated with differences in monocyte activation status. Moreover, a distinct cytokine pattern of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF in elderly survivors versus non-survivors, which consolidates over the time of hospitalization, suggests that older patients with adverse outcomes experience an inappropriate immune response, reminiscent of an inflammaging driven immunoparalysis. Our study underscores the value, necessity and importance of longitudinal monitoring in elderly COVID-19 patients, as dynamic changes after symptom onset can be observed, which allow for a differentiated insight into confounding factors that impact the complex pathogenesis following an infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Aging/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Monocytes/pathology , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/metabolism , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e055696, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature shows profound effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health, among which increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AD). However, current research efforts have largely been unilateral, focusing on psychopathology and not including well-being, and are dominated by examining average psychopathology levels or on disorder absence/presence, thereby ignoring individual differences in mental health. Knowledge on individual differences, as depicted by latent subgroups, in the full spectrum of mental health may provide valuable insights in how individuals transition between health states and factors that predict transitioning from resilient to symptomatic classes. Our aim is to (1) identify longitudinal classes (ie, subgroups of individuals) based on indicators of PTSD, AD and well-being in response to the pandemic and (2) examine predictors of transitioning between these subgroups. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a three-wave longitudinal online survey study of n≥2000 adults from the general Dutch population. The first measurement occasion takes place 6 months after the start of the pandemic, followed by two follow-up measurements with 6 months of intervals. Latent transition analysis will be used for data analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from four Dutch universities. Longitudinal study designs are vital to monitor mental health (and predictors thereof) in the pandemic to develop preventive and curative mental health interventions. This study is carried out by researchers who are board members of the Dutch Society for Traumatic Stress Studies and is part of a pan-European study (initiated by the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies) examining the impact of the pandemic in 11 countries. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated at conferences, via newsletters, and media appearance among (psychotrauma) professionals and the general public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adjustment Disorders , Adult , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247797, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605332

ABSTRACT

Since the initial identification of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in December of 2019, researchers have raced to understand its pathogenesis and begun devising vaccine and treatment strategies. An accurate understanding of the body's temporal immune response against SARS-CoV-2 is paramount to successful vaccine development and disease progression monitoring. To provide insight into the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2, plasma samples from 181 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients collected at various timepoints post-symptom onset (PSO) were tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies via lateral flow. Additionally, 21 donors were tracked over time to elucidate patient-specific immune responses. We found sustained levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies past 130 days PSO, with 99% positivity observed at 31-60 days PSO. By 61-90 days PSO, the percentage of IgM-/IgG+ results were nearly equal to that of IgM+/IgG+ results, demonstrating a shift in the immune response with a decrease in IgM antibody levels. Results from this study not only provide evidence that the antibody response to COVID-19 can persist for over 4 months, but also demonstrates the ability of Easy Check™ to monitor seroconversion and antibody response of patients. Easy Check was sufficiently sensitive to detect antibodies in patient samples as early as 1-4 days PSO with 86% positivity observed at 5-7 days PSO. Further studies are required to determine the longevity and efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and whether they are protective against re-infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Equipment Design , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
6.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3245-3253, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are noticed among critically ill patients soon after disease onset. Information on delayed neurological sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection is nil. Following a longitudinal study design, the occurrence of cognitive decline among individuals with a history of mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed. METHODS: Stroke- and seizure-free Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years, who had pre-pandemic cognitive assessments as well as normal brain magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram recordings, underwent repeated evaluations 6 months after a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak infection in Atahualpa. Patients requiring oxygen therapy, hospitalization, and those who had initial neurological manifestations were excluded. Cognitive decline was defined as a reduction in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score between the post-pandemic and pre-pandemic assessments that was ≥4 points greater than the reduction observed between two pre-pandemic MoCAs. The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and cognitive decline was assessed by fitting logistic mixed models for longitudinal data as well as exposure-effect models. RESULTS: Of 93 included individuals (mean age 62.6 ± 11 years), 52 (56%) had a history of mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Post-pandemic MoCA decay was worse in seropositive individuals. Cognitive decline was recognized in 11/52 (21%) seropositive and 1/41 (2%) seronegative individuals. In multivariate analyses, the odds for developing cognitive decline were 18.1 times higher among SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals (95% confidence interval 1.75-188; p = 0.015). Exposure-effect models confirmed this association (ß = 0.24; 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.41; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of cognitive decline among individuals with mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathogenesis of this complication remains unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053094, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604769

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is having a disproportionate impact on Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups and women. Concern over direct and indirect effects may also impact on sleep. We explore the levels and social determinants of self-reported sleep loss among the UK population during the pandemic, focusing on ethnic and gender disparities. SETTING: This prospective longitudinal study analysed data from seven waves of the Understanding Society: COVID-19 Study collected from April 2020 to January 2021 linked to prepandemic data from the 2019 mainstage interviews, providing baseline information about the respondents prior to the pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: The analytical sample included 8163 respondents aged 16 and above who took part in all seven waves with full information on sleep loss, defined as experiencing 'rather more' or 'much more' than usual sleep loss due to worry, providing 57 141 observations. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported sleep loss. Mixed-effects regression models were fitted to consider within-individual and between-individual differences. RESULTS: Women were more likely to report sleep loss than men (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 2.4) over the 10-month period. Being female, having young children, perceived financial difficulties and COVID-19 symptoms were all predictive of sleep loss. Once these covariates were controlled for, the bivariate relationship between ethnicity and sleep loss (1.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 2.4) was reversed (0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8). Moreover, the strength of the association between gender and ethnicity and the risk of sleep loss varied over time, being weaker among women in July (0.6, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7), September (0.7, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.8), November (0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.0) and January 2021 (0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 0.9) compared with April 2020, but positively stronger among BAME individuals in May (1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1), weaker only in September (0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has widened sleep deprivation disparities, with women with young children, COVID-19 infection and BAME individuals experiencing sleep loss, which may adversely affect their mental and physical health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260889, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 40-70% of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) fall each year, causing decreased activity levels and quality of life. Current fall-prevention strategies include the use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. To increase the accessibility of this vulnerable population, we developed a multidisciplinary telemedicine program using an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) platform. We hypothesized that the risk for falling in PD would decrease among participants receiving a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention program added to standard office-based neurological care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention to decrease the incidence of falls in patients with PD. METHODS: Ongoing, longitudinal, randomized, single-blinded, case-control, clinical trial. We will include 76 non-demented patients with idiopathic PD with a high risk of falling and limited access to multidisciplinary care. The intervention group (n = 38) will receive multidisciplinary remote care in addition to standard medical care, and the control group (n = 38) standard medical care only. Nutrition, sarcopenia and frailty status, motor, non-motor symptoms, health-related quality of life, caregiver burden, falls, balance and gait disturbances, direct and non-medical costs will be assessed using validated rating scales. RESULTS: This study will provide a cost-effectiveness assessment of multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention for fall reduction in PD, in addition to standard neurological medical care. CONCLUSION: In this challenging initiative, we will determine whether a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention program can reduce falls, as an alternative intervention option for PD patients with restricted access to multidisciplinary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04694443.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Exercise Therapy/methods , Gait , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Patient Care Team/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Young Adult
9.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 169-178, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591240

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To assess the association between individual-level adherence to social-distancing and personal hygiene behaviors recommended by public health experts and subsequent risk of COVID-19 diagnosis in the United States. Methods. Data are from waves 7 through 26 (June 10, 2020-April 26, 2021) of the Understanding America Study COVID-19 survey. We used Cox models to assess the relationship between engaging in behaviors considered high risk and risk of COVID-19 diagnosis. Results. Individuals engaging in behaviors indicating lack of adherence to social-distancing guidelines, especially those related to large gatherings or public interactions, had a significantly higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis than did those who did not engage in these behaviors. Each additional risk behavior was associated with a 9% higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.13). Results were similar after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and local infection rates. Conclusions. Personal mitigation behaviors appear to influence the risk of COVID-19, even in the presence of social factors related to infection risk. Public Health Implications. Our findings emphasize the importance of individual behaviors for preventing COVID-19, which may be relevant in contexts with low vaccination. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):169-178. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306565).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Risk Behaviors , Hygiene , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e27599, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: eHealth and social media could be of particular benefit to adults with hearing impairment, but it is unknown whether their use of smart devices, apps, and social media is similar to that of the general population. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to study whether adults with normal hearing and those with impaired hearing differ in their weekly use of smart devices, apps, and social media; reasons for using social media; and benefits from using social media. METHODS: We used data from a Dutch cohort, the National Longitudinal Study on Hearing. Data were collected from September 2016 to April 2020 using a web-based questionnaire and speech-in-noise test. The results from this test were used to categorize normal hearing and hearing impairment. Outcomes were compared using (multiple) logistic regression models. RESULTS: Adults with impaired hearing (n=384) did not differ from normal hearing adults (n=341) in their use of a smartphone or tablet. They were less likely to make use of social media apps on a smartphone, tablet, or smartwatch (age-adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.67, 95% CI 0.48-0.92; P=.02). Use of social media on all devices and use of other apps did not differ. Adults with hearing impairment were more likely to agree with using social media to stay in touch with family members (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.16-2.07; P=.003) and friends (age-adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.01-1.81; P=.046). Furthermore, they were more likely to agree with using social media to perform their work (age-adjusted OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.04-2.18; P=.03). There were no differences in the experienced benefits from social media. CONCLUSIONS: The potential for eHealth is confirmed because adults with hearing impairment are not less likely to use smart devices than their normal hearing peers. Adults with hearing impairment are less likely to use social media apps on a smart device but not less likely to use social media on all types of internet-connected devices. This warrants further research on the types of social media platforms that adults with hearing impairment use and on the type of device on which they prefer to use social media. Given that participants with hearing impairment are more likely than their normal hearing peers to use social media to perform their work, use of social media may be seen as an opportunity to enhance vocational rehabilitation services for persons with hearing impairment.


Subject(s)
Hearing Loss , Mobile Applications , Social Media , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Smartphone
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140875, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595340

ABSTRACT

Importance: Longitudinal research on specific forms of electronic screen use and mental health symptoms in children and youth during COVID-19 is minimal. Understanding the association may help develop policies and interventions targeting specific screen activities to promote healthful screen use and mental health in children and youth. Objective: To determine whether specific forms of screen use (television [TV] or digital media, video games, electronic learning, and video-chatting time) were associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, conduct problems, irritability, hyperactivity, and inattention in children and youth during COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: A longitudinal cohort study with repeated measures of exposures and outcomes was conducted in children and youth aged 2 to 18 years in Ontario, Canada, between May 2020 and April 2021 across 4 cohorts of children or youth: 2 community cohorts and 2 clinically referred cohorts. Parents were asked to complete repeated questionnaires about their children's health behaviors and mental health symptoms during COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: The exposure variables were children's daily TV or digital media time, video game time, electronic-learning time, and video-chatting time. The mental health outcomes were parent-reported symptoms of child depression, anxiety, conduct problems and irritability, and hyperactivity/inattention using validated standardized tools. Results: This study included 2026 children with 6648 observations. In younger children (mean [SD] age, 5.9 [2.5] years; 275 male participants [51.7%]), higher TV or digital media time was associated with higher levels of conduct problems (age 2-4 years: ß, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.10-0.35]; P < .001; age ≥4 years: ß, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.11]; P = .007) and hyperactivity/inattention (ß, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.006-0.14]; P = .04). In older children and youth (mean [SD] age, 11.3 [3.3] years; 844 male participants [56.5%]), higher levels of TV or digital media time were associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety, and inattention; higher levels of video game time were associated with higher levels of depression, irritability, inattention, and hyperactivity. Higher levels of electronic learning time were associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, higher levels of screen use were associated poor mental health of children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings suggest that policy intervention as well as evidence-informed social supports are needed to promote healthful screen use and mental health in children and youth during the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis , Pandemics , Screen Time , Adolescent , Anxiety/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Child , Conduct Disorder/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24145, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585802

ABSTRACT

Recent studies suggest that coronaviruses circulate widely in Southeast Asian bat species and that the progenitors of the SARS-Cov-2 virus could have originated in rhinolophid bats in the region. Our objective was to assess the diversity and circulation patterns of coronavirus in several bat species in Southeast Asia. We undertook monthly live-capture sessions and sampling in Cambodia over 17 months to cover all phases of the annual reproduction cycle of bats and test specifically the association between their age and CoV infection status. We additionally examined current information on the reproductive phenology of Rhinolophus and other bat species presently known to occur in mainland southeast China, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Results from our longitudinal monitoring (573 bats belonging to 8 species) showed an overall proportion of positive PCR tests for CoV of 4.2% (24/573) in cave-dwelling bats from Kampot and 4.75% (22/463) in flying-foxes from Kandal. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PCR amplicon sequences of CoVs (n = 46) obtained clustered in Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus. Interestingly, Hipposideros larvatus sensu lato harbored viruses from both genera. Our results suggest an association between positive detections of coronaviruses and juvenile and immature bats in Cambodia (OR = 3.24 [1.46-7.76], p = 0.005). Since the limited data presently available from literature review indicates that reproduction is largely synchronized among rhinolophid and hipposiderid bats in our study region, particularly in its more seasonal portions (above 16° N), this may lead to seasonal patterns in CoV circulation. Overall, our study suggests that surveillance of CoV in insectivorous bat species in Southeast Asia, including SARS-CoV-related coronaviruses in rhinolophid bats, could be targeted from June to October for species exhibiting high proportions of juveniles and immatures during these months. It also highlights the need to develop long-term longitudinal surveys of bats and improve our understanding of their ecology in the region, for both biodiversity conservation and public health reasons.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , Chiroptera/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Animals , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/classification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cambodia/epidemiology , Chiroptera/classification , Chiroptera/virology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , Geography , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Species Specificity
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e052923, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Explore the association between the first national lockdown associated with the COVID-19 pandemic on admissions for violence and the relationship with deprivation. DESIGN: Population-based longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: North East and North Cumbria (NENC) area of England. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals living in the NENC (total population 3.1 million) admitted 2017/2018, 2018/2019, 2019/2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hospital Episode Statistics were extracted at Lower Layer Super Output Area and the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2019 decile applied. Directly standardised rates were explored for number of accident and emergency (A&E) attendances (per 1000); Alcohol-related admissions using Public Health England (PHE) Fingertips tool (per 100 000, ID 91414) and emergency admissions for violence (including sexual violence) (per 100 000) (ID 11201 classified by International Classification of Diseases (ICD)10 codes X85 to Y09). RESULTS: A&E attendances are higher in NENC compared with England (409.9 per 1000 v 359.2). A&E attendance was 81% higher in 2019/20 in the most deprived compared with the least deprived. Attendances dropped during the first national COVID-19 lockdown and by September 2020 had not returned to 'normal' levels.Admissions related to violence are a third higher in NENC (29% to 34% higher across 3 years) rates 7-10 times higher in most deprived than least deprived areas. Admission rates reduced during the first UK lock down but this bounced back by August higher than any of the previous 12 months. CONCLUSION: Emergency admissions with violence appear to associate with the COVID-19 pandemic being initially higher than before the first national lockdown. This is in the context of overall A&E attendances which are lower post lockdown. Given that emergency admissions with violence have been consistently higher in the NENC compared with England over recent years, we suggest that targeted action is required in NENC to address health inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence
14.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211060165, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582740

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Post-COVID-19 symptoms and its features in many recovered patients are almost similar to post-severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study aims to assess the outcome and manifestations during post-COVID follow-up period in recovered patients. METHODS: Ambidirectional longitudinal study was conducted among recovered COVID-19 patients from a tertiary care hospital near Chennai through telephonic interview after discharge. Total admitted patients from June to November 2020 were 3496 and among those 183 died and 12 transferred to other hospitals. Totally 1354 consented for study and the rest were wrong numbers or not willing to participate. Chi-square test and multinominal logistic regression analysis were done. RESULTS: Majority of, that is, 27.6% and 18.7% were in 21-30 years and >60 years, respectively. Majority were admitted with fever (38.3%), cough (15.3), and body pain (10%). Post-COVID symptoms reported were fatigue (39.7%), stress and anxiety (27.6%), and mood changes (5.8%). Some patients were newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (10), hypertension (5), and TB (1) after discharge. Having diabetes mellitus is an independent risk to have neurological and cardio-respiratory symptoms and patients who were discharged with minimal support were to have an independent risk factor of renal symptoms on follow-up than other subjects. CONCLUSION: The follow-up symptoms were associated with the patients' comorbidities, age, severity of illness, and environmental factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , India , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
15.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261858, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581725

ABSTRACT

As a first line of defense to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, people reduced social contacts to avoid pathogen exposure. Using a panel of countries, this research suggests that this was amplified in societies characterized by high social support and future orientation. People reacted more strongly in dense environments; government orders had more effect in high power distance societies. Conversely, a focus on accomplishments was associated with lower changes. Understanding people's actual behaviors in response to health threats across societies is of great importance for epidemiology, public health, international business, and for the functioning of humanity as a whole.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Culture , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Government Regulation , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Public Health/methods , Quarantine/psychology
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 777858, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581332

ABSTRACT

Background: Developing an understanding of the antibody response, seroprevalence, and seroconversion from natural infection and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 will give way to a critical epidemiological tool to predict reinfection rates, identify vulnerable communities, and manage future viral outbreaks. To monitor the antibody response on a larger scale, we need an inexpensive, less invasive, and high throughput method. Methods: Here we investigate the use of oral mucosal fluids from individuals recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection to monitor antibody response and persistence over a 12-month period. For this cohort study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to quantify anti-Spike(S) protein IgG antibodies in participants who had prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and regularly (every 2-4 weeks) provided both serum and oral fluid mucosal fluid samples for longitudinal antibody titer analysis. Results: In our study cohort (n=42) with 17 males and 25 females with an average age of 45.6 +/- 19.3 years, we observed no significant change in oral mucosal fluid IgG levels across the time course of antibody monitoring. In oral mucosal fluids, all the participants who initially had detectable antibodies continued to have detectable antibodies throughout the study. Conclusions: Based on the results presented here, we have shown that oral mucosal fluid-based assays are an effective, less invasive tool for monitoring seroprevalence and seroconversion, which offers an alternative to serum-based assays for understanding the protective ability conferred by the adaptive immune response from viral infection and vaccination against future reinfections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Saliva/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mouth Mucosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
17.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580555

ABSTRACT

Widespread overeating has been found during the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The present study investigated whether pre-pandemic restrained eating (RE) predicted overeating during the pandemic, and further explored the behavioral (mortality threat, negative affect) mechanisms underlying this association. An eight-month longitudinal survey was conducted with a large sample of 616 undergraduates from Southwest university. From September 2019 to April 2020, three measurements were conducted. RE was tested before the pandemic (T1), and data of mortality threat, negative affect, and overeating were collected at the middle (T2) and end of (T3) the COVID-19 crisis in China. The correlation results showed that baseline RE was positively associated with mortality threat, negative affect, and overeating at T2 and T3. Moreover, negative affect and mortality threat were positively correlated with overeating. Results from longitudinal mediation showed that baseline RE would positively predict T3 overeating through T2 negative affect, but not T2 mortality threat. This study supports and extends the counterregulatory eating hypothesis that RE positively predicts future overeating, especially through negative emotions. These findings further reveal the core psychological mechanism underlying this positive RE-overeating relation in the context of COVID-19, indicating that the individuals with higher RE could not cope with negative affect adequately, contributing to more overeating.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior , Hyperphagia , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hyperphagia/epidemiology , Hyperphagia/physiopathology , Longitudinal Studies , Male
19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247949, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575332

ABSTRACT

AIM: In spring 2020, the first Covid-19-related lockdown included the closing of kindergartens and schools. Home schooling, the lack of social contacts with peers and the care of the children at home posed an enormous challenge for many families. METHODS: The present study investigated the leisure behavior of 285 one- to 10-year-old German children at two time points (t1 and t2) during the Covid-19-related lockdown in spring 2020. In the subsample of primary school children (n = 102), we also explored children's attitudes towards schoolwork at home. Analyses focused on the change of behavior from t1 to t2, on differences in these changes depending on socio-economic status (SES), and on associations of behavior with SES, the number of children at home, and the frequency of receiving learning materials from school. RESULTS: While the frequency of playing outside increased significantly from t1 to t2, the frequency of handicrafts, playing board games, indoor sports, and motivation to do schoolwork decreased. The observed changes between t1 and t2 did not differ depending on SES. However, a lower SES was associated with higher media use, less outdoor activity, and (though only marginally significant) a reduced time doing schoolwork and a reduced ability to concentrate on schoolwork at t1. In households with more children, children played outside more often, but were read to less frequently and (though only marginally significant) watched movies and series less frequently. Children receiving learning materials from school on a regular basis spent significantly more time doing schoolwork at home than children receiving materials only irregularly. CONCLUSIONS: A continuing loss of childcare in day-care facilities and schools entails the danger of declining education in the form of (inter)active indoor activities and schoolwork.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Learning , Leisure Activities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child Care , Child Day Care Centers , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Behavior/classification , Humans , Infant , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Schools , Social Class , Social Isolation , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Sports/statistics & numerical data
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26081, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound and differential impacts on metropolitan areas across the United States and around the world. Within the United States, metropolitan areas that were hit earliest with the pandemic and reacted with scientifically based health policy were able to contain the virus by late spring. For other areas that kept businesses open, the first wave in the United States hit in mid-summer. As the weather turns colder, universities resume classes, and people tire of lockdowns, a second wave is ascending in both metropolitan and rural areas. It becomes more obvious that additional SARS-CoV-2 surveillance is needed at the local level to track recent shifts in the pandemic, rates of increase, and persistence. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to provide advanced surveillance metrics for COVID-19 transmission that account for speed, acceleration, jerk and persistence, and weekly shifts, to better understand and manage risk in metropolitan areas. Existing surveillance measures coupled with our dynamic metrics of transmission will inform health policy to control the COVID-19 pandemic until, and after, an effective vaccine is developed. Here, we provide values for novel indicators to measure COVID-19 transmission at the metropolitan area level. METHODS: Using a longitudinal trend analysis study design, we extracted 260 days of COVID-19 data from public health registries. We used an empirical difference equation to measure the daily number of cases in the 25 largest US metropolitan areas as a function of the prior number of cases and weekly shift variables based on a dynamic panel data model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. RESULTS: Minneapolis and Chicago have the greatest average number of daily new positive results per standardized 100,000 population (which we refer to as speed). Extreme behavior in Minneapolis showed an increase in speed from 17 to 30 (67%) in 1 week. The jerk and acceleration calculated for these areas also showed extreme behavior. The dynamic panel data model shows that Minneapolis, Chicago, and Detroit have the largest persistence effects, meaning that new cases pertaining to a specific week are statistically attributable to new cases from the prior week. CONCLUSIONS: Three of the metropolitan areas with historically early and harsh winters have the highest persistence effects out of the top 25 most populous metropolitan areas in the United States at the beginning of their cold weather season. With these persistence effects, and with indoor activities becoming more popular as the weather gets colder, stringent COVID-19 regulations will be more important than ever to flatten the second wave of the pandemic. As colder weather grips more of the nation, southern metropolitan areas may also see large spikes in the number of cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Policy , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Public Health , Public Health Surveillance , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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