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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(28): e26538, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494086

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation has been associated with poor patient prognosis. In this study, we assessed the effects of different drugs and cardiac injury on QTc interval prolongation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).The study cohort consisted of 395 confirmed COVID-19 cases from the Wuhan Union Hospital West Campus. All hospitalized patients were treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), quinolones, interferon, Arbidol, or Qingfei Paidu decoction (QPD) and received at least 1 electrocardiogram after drug administration.Fifty one (12.9%) patients exhibited QTc prolongation (QTc ≥ 470 ms). QTc interval prolongation was associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality (both P < .001). Administration of CQ/HCQ (odds ratio [OR], 2.759; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.318-5.775; P = .007), LPV/r (OR, 2.342; 95% CI, 1.152-4.760; P = .019), and quinolones (OR, 2.268; 95% CI, 1.171-4.392; P = .015) increased the risk of QTc prolongation. In contrast, the administration of Arbidol, interferon, or QPD did not increase the risk of QTc prolongation. Notably, patients treated with QPD had a shorter QTc duration than those without QPD treatment (412.10 [384.39-433.77] vs 420.86 [388.19-459.58]; P = .042). The QTc interval was positively correlated with the levels of cardiac biomarkers (creatine kinase-MB fraction [rho = 0.14, P = .016], high-sensitivity troponin I [rho = .22, P < .001], and B-type natriuretic peptide [rho = 0.27, P < .001]).In conclusion, QTc prolongation was associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. The risk of QTc prolongation was higher in patients receiving CQ/HCQ, LPV/r, and quinolones. QPD had less significant effects on QTc prolongation than other antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Long QT Syndrome/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Electrocardiography , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Indoles/adverse effects , Interferons/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Quinolones/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(6): 1213-1221, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450185

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) global pandemic rages across the globe, the race to prevent and treat this deadly disease has led to the "off-label" repurposing of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, which have the potential for unwanted QT-interval prolongation and a risk of drug-induced sudden cardiac death. With the possibility that a considerable proportion of the world's population soon could receive COVID-19 pharmacotherapies with torsadogenic potential for therapy or postexposure prophylaxis, this document serves to help health care professionals mitigate the risk of drug-induced ventricular arrhythmias while minimizing risk of COVID-19 exposure to personnel and conserving the limited supply of personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Hydroxychloroquine , Long QT Syndrome , Lopinavir , Risk Adjustment/methods , Ritonavir , Torsades de Pointes , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Drug Combinations , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug Repositioning/ethics , Drug Repositioning/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/mortality , Long QT Syndrome/therapy , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Torsades de Pointes/mortality , Torsades de Pointes/therapy
3.
Pharmacotherapy ; 40(5): 416-437, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449937

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into an emergent global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest on a spectrum of illness from mild disease to severe respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit admission. As the incidence continues to rise at a rapid pace, critical care teams are faced with challenging treatment decisions. There is currently no widely accepted standard of care in the pharmacologic management of patients with COVID-19. Urgent identification of potential treatment strategies is a priority. Therapies include novel agents available in clinical trials or through compassionate use, and other drugs, repurposed antiviral and immunomodulating therapies. Many have demonstrated in vitro or in vivo potential against other viruses that are similar to SARS-CoV-2. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 have additional considerations related to adjustments for organ impairment and renal replacement therapies, complex lists of concurrent medications, limitations with drug administration and compatibility, and unique toxicities that should be evaluated when utilizing these therapies. The purpose of this review is to summarize practical considerations for pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19, with the intent of serving as a resource for health care providers at the forefront of clinical care during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunomodulation , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Nelfinavir/administration & dosage , Nelfinavir/adverse effects , Nitro Compounds , Pandemics , Purines , Pyrazoles , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/adverse effects
4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107522, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined the safety and efficacy of a treatment protocol containing Favipiravir for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We did a multicenter randomized open-labeled clinical trial on moderate to severe cases infections of SARS-CoV-2. Patients with typical ground glass appearance on chest computerized tomography scan (CT scan) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) of less than 93% were enrolled. They were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (1.6 gr loading, 1.8 gr daily) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (800/200 mg daily) treatment regimens in addition to standard care. In-hospital mortality, ICU admission, intubation, time to clinical recovery, changes in daily SpO2 after 5 min discontinuation of supplemental oxygen, and length of hospital stay were quantified and compared in the two groups. RESULTS: 380 patients were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (193) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (187) groups in 13 centers. The number of deaths, intubations, and ICU admissions were not significantly different (26, 27, 31 and 21, 17, 25 respectively). Mean hospital stay was also not different (7.9 days [SD = 6] in the Favipiravir and 8.1 [SD = 6.5] days in Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups) (p = 0.61). Time to clinical recovery in the Favipiravir group was similar to Lopinavir/Ritonavir group (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.75 - 1.17) and likewise the changes in the daily SpO2 after discontinuation of supplemental oxygen (p = 0.46) CONCLUSION: Adding Favipiravir to the treatment protocol did not reduce the number of ICU admissions or intubations or In-hospital mortality compared to Lopinavir/Ritonavir regimen. It also did not shorten time to clinical recovery and length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Intubation , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(Suppl 1): S253-S263, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The efficacies of lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine remain to be determined in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To compare the virological and clinical responses to lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine treatment in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients with COVID-19 treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine at a single center in Korea from February 17 to March 31, 2020. Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine concurrently and those treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine for less than 7 days were excluded. Time to negative conversion of viral RNA, time to clinical improvement, and safety outcomes were assessed after 6 weeks of follow-up. RESULTS: Of 65 patients (mean age, 64.3 years; 25 men [38.5%]), 31 were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and 34 were treated with hydroxychloroquine. The median duration of symptoms before treatment was 7 days and 26 patients (40%) required oxygen support at baseline. Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir had a significantly shorter time to negative conversion of viral RNA than those treated with hydroxychloroquine (median, 21 days vs. 28 days). Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 4.21) and younger age (aHR, 2.64; 95% CI 1.43 to 4.87) was associated with negative conversion of viral RNA. There was no significant difference in time to clinical improvement between lopinavir-ritonavir- and hydroxychloroquine-treated patients (median, 18 days vs. 21 days). Lymphopenia and hyperbilirubinemia were more frequent in lopinavir-ritonavir-treated patients compared with hydroxychloroquine-treated patients. CONCLUSION: Lopinavir-ritonavir was associated with more rapid viral clearance than hydroxychloroquine in mild to moderate COVID-19, despite comparable clinical responses. These findings should be confirmed in randomized, controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26787, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lopinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and saquinavir had been reportedly used or suggested for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment. They may cause electrocardiography changes. We aim to evaluate risk of PR prolongation, QRS widening, and QT prolongation from lopinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and saquinavir. METHODS: In accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines, our search was conducted in PubMed Central, PubMed, EBSCOhost, and ProQuest from inception to June 25, 2020. Titles and abstracts were reviewed for relevance. Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool 2.0 and Downs and Black criteria was used to evaluate quality of studies. RESULTS: We retrieved 9 articles. Most randomized controlled trials have low risk of biases while all quasi-experimental studies have a positive rating. Four studies reporting PR prolongation however only 2 studies with PR interval >200 ms. One of which, reported its association after treatment with ritonavir-boosted saquinavir treatment while another, during treatment with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir. No study reported QRS widening >120 ms with treatment. Four studies reporting QT prolongation, with only one study reaching QT interval >450 ms after ritonavir-boosted saquinavir treatment on healthy patients. There is only one study on COVID-19 patients reporting QT prolongation in 1 out of 95 patients after ritonavir-boosted lopinavir treatment. CONCLUSION: Limited evidence suggests that lopinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and saquinavir could cause PR prolongation, QRS widening, and QT prolongation. Further trials with closer monitoring and assessment of electrocardiography are needed to ascertain usage safety of antivirals in COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Atazanavir Sulfate/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/etiology , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Saquinavir/adverse effects , Adult , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/standards , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Saquinavir/therapeutic use
7.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 42, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285504

ABSTRACT

Background: QTc prolongation is an adverse effect of COVID-19 therapies. The use of a handheld device in this scenario has not been addressed. Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of QTc monitoring with a smart device in COVID-19 patients receiving QTc-interfering therapies. Methods: Prospective study of consecutive COVID-19 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin ± lopinavir-ritonavir. ECG monitoring was performed with 12-lead ECG or with KardiaMobile-6L. Both registries were also sequentially obtained in a cohort of healthy patients. We evaluated differences in QTc in COVID-19 patients between three different monitoring strategies: 12-lead ECG at baseline and follow-up (A), 12-lead ECG at baseline and follow-up with the smart device (B), and fully monitored with handheld 6-lead ECG (group C). Time needed to obtain an ECG registry was also documented. Results: One hundred and eighty-two COVID-19 patients were included (A: 119(65.4%); B: 50(27.5%); C: 13(7.1%). QTc peak during hospitalization did significantly increase in all groups. No differences were observed between the three monitoring strategies in QTc prolongation (p = 0.864). In the control group, all but one ECG registry with the smart device allowed QTc measurement and mean QTc did not differ between both techniques (p = 0.612), displaying a moderate reliability (ICC 0.56 [0.19-0.76]). Time of ECG registry was significantly longer for the 12-lead ECG than for handheld device in both cohorts (p < 0.001). Conclusion: QTc monitoring with KardiaMobile-6L in COVID-19 patients was feasible. Time of ECG registration was significantly lower with the smart device, which may offer an important advantage for prevention of virus dissemination among healthcare providers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Electrocardiography/methods , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Electrocardiography/instrumentation , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Antivir Ther ; 25(4): 233-239, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256707

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that was discovered in 2019 in Wuhan, China, no standard therapy guideline has been set despite the severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its high infectivity. The globally pandemic outbreak suggests that COVID-19 is highly infectious and difficult to control. A dual-combination of ribavirin and interferon-α has been the widely used regimen for the treatment of this disease in China. However, due to the varying results of treatment with these drugs, a novel antiviral combination therapy is urgently needed. This case reports the usage of lopinavir/ritonavir-based combination antiviral regimen for a patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Indoles/administration & dosage , Indoles/adverse effects , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects
10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0249760, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an independent risk factor for mortality, which affects about 5% of hospitalized coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients and up to 25-29% of severely ill COVID-19 patients. Lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine show in vitro activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and have been used for the treatment of COVID-19. Both, lopinavir and hydroxychloroquine are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. The impact of a triple therapy with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine (triple therapy) on kidney function in COVID-19 is currently not known. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed both non-ICU and ICU patients with COVID-19 receiving triple therapy for the incidence of AKI. Patients receiving standard therapy served as a control group. All patients were hospitalized at the University Hospital of Freiburg, Germany, between March and April 2020. A matched-pair analysis for the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2 was performed to control for the severity of illness among non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients. RESULTS: In non-ICU patients, the incidence of AKI was markedly increased following triple therapy (78.6% vs. 21.4% in controls, p = 0.002), while a high incidence of AKI was observed in both groups of ICU patients (triple therapy: 80.0%, control group: 90.5%). ICU patients treated with triple therapy showed a trend towards more oliguric or anuric kidney injury. We also observed a linear correlation between the duration of the triple therapy and the maximum serum creatinine level (p = 0.004, R2 = 0.276, R = 0.597). CONCLUSION: Triple therapy is associated with an increase in the incidence of AKI in non-ICU COVID-19 patients. The underlying mechanisms may comprise a CYP3A4 enzyme interaction, and may be relevant for any future therapy combining hydroxychloroquine with antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Creatinine/blood , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 775-785, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196401

ABSTRACT

Treatment options for severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are limited with no clarity on efficacy and safety profiles. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on patients ≥18 years reporting data on therapeutic interventions in SARS-CoV-2. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes were rates of mechanical ventilation, viral clearance, adverse events, discharge, and progression to severe disease. Pooled rates and odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Twenty-nine studies with 5207 patients were included. Pooled all-cause mortality in intervention arm was 12.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.1%-17.4%). Mortality was significantly higher for studies using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for intervention (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.97-1.89). Adverse events were also higher in HCQ subgroup (OR: 3.88; 95% CI: 1.60-9.45). There was no difference in other secondary outcomes. There is a need for well-designed randomized clinical trials for further investigation of every therapeutic intervention for further insight into different therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(6): 740-748, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193397

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lopinavir-ritonavir is a repurposed drug for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). In this study, a pooled effect of lopinavir-ritonavir on mortality, virological cure, radiological improvement and safety profile in COVID-19 patients has been evaluated. METHODS: The databases were searched for comparative randomized controlled studies evaluating the efficacy and/or safety of lopinavir-ritonavir in COVID-19 patients. The mortality outcome was pooled as a risk difference (RD) with 95% CI. The virological cure, radiological improvement and adverse events were pooled as risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI. All outcomes were pooled using the Mantle-Hanzle method random effect model. The heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test. RESULTS: Out of 82 full text assessed, seven studies were included in the analysis. The included studies had five different control interventions: supportive care (n=4), umifenovir (arbidol) (n=2), navaferon (recombinant anti-tumour and anti-virus protein) (n=1), lopinavir-ritonavir+novaferon (n=1) and lopinavir-ritonavir+interferon beta 1b+ribavirin (n=1). Lopinavir-ritonavir group did not show significant difference in mortality [RD: 0.00 (95% CI: -0.01, 0.02), I2=0], virological cure [RR: 1.06 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.31), I2=0%], radiological improvement [RR: 0.81 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.05)] and adverse events [RR: 2.59 (95% CI: 0.17, 38.90), I2=75%] than supportive care. Similarly, no difference was observed for any efficacy outcomes between lopinavir-ritonavir and other control interventions. We observed significantly high risk of adverse events with lopinavir-ritonavir as compared to umifenovir [RR: 2.96 (95% CI: 1.42-6.18); I2=0%]. CONCLUSION: There is no benefit of the addition of lopinavir-ritonavir to the standard care in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ritonavir , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(3): 195-206, 2021 03.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a coronavirus that causes a disease which can leads to a severe form of fatal pneumonia. At december 2020 in Italy, more than 2 million people have contracted the virus and 78,755 people have died. The scientific community is studying and testing numerous compounds that can be effective and safe for treating people with covid-19. AIM: To synthesize and evaluate the quality of evidence of efficacy and safety for the treatment. The available evidence is summarized in a living systematic review, a review that is constantly updated on the basis of the results of the new clinical studies. METHODS: A bibliographic search is launched weekly on the electronic databases and on the main clinical trial registers. Two researchers independently select the articles and assess the quality of the studies using the criteria developed by the Cochrane Collaboration, the certainty of the overall quality of the evidence is assessed using the GRADE criteria. RESULTS: At 31/12/2020, 101 randomized controlled studies were included that consider 72 different comparisons and include a total of 55,281 patients. 37 drugs are tested with respect to the standard treatment, 6 are evaluated against placebo and finally 29 compare different drugs with each other. By selecting studies that evaluate the efficacy and safety of a drug compared to standard treatment, which include at least 2 studies and which have low to high certainty of evidence, results show that corticosteroids, remdesivir, favipiravir, immunoglobulins, colchicine, and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion could reduce overall mortality. No differences for the risk of any adverse events are observed between convalescent plasma and remdesivir compared to standard treatment. Remdesivir probably reduces the risk of serious adverse events; a similar effect, although less strong, is also noted for tocilizumab and the lopinavir-ritonavir combination. In contrast, hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids and convalescent plasma transfusion are associated with safety concerns with respect to the risk of serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The 101 studies included consider 72 comparisons and numerous outcomes, the results often coming from single studies and of small dimensions, and for 61% with a very low certainty of evidence, are difficult to summarize and the final result is to increase the uncertainty rather than providing useful information to the clinic and research. From all the work carried out it seems to us that the pandemic has highlighted the many shadows of scientific literature as tool to improve knowledge.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/adverse effects , Amides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Drug Combinations , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Pandemics , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Uncertainty
14.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 893: 173813, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116627

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), poses an enormous challenge to the medical system, especially the lack of safe and effective COVID-19 treatment methods, forcing people to look for drugs that may have therapeutic effects as soon as possible. Some old drugs have shown clinical benefits after a few small clinical trials that attracted great attention. Clinically, however, many drugs, including those currently used in COVID-19, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir, may cause cardiotoxicity by acting on cardiac potassium channels, especially hERG channel through their off-target effects. The blocking of the hERG channel prolongs QT intervals on electrocardiograms; thus, it might induce severe ventricular arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac death. Therefore, while focusing on the efficacy of COVID-19 drugs, the fact that they block hERG channels to cause arrhythmias cannot be ignored. To develop safer and more effective drugs, it is necessary to understand the interactions between drugs and the hERG channel and the molecular mechanism behind this high affinity. In this review, we focus on the biochemical and molecular mechanistic aspects of drug-related blockade of the hERG channel to provide insights into QT prolongation caused by off-label use of related drugs in COVID-19, and hope to weigh the risks and benefits when using these drugs.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/adverse effects , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , ERG1 Potassium Channel/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Off-Label Use
15.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 59(7): 644-647, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109095

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Originally developed for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the antiviral combination lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is being repurposed for treating the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) despite minimal experience in this markedly different population and an in-vitro derived EC50 against SARS-CoV-2 several hundred-fold greater than for HIV. We present a case series including a case of severe hyponatremia and a 32-fold overdose raising safety and effectiveness concerns in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We measured LPV trough concentrations in 12 patients and reviewed their clinical charts for side effects known to occur in HIV patients. FINDINGS: Compared to established LPV trough concentrations in HIV patients, concentrations in COVID-19 patients were 3-fold greater (19.37 ± 10.12 mcg/mL versus 6.25 mcg/mL). In addition, cholestasis and dyslipidemia toxicity thresholds were exceeded in 12/12 and 11/12 patients respectively. No patients achieved the presumed therapeutic concentration. Side effects included gastrointestinal symptoms (5/12), electrolyte imbalances (4/12), liver enzyme disturbances (5/12) and triglyceride elevations (2/12). CONCLUSION: No patients reached presumed therapeutic LPV concentrations despite experiencing side effects and exceeding cholestasis and dyslipidemia toxicity thresholds. This raises concerns for the safety and effectiveness of LPV/r. Clinicians should consider closely monitoring for side effects and not necessarily attribute them to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Drug Combinations , Drug Monitoring , Drug Overdose/etiology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hyponatremia/blood , Hyponatremia/chemically induced , Hyponatremia/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Drug Saf ; 43(12): 1315-1322, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092872

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the stressful context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, some reports have raised concerns regarding psychiatric disorders with the use of hydroxychloroquine. In this study, we reviewed all psychiatric adverse effects with hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients, as well as in other indications, reported in VigiBase, the World Health Organization's (WHO) global database of individual case safety reports. METHODS: First, we analyzed all psychiatric adverse effects, including suicide, of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients reported to 16 June 2020. We also performed disproportionality analysis to investigate the risk of reporting psychiatric disorders with hydroxychloroquine compared with remdesivir, tocilizumab, or lopinavir/ritonavir prescribed in COVID-19 patients. We used reporting odds ratios (RORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to calculate disproportionality. Second, we sought to examine the psychiatric safety profile of hydroxychloroquine in other indications (before 2020). RESULTS: Among the 1754 reports with hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients, we found 56 psychiatric adverse effects. Half of these adverse effects were serious, including four completed suicides, three cases of intentional self-injury, and 12 cases of psychotic disorders with hallucinations. Compared with remdesivir, tocilizumab, or lopinavir/ritonavir, the use of hydroxychloroquine was associated with an increased risk of reporting psychiatric disorders (ROR 6.27, 95% CI 2.74-14.35). Before 2020, suicide was the main cause of death among all adverse drug reactions reported with hydroxychloroquine, followed by cardiac adverse effects (cardiomyopathy) and respiratory failure. CONCLUSIONS: This pharmacovigilance analysis suggests that COVID-19 patients exposed to hydroxychloroquine experienced serious psychiatric disorders, and, among these patients, some committed suicide. Further real-world studies are needed to quantify the psychiatric risk associated with hydroxychloroquine during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hallucinations/chemically induced , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Psychoses, Substance-Induced/etiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/chemically induced , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drug Combinations , Female , Hallucinations/epidemiology , Humans , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Mental Disorders/chemically induced , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Psychoses, Substance-Induced/epidemiology , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
18.
Drug Saf ; 43(12): 1309-1314, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092869

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In late 2019, a new coronavirus-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-was discovered in Wuhan, China, and the World Health Organization later declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic. Numerous drugs have been repurposed and investigated for therapeutic effectiveness in the disease, including those from "Solidarity," an international clinical trial (azithromycin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, the fixed combination lopinavir/ritonavir, and remdesivir). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting for drugs when used in the treatment of COVID-19 compared with use for other indications, specifically focussing on sex differences. METHOD: We extracted reports on COVID-19-specific treatments from the global ADR database, VigiBase, using an algorithm developed to identify reports that listed COVID-19 as the indication. The Solidarity trial drugs were included, as were any drugs reported ≥ 100 times. We performed a descriptive comparison of reports for the same drugs used in non-COVID-19 indications. The data lock point date was 7 June 2020. RESULTS: In total, 2573 reports were identified for drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19. In order of frequency, the most reported ADRs were electrocardiogram QT-prolonged, diarrhoea, nausea, hepatitis, and vomiting in males and diarrhoea, electrocardiogram QT-prolonged, nausea, vomiting, and upper abdominal pain in females. Other hepatic and kidney-related events were included in the top ten ADRs in males, whereas no hepatic or renal terms were reported for females. COVID-19-related reporting patterns differed from non-pandemic reporting for these drugs. CONCLUSION: Review of a global database of suspected ADR reports revealed sex differences in the reporting patterns for drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19. Patterns of ADR sex differences need further elucidation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/chemically induced , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Drug Combinations , Drug Eruptions/epidemiology , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Drug Repositioning , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Nausea/chemically induced , Nausea/epidemiology , Oseltamivir/adverse effects , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Sex Distribution , Sex Factors , Vomiting/chemically induced , Vomiting/epidemiology
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8821318, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083860

ABSTRACT

The off-label use of antiviral and antimalarial drugs has been considered by many researchers as a fast and relatively safe alternative to provide therapeutic options to treat COVID-19, but the assessment of such drug-specific effectiveness in this regard is far from complete. Especially, the current body of knowledge about COVID-19 therapeutics needs more data regarding drug effectiveness and safety in the severely ill patients with comorbidities. In the present article, we retrospectively analyze data from 61 patients that received treatment with chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, both drugs administered together, or a standard treatment with no antiviral drugs, and the study was carried in severely ill patients. We found that either drug is ineffective at treating COVID-19, as they are not able to reduce hospitalization length, mortality, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), d-Dimer, or ferritin, or to enhance gasometric parameters, lymphocytes, total leukocytes, and neutrophil levels, whereas both drugs administered together decrease circulating lymphocytes, increase LDH and ferritin levels, and more importantly, enhance mortality. In this way, our results show that both drugs are ineffective and even potentially harmful alternatives against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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