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1.
J Cell Biochem ; 123(2): 347-358, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499273

ABSTRACT

As per the World Health Organization report, around 226 844 344 confirmed positive cases and 4 666 334 deaths are reported till September 17, 2021 due to the recent viral outbreak. A novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) is responsible for the associated coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which causes serious or even fatal respiratory tract infection and yet no approved therapeutics or effective treatment is currently available to combat the outbreak. Due to the emergency, the drug repurposing approach is being explored for COVID-19. In this study, we attempt to understand the potential mechanism and also the effect of the approved antiviral drugs against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). To understand the mechanism of inhibition of the malaria drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) against SARS-CoV-2, we performed molecular interaction studies. The studies revealed that HCQ docked at the active site of the Human ACE2 receptor as a possible way of inhibition. Our in silico analysis revealed that the three drugs Lopinavir, Ritonavir, and Remdesivir showed interaction with the active site residues of Mpro. During molecular dynamics simulation, based on the binding free energy contributions, Lopinavir showed better results than Ritonavir and Remdesivir.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Receptors, Virus/drug effects , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , Catalytic Domain/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/physiology , Datasets as Topic , Drug Repositioning , Energy Transfer , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(93): 12476-12479, 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500757

ABSTRACT

We identified small-molecule enhancers of cellular stress granules by observing molecular crowding of proteins and RNAs in a time-dependent manner. Hit molecules sensitized the IRF3-mediated antiviral mechanism in the presence of poly(I:C) and inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV-2 by inducing stress granule formation. Thus, modulating multimolecular crowding can be a promising strategy against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzopyrans/pharmacology , Cytoplasmic Granules/drug effects , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Benzopyrans/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytoplasmic Granules/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Combinations , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Poly I-C/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17810, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402118

ABSTRACT

Transporters in the human liver play a major role in the clearance of endo- and xenobiotics. Apical (canalicular) transporters extrude compounds to the bile, while basolateral hepatocyte transporters promote the uptake of, or expel, various compounds from/into the venous blood stream. In the present work we have examined the in vitro interactions of some key repurposed drugs advocated to treat COVID-19 (lopinavir, ritonavir, ivermectin, remdesivir and favipiravir), with the key drug transporters of hepatocytes. These transporters included ABCB11/BSEP, ABCC2/MRP2, and SLC47A1/MATE1 in the canalicular membrane, as well as ABCC3/MRP3, ABCC4/MRP4, SLC22A1/OCT1, SLCO1B1/OATP1B1, SLCO1B3/OATP1B3, and SLC10A1/NTCP, residing in the basolateral membrane. Lopinavir and ritonavir in low micromolar concentrations inhibited BSEP and MATE1 exporters, as well as OATP1B1/1B3 uptake transporters. Ritonavir had a similar inhibitory pattern, also inhibiting OCT1. Remdesivir strongly inhibited MRP4, OATP1B1/1B3, MATE1 and OCT1. Favipiravir had no significant effect on any of these transporters. Since both general drug metabolism and drug-induced liver toxicity are strongly dependent on the functioning of these transporters, the various interactions reported here may have important clinical relevance in the drug treatment of this viral disease and the existing co-morbidities.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 11/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Liver-Specific Organic Anion Transporter 1/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Organic Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 11/antagonists & inhibitors , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver-Specific Organic Anion Transporter 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Lopinavir/chemistry , Lopinavir/metabolism , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Organic Cation Transport Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Ritonavir/chemistry , Ritonavir/metabolism , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Substrate Specificity
4.
Pharmacol Rep ; 73(6): 1520-1538, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377631

ABSTRACT

The global spread of COVID-19 has imparted significant economic, medical, and social burdens. Like adults, children are affected by this pandemic. However, milder clinical symptoms are often experienced by them. Only a minimal proportion of the affected patients may develop severe and complicated COVID-19. Supportive treatment is recommended in all patients. Antiviral and immunomodulatory medications are spared for hospitalized children with respiratory distress or severe to critical disease. Up till now, remdesivir is the only USFDA-approved anti-COVID-19 medication indicated in the majority of symptomatic patients with moderate to severe disease. Dexamethasone is solely recommended in patients with respiratory distress maintained on oxygen or ventilatory support. The use of these medications in pediatric patients is founded on evidence deriving from adult studies. No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving pediatric COVID-19 patients have assessed these medications' efficacy and safety, among others. Similarly, three novel monoclonal anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies, bamlanivimab, casirivimab and imdevimab, have been recently authorized by the USFDA. Nonetheless, their efficacy has not been demonstrated by multiple RCTs. In this review, we aim to dissect the various potential therapeutics used in children with COVID-19. We aspire to provide a comprehensive review of the available evidence and display the mechanisms of action and the pharmacokinetic properties of the studied therapeutics. Our review offers an efficient and practical guide for treating children with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Child , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374423

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease, caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapidly spreading around the world, poses a major threat to the global public health. Herein, we demonstrated the binding mechanism of PF-07321332, α-ketoamide, lopinavir, and ritonavir to the coronavirus 3-chymotrypsin-like-protease (3CLpro) by means of docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The analysis of MD trajectories of 3CLpro with PF-07321332, α-ketoamide, lopinavir, and ritonavir revealed that 3CLpro-PF-07321332 and 3CLpro-α-ketoamide complexes remained stable compared with 3CLpro-ritonavir and 3CLpro-lopinavir. Investigating the dynamic behavior of ligand-protein interaction, ligands PF-07321332 and α-ketoamide showed stronger bonding via making interactions with catalytic dyad residues His41-Cys145 of 3CLpro. Lopinavir and ritonavir were unable to disrupt the catalytic dyad, as illustrated by increased bond length during the MD simulation. To decipher the ligand binding mode and affinity, ligand interactions with SARS-CoV-2 proteases and binding energy were calculated. The binding energy of the bespoke antiviral PF-07321332 clinical candidate was two times higher than that of α-ketoamide and three times than that of lopinavir and ritonavir. Our study elucidated in detail the binding mechanism of the potent PF-07321332 to 3CLpro along with the low potency of lopinavir and ritonavir due to weak binding affinity demonstrated by the binding energy data. This study will be helpful for the development and optimization of more specific compounds to combat coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lactams/pharmacology , Leucine/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Proline/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Catalytic Domain/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(11): 4163-4173, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As a beta-coronavirus, Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has caused one of the most significant historical pandemics, as well as various health and medical challenges. Our purpose in this report is to collect, summarize, and articulate all essential information about antiviral drugs that may or may not be efficient for treating COVID-19. Clinical evidence about these drugs and their possible mechanisms of action are also discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To conduct a comprehensive review, different keywords in various databases, including Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, PubMed, and Google Scholar, were searched relevant articles, especially the most recent ones, were selected and studied. These selected original research articles, review papers, systematic reviews, and even letters to the editors were then carefully reviewed for data collection. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 is the newest member of the coronavirus family, and there are still no promising therapies or particular antiviral compounds to fight it. After entering the body, SARS-CoV-2 penetrates the cells by attaching to specific lung cell receptors, called angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. Then, by employing cell division machinery, it replicates through a complex mechanism and spreads throughout the patient's body. Various antiviral drugs, including anti-influenza/HIV/HCV drugs, have been applied for treating COVID-19 patients. Due to the similarity of the structure and transcriptional mechanism of COVID-19 to a number of viruses, some of the listed drugs have been beneficial against SARS-CoV-2. However, the effectiveness of others is in an aura of ambiguity and doubt. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the antiviral medications listed and discussed in this article have been effective in the treatment of COVID-19 patients or preventing the virus from spreading further. However, other drugs have to be investigated to reach a reliable conclusion about their effectiveness or ineffectiveness.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Lopinavir/metabolism , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
7.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 896: 173922, 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252813

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is spreading between human populations mainly through nasal droplets. Currently, the vaccines have great hope, but it takes years for testing its efficacy in human. As there is no specific drug treatment available for COVID-19 pandemic, we explored in silico repurposing of drugs with dual inhibition properties by targeting transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) from FDA-approved drugs. The TMPRSS2 and ACE2 dual inhibitors in COVID-19 would be a novel antiviral class of drugs called "entry inhibitors." For this purpose, approximately 2800 US-FDA approved drugs were docked using a virtual docking tool with the targets TMPRSS2 and ACE2. The best-fit drugs were selected as per docking scores and visual outcomes. Later on, drugs were selected on the basis of molecular dynamics simulations. The drugs alvimopan, arbekacin, dequalinum, fleroxacin, lopinavir, and valrubicin were shortlisted by visual analysis and molecular dynamics simulations. Among these, lopinavir and valrubicin were found to be superior in terms of dual inhibition. Thus, lopinavir and valrubicin have the potential of dual-target inhibition whereby preventing SARS-CoV-2 entry to the host. For repurposing of these drugs, further screening in vitro and in vivo would help in exploring clinically.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19 , Doxorubicin/analogs & derivatives , Lopinavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Enzyme Inhibitors/classification , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Topoisomerase II Inhibitors/pharmacology
8.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 776-784, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217480

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by a new coronavirus has posed a great threat to public health. Identifying safe and effective antivirals is of urgent demand to cure the huge number of patients. Virus-encoded proteases are considered potential drug targets. The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors (lopinavir/ritonavir) has been recommended in the global Solidarity Trial in March launched by World Health Organization. However, there is currently no experimental evidence to support or against its clinical use. We evaluated the antiviral efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir along with other two viral protease inhibitors in vitro, and discussed the possible inhibitory mechanism in silico. The in vitro to in vivo extrapolation was carried out to assess whether lopinavir/ritonavir could be effective in clinical. Among the four tested compounds, lopinavir showed the best inhibitory effect against the novel coronavirus infection. However, further in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of pharmacokinetics suggested that lopinavir/ritonavir could not reach effective concentration under standard dosing regimen [marketed as Kaletra®, contained lopinavir/ritonavir (200 mg/50 mg) tablets, recommended dosage is 400 mg/10 mg (2 tablets) twice daily]. This research concluded that lopinavir/ritonavir should be stopped for clinical use due to the huge gap between in vitro IC50 and free plasma concentration. Nevertheless, the structure-activity relationship analysis of the four inhibitors provided further information for de novel design of future viral protease inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Humans , Lopinavir/blood , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Ritonavir/blood , Vero Cells , Viral Protease Inhibitors/chemistry
9.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 24(3): 441-454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to threaten patients, societies and healthcare systems around the world. There is an urgent need to search for possible medications. OBJECTIVE: This article intends to use virtual screening and molecular docking methods to find potential inhibitors from existing drugs that can respond to COVID-19. METHODS: To take part in the current research investigation and to define a potential target drug that may protect the world from the pandemic of corona disease, a virtual screening study of 129 approved drugs was carried out which showed that their metabolic characteristics, dosages used, potential efficacy and side effects are clear as they have been approved for treating existing infections. Especially 12 drugs against chronic hepatitis B virus, 37 against chronic hepatitis C virus, 37 against human immunodeficiency virus, 14 anti-herpesvirus, 11 anti-influenza, and 18 other drugs currently on the market were considered for this study. These drugs were then evaluated using virtual screening and molecular docking studies on the active site of the (SARS-CoV-2) main protease (6lu7). Once the efficacy of the drug is determined, it can be approved for its in vitro and in vivo activity against the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which can be beneficial for the rapid clinical treatment of patients. These drugs were considered potentially effective against SARS-CoV-2 and those with high molecular docking scores were proposed as novel candidates for repurposing. The N3 inhibitor cocrystallized with protease (6lu7) and the anti-HIV protease inhibitor Lopinavir were used as standards for comparison. RESULTS: The results suggest the effectiveness of Beclabuvir, Nilotinib, Tirilazad, Trametinib and Glecaprevir as potent drugs against SARS-CoV-2 since they tightly bind to its main protease. CONCLUSION: These promising drugs can inhibit the replication of the virus; hence, the repurposing of these compounds is suggested for the treatment of COVID-19. No toxicity measurements are required for these drugs since they were previously tested prior to their approval by the FDA. However, the assessment of these potential inhibitors as clinical drugs requires further in vivo tests of these drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Drug Repositioning , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Lopinavir/chemistry , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pyridones/chemistry , Pyridones/pharmacology , Pyrimidinones/chemistry , Pyrimidinones/pharmacology
10.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100154

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China at the end of 2019 causing a large global outbreak. As treatments are of the utmost importance, drug repurposing embodies a rich and rapid drug discovery landscape, where candidate drug compounds could be identified and optimized. To this end, we tested seven compounds for their ability to reduce replication of human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E, another member of the coronavirus family. Among these seven drugs tested, four of them, namely rapamycin, disulfiram, loperamide and valproic acid, were highly cytotoxic and did not warrant further testing. In contrast, we observed a reduction of the viral titer by 80% with resveratrol (50% effective concentration (EC50) = 4.6 µM) and lopinavir/ritonavir (EC50 = 8.8 µM) and by 60% with chloroquine (EC50 = 5 µM) with very limited cytotoxicity. Among these three drugs, resveratrol was less cytotoxic (cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50) = 210 µM) than lopinavir/ritonavir (CC50 = 102 µM) and chloroquine (CC50 = 67 µM). Thus, among the seven drugs tested against HCoV-229E, resveratrol demonstrated the optimal antiviral response with low cytotoxicity with a selectivity index (SI) of 45.65. Similarly, among the three drugs with an anti-HCoV-229E activity, namely lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine and resveratrol, only the latter showed a reduction of the viral titer on SARS-CoV-2 with reduced cytotoxicity. This opens the door to further evaluation to fight Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Cell Line , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load
11.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 896: 173922, 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062326

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is spreading between human populations mainly through nasal droplets. Currently, the vaccines have great hope, but it takes years for testing its efficacy in human. As there is no specific drug treatment available for COVID-19 pandemic, we explored in silico repurposing of drugs with dual inhibition properties by targeting transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) from FDA-approved drugs. The TMPRSS2 and ACE2 dual inhibitors in COVID-19 would be a novel antiviral class of drugs called "entry inhibitors." For this purpose, approximately 2800 US-FDA approved drugs were docked using a virtual docking tool with the targets TMPRSS2 and ACE2. The best-fit drugs were selected as per docking scores and visual outcomes. Later on, drugs were selected on the basis of molecular dynamics simulations. The drugs alvimopan, arbekacin, dequalinum, fleroxacin, lopinavir, and valrubicin were shortlisted by visual analysis and molecular dynamics simulations. Among these, lopinavir and valrubicin were found to be superior in terms of dual inhibition. Thus, lopinavir and valrubicin have the potential of dual-target inhibition whereby preventing SARS-CoV-2 entry to the host. For repurposing of these drugs, further screening in vitro and in vivo would help in exploring clinically.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19 , Doxorubicin/analogs & derivatives , Lopinavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Enzyme Inhibitors/classification , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Topoisomerase II Inhibitors/pharmacology
13.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 707-720, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030457

ABSTRACT

The whole world is battling through coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which is a fatal pandemic. In the early 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as a global health emergency without definitive treatments and preventive approaches. In the absence of definitive therapeutic agents, this thorough review summarizes and outlines the potency and safety of all molecules and therapeutics which may have potential antiviral effects. A number of molecules and therapeutics licensed or being tested for some other conditions were found effective in different in vitro studies as well as in many small sample-sized clinical trials and independent case studies. However, in those clinical trials, there were some limitations which need to be overcome to find the most promising antiviral against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In conclusion, many of above-mentioned antivirals seems to have some therapeutic effects but none of them have been shown to have a strong evidence for their proper recommendation and approval in the treatment of COVID-19. Constantly evolving new evidences, exclusive adult data, language barrier, and type of study (observational, retrospective, small-sized clinical trials, or independent case series) resulted to the several limitations of this review. The need for multicentered, large sample-sized, randomized, placebo-controlled trials on COVID-19 patients to reach a proper conclusion on the most promising antiviral agent is warranted.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/pharmacology , Amides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azetidines/pharmacology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Indoles/pharmacology , Indoles/therapeutic use , Interferons/pharmacology , Interferons/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Nitro Compounds , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Purines/pharmacology , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/pharmacology , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Thiazoles/therapeutic use
14.
Virology ; 555: 10-18, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003121

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), turned out to be a global pandemic with unstoppable morbidity and mortality rate. However, till date there is no effective treatment found against SARS-CoV-2. We report on the major in-depth molecular and docking analysis by using antiretroviral (Lopinavir and ritonavir), antimalarial (Hydroxychloroquine), antibiotics (Azithromycin), and dietary supplements (Vitamin C and E) to provide new insight into drug repurposing molecular events involved in SARS-CoV-2. We constructed three drug-target-pathways-disease networks to predict the targets and drugs interactions as well as important pathways involved in SARS-CoV-2. The results suggested that by using the combination of Lopinavir, Ritonavir along with Hydroxychloroquine and Vitamin C may turned out to be the effective line of treatment for SARS-CoV-2 as it shows the involvement of PARP-1, MAPK-8, EGFR, PRKCB, PTGS-2, and BCL-2. Gene ontology biological process analysis further confirmed multiple viral infection-related processes (P < 0.001), including viral life cycle, modulation by virus, C-C chemokine receptor activity, and platelet activation. KEGG pathway analysis involves multiple pathways (P < 0.05), including FoxO, GnRH, ErbB, Neurotrophin, Toll-like receptor, IL-17, TNF, Insulin, HIF-1, JAK-STAT, Estrogen, NF-kappa, Chemokine, VEGF, and Thyroid hormone signaling pathway in SARS-CoV-2. Docking study was carried out to predict the molecular mechanism Thus, the potential drug combinations could reduce viral infectivity, viral replication, and abnormal host inflammatory responses and may be useful for multi-target drugs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Drug Development , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/metabolism , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Mapping , Protein Interaction Maps , Ritonavir/metabolism , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
J Electrocardiol ; 64: 30-35, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Administration of Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prolongs QTc corrected interval (QTc). The effect and safety of Lopinavir/Ritonavir in combination with these therapies have seldom been studied. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate changes in QTc in patients receiving double (Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin) and triple therapy (Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin + Lopinavir/Ritonavir) to treat COVID-19. Secondary outcome was the incidence of in-hospital all-cause mortality. METHODS: Patients under treatment with double (DT) and triple therapy (TT) for COVID-19 were consecutively included in this prospective observational study. Serial in-hospital electrocardiograms were performed to measure QTc at baseline and during therapy. RESULTS: 168 patients (±66.2 years old) were included: 32.1% received DT and 67.9% received TT. The mean baseline QTc was 410.33 ms. Patients under DT and TT prolonged QTc interval respect baseline values (p < 0.001), without significant differences between both therapy groups (p = 0.748). Overall, 33 patients (19.6%) had a peak QTc and/or an increase QTc 60 ms from baseline, with a higher prevalence among those with hypokalemia (p = 0.003). All-cause mortality was similar between both strategy groups (p = 0.093) and high risk QTc prolongation was no related to clinical events in this series. CONCLUSIONS: DT and TT prolong the QTc in patients with COVID-19. Addition of Lopinavir/Ritonavir on top of Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin did not increase QTc compared to DT.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20927, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954796

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a recently discovered single-stranded RNA betacoronavirus, responsible for a severe respiratory disease known as coronavirus disease 2019, which is rapidly spreading. Chinese health authorities, as a response to the lack of an effective therapeutic strategy, started to investigate the use of lopinavir and ritonavir, previously optimized for the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS viral infection. Despite the clinical use of these two drugs, no information regarding their possible mechanism of action at the molecular level is still known for SARS-CoV-2. Very recently, the crystallographic structure of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), also known as C30 Endopeptidase, was published. Starting from this essential structural information, in the present work we have exploited supervised molecular dynamics, an emerging computational technique that allows investigating at an atomic level the recognition process of a ligand from its unbound to the final bound state. In this research, we provided molecular insight on the whole recognition pathway of Lopinavir, Ritonavir, and Nelfinavir, three potential C30 Endopeptidase inhibitors, with the last one taken into consideration due to the promising in-vitro activity shown against the structurally related SARS-CoV protease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Nelfinavir/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Combinations , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation
17.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(8): 3711-3730, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949571

ABSTRACT

Pandemic COVID-19 infections have spread throughout the world. There is no effective treatment against this disease. Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) catalyzes the replication of RNA from RNA and the main protease (Mpro) has a role in the processing of polyproteins that are translated from the RNA of SARS-CoV-2, and thus these two enzymes are strong candidates for targeting by anti-viral drugs. Small molecules such as lopinavir and favipiravir significantly inhibit the activity of Mpro and RdRp in vitro. Studies have shown that structurally modified lopinavir, favipiravir, and other similar compounds can inhibit COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). In this study, lopinavir and its structurally similar compounds were chosen to bind the main protease, and favipiravir was chosen to target RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Molecular docking and the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) study revealed that the selected candidates have favorable binding affinity but less druggable properties. To improve the druggability, four structural analogues of lopinavir and one structural analogue of favipiravir was designed by structural modification. Molecular interaction analyses have displayed that lopinavir and favipiravir analogues interact with the active site residues of Mpro and RdRp, respectively. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) properties, medicinal chemistry profile, and physicochemical features were shown that all structurally modified analogues are less toxic and contain high druggable properties than the selected candidates. Subsequently, 50 ns molecular dynamics simulation of the top four docked complexes demonstrated that CID44271905, a lopinavir analogue, forms the most stable complex with the Mpro. Further MMPBSA analyses using the MD trajectories also confirmed the higher binding affinity of CID44271905 towards Mpro. In summary, this study demonstrates a new way to identify leads for novel anti-viral drugs against COVID-19. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Adipates , Amides , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrazines , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , RNA , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2 , Succinates
18.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(8): 3416-3427, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927494

ABSTRACT

The exponential increase in cases and mortality of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has called for a need to develop drugs to treat this infection. Using in silico and molecular docking approaches, this study investigated the inhibitory effects of Pradimicin A, Lamivudine, Plerixafor and Lopinavir against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. ADME/Tox of the ligands, pharmacophore hypothesis of the co-crystalized ligand and the receptor, and docking studies were carried out on different modules of Schrodinger (2019-4) Maestro v12.2. Among the ligands subjected to ADME/Tox by QikProp, Lamivudine demonstrated drug-like physico-chemical properties. A total of five pharmacophore binding sites (A3, A4, R9, R10, and R11) were predicted from the co-crystalized ligand and the binding cavity of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The docking result showed that Lopinavir and Lamivudine bind with a higher affinity and lower free energy than the standard ligand having a glide score of -9.2 kcal/mol and -5.3 kcal/mol, respectively. Plerixafor and Pradimicin A have a glide score of -3.7 kcal/mol and -2.4 kcal/mol, respectively, which is lower than the co-crystallized ligand with a glide score of -5.3 kcal/mol. Molecular dynamics confirmed that the ligands maintained their interaction with the protein with lower RMSD fluctuations over the trajectory period of 100 nsecs and that GLU166 residue is pivotal for binding. On the whole, present study specifies the repurposing aptitude of these molecules as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with higher binding scores and forms energetically stable complexes with Mpro.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heterocyclic Compounds , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization , Humans , Lamivudine , Ligands , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 48(2): 203-210, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885766

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an epidemic disease caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and spreading throughout the world rapidly. Here we evaluated the efficacy of the Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/r) and its combination with other drugs in the treatment of COVID-19. We included 170 confirmed COVID-19 patients who had been cured and discharged. Their antiviral therapies were LPV/r alone or combinations with interferon (IFN), Novaferon and Arbidol. We evaluated the medication efficacy by comparing the time of the negative nucleic acid conversion and the length of hospitalization mainly. The LPV/r + Novaferon [6.00 (4.00-8.00) and 7.50 (5.00-10.00) days] had shorter time of the negative nucleic acid conversion (P = .0036) and shorter time of hospitalization (P < .001) compared with LPV/r alone [9.00 (5.00-12.00) and 12.00 (11.00-15.00) days] and LPV/r + IFN [9.00 (7.25-11.00) and 12.00 (10.00-13.50) days]. On the contrary, LPV/r + IFN [9.00 (7.25-11.00) and 12.00 (10.00-13.50) days] had shorter time of the negative nucleic acid conversion (P = .031) and shorter time of hospitalization (P < .001) compared with LPV/r + IFN +Novaferon [10.00 (8.00-11.25) and 13.50 (11.50-17.00) days] and LPV/r + IFN +Arbidol [14.00 (9.75-19.00) and 19.50 (13.25-24.00) days]. In conclusion, the combination of LPV/r and Novaferon may have better efficacy against COVID-19. However, adding IFN based on LPV/r + Novaferon or adding Arbidol based on LPV/r + IFN may not improve the efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Adult , Drug Interactions , Female , Humans , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
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