Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 99
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265748, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753205

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be fatal, and several variants of SARS-CoV-2 with mutations of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) have increased avidity for human cell receptors. A single missense mutation of U to G at nucleotide position 1355 (U1355G) in the spike (S) gene changes leucine to arginine (L452R) in the spike protein. This mutation has been observed in the India and California strains (B.1.617 and B.1.427/B.1.429, respectively). Control of COVID-19 requires rapid and reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we established a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay plus a bioluminescent assay in real-time (BART) to detect SARS-CoV-2 and the L452R spike mutation. The specificity and sensitivity of the RT-LAMP-BART assay was evaluated using synthetic RNAs including target sequences and RNA-spiked clinical nasopharyngeal and saliva specimens as well as reference strains representing five viral and four bacterial pathogens. The novel RT-LAMP-BART assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 was highly specific compared to the conventional real-time RT-PCR. Within 25 min, the RT-LAMP-BART assay detected 80 copies of the target gene in a sample, whereas the conventional real-time RT-PCR method detected 5 copies per reaction within 130 min. Using RNA-spiked specimens, the sensitivity of the RT-LAMP-BART assay was slightly attenuated compared to purified RNA as a template. The results were identical to those of the conventional real-time RT-PCR method. Furthermore, using a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe, the RT-LAMP-BART method correctly identified the L452R spike mutation. This is the first report describes RT-LAMP-BART as a simple, inexpensive, rapid, and useful assay for detection of SARS-CoV-2, its variants of concern, and for screening of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/diagnosis , Peptide Nucleic Acids/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Binding Sites , California , Early Diagnosis , Humans , India , Limit of Detection , Luminescent Measurements , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Mutation, Missense , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4269, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740479

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that patients diagnosed with COVID-19 become critically ill primarily around the time of activation of the adaptive immune response. However the role of antibodies in the worsening of disease is not obvious. Higher titers of anti-spike immunoglobulin IgG1 associated with low fucosylation of the antibody Fc tail have been associated to excessive inflammatory response. In contrast it has been also reported that NP-, S-, RBD- specific IgA, IgG, and IgM are not associated with SARS-CoV-2 viral load, indicating that there is no obvious correlation between antibody response and viral antigen detection. In the present work the micro-Fourier-transform infrared reflectance spectroscopy (micro-FTIR) was employed to investigate blood serum samples of healthy and COVID-19-ill (mild or oligosymptomatic) individuals (82 healthcare workers volunteers in "Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas", São Paulo, Brazil). The molecular-level-sensitive, multiplexing quantitative and qualitative FTIR data probed on 1 µL of dried biofluid was compared to signal-to-cutoff index of chemiluminescent immunoassays CLIA and ELISA (IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2). Our main result indicated that 1702-1785 [Formula: see text] spectral window (carbonyl C=O vibration) is a spectral marker of the degree of IgG glycosylation, allowing to probe distinctive sub-populations of COVID-19 patients, depending on their degree of severity. The specificity was 87.5 % while the detection rate of true positive was 100%. The computed area under the receiver operating curve was equivalent to CLIA, ELISA and other ATR-FTIR methods ([Formula: see text]). In summary, overall discrimination of healthy and COVID-19 individuals and severity prediction as well could be potentially implemented using micro-FTIR reflectance spectroscopy on blood serum samples. Considering the minimal and reagent-free sample preparation procedures combined to fast (few minutes) outcome of FTIR we can state that this technology is suitable for fast screening of immune response of individuals with COVID-19. It would be an important tool in prospective studies, helping investigate the physiology of the asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, or severe individuals and measure the extension of infection dissemination in patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Glycosylation , Humans , Luminescent Measurements , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation , Viral Load
3.
Anal Chem ; 94(10): 4446-4454, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713092

ABSTRACT

The enrichment of co-reactants is one of the keys to improving the sensitivity of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection. This work developed a novel hydrophobic localized enrichment strategy of co-reactants utilizing the inner hydrophobic cavity of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD). Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) were grown in situ on the coordination sites for metal ions of ß-CD to prepare the ß-CD-Pt nanocomposite, which could not only enrich co-reactant 3-(dibutylamino) propylamine (TDBA) highly efficiently through its hydrophobic cavity but also immobilize TDBA via the Pt-N bond. Meanwhile, the carboxyl-functionalized poly[2,5-dioctyl-1,4-phenylene] (PDP) polymer nanoparticles (PNPs) were developed as excellent ECL luminophores. With SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (ncovNP) as a model protein, the TDBA-ß-CD-Pt nanocomposite combined PDP PNPs to construct a biosensor for ncovNP determination. The PDP PNPs were modified onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to capture the first antibody (Ab1) and further capture antigen and secondary antibody complexes (TDBA-ß-CD-Pt@Ab2). The resultant biosensor with a sandwich structure achieved a highly sensitive detection of ncovNP with a detection limit of 22 fg/mL. TDBA-ß-CD-Pt shared with an inspiration in hydrophobic localized enrichment of co-reactants for improving the sensitivity of ECL detection. The luminophore PDP PNPs integrated TDBA-ß-CD-Pt to provide a promising and sensitive ECL platform, offering a new method for ncovNP detection.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010265, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686115

ABSTRACT

Efforts to define serological correlates of protection against COVID-19 have been hampered by the lack of a simple, scalable, standardised assay for SARS-CoV-2 infection and antibody neutralisation. Plaque assays remain the gold standard, but are impractical for high-throughput screening. In this study, we show that expression of viral proteases may be used to quantitate infected cells. Our assays exploit the cleavage of specific oligopeptide linkers, leading to the activation of cell-based optical biosensors. First, we characterise these biosensors using recombinant SARS-CoV-2 proteases. Next, we confirm their ability to detect viral protease expression during replication of authentic virus. Finally, we generate reporter cells stably expressing an optimised luciferase-based biosensor, enabling viral infection to be measured within 24 h in a 96- or 384-well plate format, including variants of concern. We have therefore developed a luminescent SARS-CoV-2 reporter cell line, and demonstrated its utility for the relative quantitation of infectious virus and titration of neutralising antibodies.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/virology , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Peptide Hydrolases/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cell Line , Humans , Peptide Hydrolases/genetics , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
5.
Talanta ; 240: 123207, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612034

ABSTRACT

In this work, we designed an ECL ratiometric biosensor with a three-stranded Y-type DNA (Y-DNA) probe and induced a hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for the highly sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. The important component of this system is the self-assembled Y-Shaped probe based on three nucleic acids. Y1, Y2, and Y3 can be linked by complementary base pairing to Hairpin1 (H1), Hairpin2 (H2), and Ru modified DNA (Ru1), respectively. H1 and H2 can trigger the HCR reaction when activated by the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp gene and the 5' end of Ru1. The 5' end of Ru1 is modified with the Ru complex, which can produce a strong electrochemiluminescence luminescence signal at 620 nm under an applied voltage. Through the amplification of Y-DNA-induced HCR reaction, Ru1 on the electrode surface gradually increased, the ECL signal at 460 nm was gradually quenched, and the signal at 620 nm was steadily generated. The SARS-CoV-2 RdRp gene can be quantified according to the degree of decrease of ECL signal at 460 nm and the increase of ECL signal at 620 nm. Combining the two signal amplification strategies, this ratiometric ECL biosensor can accurately and efficiently detect the target gene with a detection limit of 59 aM.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Electrochemical Techniques , Humans , Luminescent Measurements , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Talanta ; 240: 123203, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586445

ABSTRACT

This work focuses on the development of an electrochemiluminescent nanostructured DNA biosensor for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Gold nanomaterials (AuNMs), specifically, a mixture of gold nanotriangles (AuNTs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), are used to modified disposable electrodes that serve as an improved nanostructured electrochemiluminescent platform for DNA detection. Carbon nanodots (CDs), prepared by green chemistry, are used as coreactants agents in the [Ru(bpy)3]2+ anodic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) and the hybridization is detected by changes in the ECL signal of [Ru(bpy)3]2+/CDs in combination with AuNMs nanostructures. The biosensor is shown to detect a DNA sequence corresponding to SARS-CoV-2 with a detection limit of 514 aM.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanostructures , DNA , Electrochemical Techniques , Gold , Humans , Luminescent Measurements , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Chim Acta ; 523: 446-453, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating neutralizing antibody (NAb) after BNT162b2 vaccine are scarce. We therefore compared NAb using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) in vaccinated subjects, with those from five chemiluminescent (CLIA) assays, two targeting ACE and S-RBD interaction. METHODS: Sera from 174 completely Comirnaty/BNT162b2 vaccinated healthcare workers (HCW) were evaluated at t12 and t28. NAb titers at low (PRNT50) or high (PRNT90) stringency were compared with: Liaison SARS-CoV-2 Trimeric-S IgG, Elecsys S-RBD Ab, Maglumi SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG and SARS-CoV-2 Nab; iFlash 2019-nCoV NAb. RESULTS: Neither PRNT50 nor PRNT90 correlated with age (range, 24-65 years); no significant differences were found for gender. PRNT50 and PRNT90 seropositive titers (≥1:20) were 43 (24.7%) and 15 (8.6%) at t12 and 167 (95.9%) and 149 (85.6%) at t28. CLIA results at t28 were uncorrelated with age, apart from Elecsys S-RBD Ab (r = -0.164, p = 0.046). Gender differences were found for Maglumi SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG (p = 0.037) and Maglumi NAb (p = 0.046). Considering PRNT50 at thresholds of 1:20 (or 1:40) and 1:160 (or 1:320), corresponding to different immune protective levels, CLIA cut-offs have been identified. CONCLUSIONS: Comirnaty/BNT162b2 elicits strong NAb production, especially 28 days after first inoculum. Differences in correlation between Nab titers and circulating antibodies measured by 5 immunoassays have been found, being stronger the correlation for Maglumi Nab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Humans , Kinetics , Luminescent Measurements , Middle Aged , Young Adult
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6544-6550, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544302

ABSTRACT

We developed a rapid and simple magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay on the Real Express-6 analyzer, which could simultaneously detect immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 virus in human blood within 18 min, and which could be used to detect clinical studies to verify its clinical efficacy. We selected blood samples from 185 COVID-19 patients confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 271 negative patients to determine the clinical detection sensitivity, specificity, stability, and precision of this method. Meanwhile, we also surveyed the dynamic variance of viral antibodies during SARS-CoV-2 infection. This rapid immunoassay test has huge potential benefits for rapid screening of SARS-CoV-2 infection and may help clinical drug and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross Reactions/immunology , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Luminescent Measurements , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
10.
Anal Chem ; 93(42): 14238-14246, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461947

ABSTRACT

Direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 in biological specimens is often challenging due to the low abundance of viral components and lack of enough sensitivity. Herein, we developed a new type of chemiluminescent functionalized magnetic nanomaterial for sensitive detection of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen. First, HAuCl4 was reduced by N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) in the presence of amino magnetic beads (MB-NH2) to generate ABEI-AuNPs, which were directly assembled on the surface of MB-NH2. Then, Co2+ was modified onto the surface to form MB@ABEI-Au/Co2+ (MAA/Co2+). MAA/Co2+ exhibited good chemiluminescence (CL) and magnetic properties. It was also found that it was easy for the antibody to be connected with MAA/Co2+. Accordingly, MAA/Co2+ was used as a sensing interface to construct a label-free immunoassay for rapid detection of the N protein in SARS-CoV-2. The immunoassay showed a linear range from 0.1 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL and a low detection limit of 69 fg/mL, which was superior to previously reported methods for N protein detection. It also demonstrated good selectivity by virtue of magnetic separation, which effectively removed a sample matrix after immunoreactions. It was successfully applied for the detection of the N protein in spiked human serum and saliva samples. Furthermore, the immunoassay was integrated with an automatic CL analyzer with magnetic separation to detect the N protein in patient serums and rehabilitation patient serums with satisfactory results. Thus, the CL immunoassay without a complicated labeling procedure is sensitive, selective, fast, simple, and cost-effective, which may be used to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, the CL quenching mechanism of the N protein in the immunoassay was also explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Gold , Humans , Immunoassay , Limit of Detection , Luminescence , Luminescent Measurements , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Clin Chem ; 68(1): 204-213, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450383

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid antigen in blood has been described, but the diagnostic and prognostic role of antigenemia is not well understood. This study aimed to determine the frequency, duration, and concentration of nucleocapsid antigen in plasma and its association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. METHODS: We utilized an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay targeting SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen to evaluate 777 plasma samples from 104 individuals with COVID-19. We compared plasma antigen to respiratory nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) in 74 individuals with COVID-19 from samples collected ±1 day of diagnostic respiratory NAAT and in 52 SARS-CoV-2-negative individuals. We used Kruskal-Wallis tests, multivariable logistic regression, and mixed-effects modeling to evaluate whether plasma antigen concentration was associated with disease severity. RESULTS: Plasma antigen had 91.9% (95% CI 83.2%-97.0%) clinical sensitivity and 94.2% (84.1%-98.8%) clinical specificity. Antigen-negative plasma samples belonged to patients with later respiratory cycle thresholds (Ct) when compared with antigen-positive plasma samples. Median plasma antigen concentration (log10 fg/mL) was 5.4 (interquartile range 3.9-6.0) in outpatients, 6.0 (5.4-6.5) in inpatients, and 6.6 (6.1-7.2) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In models adjusted for age, sex, diabetes, and hypertension, plasma antigen concentration at diagnosis was associated with ICU admission [odds ratio 2.8 (95% CI 1.2-6.2), P=.01] but not with non-ICU hospitalization. Rate of antigen decrease was not associated with disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 plasma nucleocapsid antigen exhibited comparable diagnostic performance to upper respiratory NAAT, especially among those with late respiratory Ct. In addition to currently available tools, antigenemia may facilitate patient triage to optimize intensive care utilization.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrochemical Techniques , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoassay , Luminescent Measurements , Nucleocapsid , Phosphoproteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
N Biotechnol ; 66: 53-60, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433688

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has illustrated the global demand for rapid, low-cost, widely distributable and point-of-care nucleic acid diagnostic technologies. Such technologies could help disrupt transmission, sustain economies and preserve health and lives during widespread infection. In contrast, conventional nucleic acid diagnostic procedures require trained personnel, complex laboratories, expensive equipment, and protracted processing times. In this work, lyophilized cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) and toehold switch riboregulators are employed to develop a promising paper-based nucleic acid diagnostic platform activated simply by the addition of saliva. First, to facilitate distribution and deployment, an economical paper support matrix is identified and a mass-producible test cassette designed with integral saliva sample receptacles. Next, CFPS is optimized in the presence of saliva using murine RNase inhibitor. Finally, original toehold switch riboregulators are engineered to express the bioluminescent reporter NanoLuc in response to SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequences present in saliva samples. The biosensor generates a visible signal in as few as seven minutes following administration of 15 µL saliva enriched with high concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequences. The estimated cost of this test is less than 0.50 USD, which could make this platform readily accessible to both the developed and developing world. While additional research is needed to decrease the limit of detection, this work represents important progress toward developing a diagnostic technology that is rapid, low-cost, distributable and deployable at the point-of-care by a layperson.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Luminescent Measurements , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Saliva/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Luciferases , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18428, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415954

ABSTRACT

Here we describe a homogeneous bioluminescent immunoassay based on the interaction between Fc-tagged SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD and human ACE2, and its detection by secondary antibodies labeled with NanoLuc luciferase fragments LgBit and SmBit. The assay utility for the discovery of novel inhibitors was demonstrated with a panel of anti-RBD antibodies, ACE2-derived miniproteins and soluble ACE2. Studying the effect of RBD mutations on ACE2 binding showed that the N501Y mutation increased RBD apparent affinity toward ACE2 tenfold that resulted in escaping inhibition by some anti-RBD antibodies. In contrast, while E484K mutation did not highly change the binding affinity, it still escaped antibody inhibition likely due to changes in the epitope recognized by the antibody. Also, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) from COVID-19 positive samples from two distinct regions (USA and Brazil) were successfully detected and the results further suggest the persistence of NAbs for at least 6 months post symptom onset. Finally, sera from vaccinated individuals were tested for NAbs and showed varying neutralizing activity after first and second doses, suggesting the assay can be used to assess immunity of vaccinated populations. Our results demonstrate the broad utility and ease of use of this methodology both for drug discovery and clinical research applications.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Brazil , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Luciferases/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Luminescent Measurements , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , United States , Vaccination
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 3893733, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In emergency hospital settings, rapid diagnosis and isolation of SARS-CoV-2 patients are required. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of an antigen chemiluminescence enzymatic immunoassay (CLEIA) and compare it with that of Real-time Reverse transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR), the gold standard assay, to assess its suitability as a rapid diagnostic method for managing patients in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Consecutive patients with no previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection attending the ED of the Policlinico Hospital of Bari between 23rd October and 4th November 2020 were enrolled. Clinical and demographic data were collected for all patients. Nasopharyngeal swabs collected on admission were subjected both to molecular (RT-qPCR) and antigen (CLEIA) tests for SARS-CoV-2. The performance of the CLEIA antigen test was analyzed using R Studio software and Microsoft Excel. Receiver operating characteristics were also performed. RESULTS: A total of 911 patients were enrolled, of whom 469 (51.5%) were male. Of the whole cohort, 23.7% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-qPCR and 24.5% by CLEIA. The overall concordance rate was 96.8%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the antigen test were 94.9% (95% CI, 91.9-97.0), 97.4% (95% CI, 96.5-98.1), 91.9% (95% CI, 89.0-94.0), and 98.4% (95% CI, 97.4-99.1), respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.99. The kappa coefficient was 0.91. The overall positive and negative likelihood ratios were 37 (95% CI 23-58) and 0.05 (95% CI, 0.03-0.09), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Data analysis demonstrated that the antigen test showed very good accuracy for discriminating SARS-CoV-2-infected patients from negative participants. The CLEIA is suitable for rapid clinical diagnosis of patients in hospital settings, particularly in EDs with a high prevalence of symptomatic patients and where a rapid turnaround time is critical. Timely and accurate testing for SARS-CoV-2 plays a crucial role in limiting the spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , Adult , Aged , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Area Under Curve , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Italy , Luminescent Measurements , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tertiary Care Centers
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4586, 2021 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387355

ABSTRACT

Heterogeneous immunoassays such as ELISA have become indispensable in modern bioanalysis, yet translation into point-of-care assays is hindered by their dependence on external calibration and multiple washing and incubation steps. Here, we introduce RAPPID (Ratiometric Plug-and-Play Immunodiagnostics), a mix-and-measure homogeneous immunoassay platform that combines highly specific antibody-based detection with a ratiometric bioluminescent readout. The concept entails analyte-induced complementation of split NanoLuc luciferase fragments, photoconjugated to an antibody sandwich pair via protein G adapters. Introduction of a calibrator luciferase provides a robust ratiometric signal that allows direct in-sample calibration and quantitative measurements in complex media such as blood plasma. We developed RAPPID sensors that allow low-picomolar detection of several protein biomarkers, anti-drug antibodies, therapeutic antibodies, and both SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. With its easy-to-implement standardized workflow, RAPPID provides an attractive, fast, and low-cost alternative to traditional immunoassays, in an academic setting, in clinical laboratories, and for point-of-care applications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/standards , Luminescent Measurements/standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , Calibration , GTP-Binding Proteins/chemistry , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Immunoconjugates/chemistry , Limit of Detection , Luciferases/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376828

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dirt removal (bacteria and organic matter) of several hand-cleaning procedures. The results from the hand hygiene experiment indicated that washing hands with warm water and soap for 20 s is the most effective method investigated when hands are either dirty or greasy. Even if not proper washing, rinsing under running water for 5 s is a cleaning procedure that may significantly reduce the probability of cross-contamination, as it removes 90% of the hands' dirt. Although less effective than water and soap, the usage of antibacterial wipes was significantly more effective than wet wipes, indicating that they are a better choice when water and soap are not available. The results of this study enable us to inform consumers about the effectiveness of hand-cleaning procedures applied in their homes when cooking. Moreover, it can make consumers understand why, during the COVID-19 pandemic, authorities recommended washing hands as a preventive measure of infection and using an anti-bacterial hand gel or wiping hands with an antimicrobial wipe if water and soap are not available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Bacteria , Colony Count, Microbial , Cooking , Hand , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Luminescent Measurements , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Soaps
17.
Immunity ; 54(9): 2143-2158.e15, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364125

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are effective in treating COVID-19, but the mechanism of immune protection is not fully understood. Here, we applied live bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to monitor the real-time effects of NAb treatment during prophylaxis and therapy of K18-hACE2 mice intranasally infected with SARS-CoV-2-nanoluciferase. Real-time imaging revealed that the virus spread sequentially from the nasal cavity to the lungs in mice and thereafter systemically to various organs including the brain, culminating in death. Highly potent NAbs from a COVID-19 convalescent subject prevented, and also effectively resolved, established infection when administered within three days. In addition to direct neutralization, depletion studies indicated that Fc effector interactions of NAbs with monocytes, neutrophils, and natural killer cells were required to effectively dampen inflammatory responses and limit immunopathology. Our study highlights that both Fab and Fc effector functions of NAbs are essential for optimal in vivo efficacy against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Testis/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Brain/virology , COVID-19/therapy , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/genetics , Luciferases/genetics , Luminescent Measurements , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Testis/virology
18.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346517

ABSTRACT

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography is an evolving technology that integrates the separation and analysis technology of TLC with biological activity detection technology, which has shown a steep rise in popularity over the past few decades. It connects TLC with convenient, economic and intuitive features and bioautography with high levels of sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we discuss the research progress of TLC bioautography and then establish a definite timeline to introduce it. This review summarizes known TLC bioautography types and practical applications for determining antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and antioxidant compounds and for inhibiting glucosidase, pancreatic lipase, tyrosinase and cholinesterase activity constitutes. Nowadays, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to identify original, natural products with anti-COVID potential compounds from Chinese traditional medicine and natural medicinal plants. We also give an account of detection techniques, including in situ and ex situ techniques; even in situ ion sources represent a major reform. Considering the current technical innovations, we propose that the technology will make more progress in TLC plates with higher separation and detection technology with a more portable and extensive scope of application. We believe this technology will be diffusely applied in medicine, biology, agriculture, animal husbandry, garden forestry, environmental management and other fields in the future.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Drug Discovery/methods , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Antineoplastic Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Enzyme Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335234

ABSTRACT

The development of rapid serological detection methods re urgently needed for determination of neutralizing antibodies in sera. In this study, four rapid methods (ACE2-RBD inhibition assay, S1-IgG detection, RBD-IgG detection, and N-IgG detection) were established and evaluated based on chemiluminescence technology. For the first time, a broadly neutralizing antibody with high affinity was used as a standard for the quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing antibodies in human sera. Sera from COVID-19 convalescent patients (N = 119), vaccinated donors (N = 86), and healthy donors (N = 299) confirmed by microneutralization test (MNT) were used to evaluate the above methods. The result showed that the ACE2-RBD inhibition assay calculated with either ACE2-RBD binding inhibition percentage rate or ACE2-RBD inhibiting antibody concentration were strongly correlated with MNT (r ≥ 0.78, p < 0.0001) and also highly consistent with MNT (Kappa Value ≥ 0.94, p < 0.01). There was also a strong correlation between the two evaluation indices (r ≥ 0.99, p < 0.0001). Meanwhile, S1-IgG and RBD-IgG quantitative detection were also significantly correlated with MNT (r ≥ 0.73, p < 0.0001), and both methods were highly correlated with each other (r ≥ 0.95, p < 0.0001). However, the concentration of N-IgG antibodies showed a lower correlation with the MNT results (r < 0.49, p < 0.0001). The diagnostic assays presented here could be used for the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunization effect and serological diagnosis of COVID-19 patients, and could also have guiding significance for establishing other rapid serological methods to surrogate neutralization tests for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immunoassay/methods , Luminescent Measurements/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
20.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(12): 1622-1627, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCov-19 may rarely lead to vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Antibody-mediated, platelet factor 4 (PF4)-dependent platelet activation appears to resemble a key mechanism in VITT, partially comparable to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The use of PF4/heparin immunoassays has been proposed as part of a diagnostic approach, but their sensitivity has not been established. METHODS: Sera from 12 well-defined VITT patients were first studied by two different laboratories in functional assays. Sera where then used for an interlaboratory comparison, in which five different PF4/heparin immunoassays were used by four laboratories. RESULTS: Results for functional testing were highly concordant. VITT antibodies were also reliably detected by PF4/heparin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (92-100%). In contrast, only 25% of VITT antibodies were reactive in a particle gel immunoassay (PaGIA), and 8% in a lateral flow assay (LFA). An automated chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) was negative for all sera tested (0%). CONCLUSION: It seems feasible to establish functional antibody testing for the confirmation of VITT. For the initial screening of suspected VITT cases, PaGIA, LFA, and CLIA are useless when applied as single tests. Only ELISA-based PF4/heparin immunoassays are sensitive enough to be incorporated in the diagnostic workup. However, a combination of a positive ELISA and a negative CLIA may be useful to identify VITT antibodies in the absence of confirmatory functional assays.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Vaccination/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , Humans , Luminescent Measurements , Predictive Value of Tests , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , Reproducibility of Results
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL