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1.
J Virol ; 95(22): e0112621, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398575

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged at the end of 2019 and has been responsible for the still ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Prophylactic vaccines have been authorized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the prevention of COVID-19. Identification of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is important to assess vaccine protection efficacy, including their ability to protect against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC). Here, we report the generation and use of a recombinant (r)SARS-CoV-2 USA/WA1/2020 (WA-1) strain expressing Venus and an rSARS-CoV-2 strain expressing mCherry and containing mutations K417N, E484K, and N501Y found in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) glycoprotein of the South African (SA) B.1.351 (beta [ß]) VoC in bifluorescent-based assays to rapidly and accurately identify human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) able to neutralize both viral infections in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, our bifluorescent-based system accurately recapitulated findings observed using individual viruses. Moreover, fluorescent-expressing rSARS-CoV-2 strain and the parental wild-type (WT) rSARS-CoV-2 WA-1 strain had similar viral fitness in vitro, as well as similar virulence and pathogenicity in vivo in the K18 human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) transgenic mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We demonstrate that these new fluorescent-expressing rSARS-CoV-2 can be used in vitro and in vivo to easily identify hMAbs that simultaneously neutralize different SARS-CoV-2 strains, including VoC, for the rapid assessment of vaccine efficacy or the identification of prophylactic and/or therapeutic broadly NAbs for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 is responsible of the COVID-19 pandemic that has warped daily routines and socioeconomics. There is still an urgent need for prophylactics and therapeutics to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of using bifluorescent-based assays for the rapid identification of hMAbs with neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2, including VoC in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, results obtained with these bifluorescent-based assays recapitulate those observed with individual viruses, demonstrating their feasibility to rapidly advance our understanding of vaccine efficacy and to identify broadly protective human NAbs for the therapeutic treatment of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Lung/virology , Mice , Mutation , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 557, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387494

ABSTRACT

Dengue virus (DENV) is spread from human to human through the bite of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito and leads to about 100 million clinical infections yearly. Treatment options and vaccine availability for DENV are limited. Defective interfering particles (DIPs) are considered a promising antiviral approach but infectious virus contamination has limited their development. Here, a DENV-derived DIP production cell line was developed that continuously produced DENV-free DIPs. The DIPs contained and could deliver to cells a DENV serotype 2 subgenomic defective-interfering RNA, which was originally discovered in DENV infected patients. The DIPs released into cell culture supernatant were purified and could potently inhibit replication of all DENV serotypes in cells. Antiviral therapeutics are limited for many viral infection. The DIP system described could be re-purposed to make antiviral DIPs for many other RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, yellow fever, West Nile and Zika viruses.


Subject(s)
Defective Viruses , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dengue Virus/growth & development , Dengue/prevention & control , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Defective Viruses/genetics , Defective Viruses/metabolism , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue Virus/metabolism , Genes, Reporter , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/biosynthesis , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Load
3.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4407-4419, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373615

ABSTRACT

Widespread infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has led to a global pandemic. Currently, various approaches are being taken up to develop vaccines and therapeutics to treat SARS-CoV2 infection. Consequently, the S protein has become an important target protein for developing vaccines and therapeutics against SARS-CoV2. However, the highly infective nature of SARS-CoV2 restricts experimentation with the virus to highly secure BSL3 facilities. The availability of fusion-enabled, nonreplicating, and nonbiohazardous mimics of SARS-CoV2 virus fusion, containing the viral S or S and M protein in their native conformation on mammalian cells, can serve as a useful substitute for studying viral fusion for testing various inhibitors of viral fusion. This would avoid the use of the BSL3 facility for fusion studies required to develop therapeutics. In the present study, we have developed SARS-CoV2 virus fusion mimics (SCFMs) using mammalian cells transfected with constructs coding for S or S and M protein. The fusogenic property of the mimic(s) and their interaction with the functional human ACE2 receptors was confirmed experimentally. We have also shown that such mimics can easily be used in an inhibition assay. These mimic(s) can be easily prepared on a large scale, and such SCFMs can serve as an invaluable resource for viral fusion inhibition assays and in vitro screening of antiviral agents, which can be shared/handled between labs/facilities without worrying about any biohazard while working under routine laboratory conditions, avoiding the use of BSL3 laboratory.Abbreviations :SCFM: SARS-CoV2 Virus Fusion Mimic; ACE2: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2; hACE2: Human Angiotensin-Converting enzyme 2; MEF: Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts; HBSS: Hanks Balanced Salt Solution; FBS: Fetal Bovine Serum.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Containment of Biohazards/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Embryo, Mammalian , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/virology , Gene Expression , Genes, Reporter , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , MCF-7 Cells , Mice , Molecular Mimicry , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Transfection , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
4.
Biol Cell ; 113(7): 311-328, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Comprehensive libraries of plasmids for SARS-CoV-2 proteins with various tags (e.g., Strep, HA, Turbo) are now available. They enable the identification of numerous potential protein-protein interactions between the SARS-CoV-2 virus and host proteins. RESULTS: We present here a large library of SARS CoV-2 protein constructs fused with green and red fluorescent proteins and their initial characterisation in various human cell lines including lung epithelial cell models (A549, BEAS-2B), as well as in budding yeast. The localisation of a few SARS-CoV-2 proteins matches their proposed interactions with host proteins. These include the localisation of Nsp13 to the centrosome, Orf3a to late endosomes and Orf9b to mitochondria. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This library should facilitate further cellular investigations, notably by imaging techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Peptide Library , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Cell Line , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Time-Lapse Imaging , Viral Proteins/genetics
5.
Biol Cell ; 113(7): 311-328, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Comprehensive libraries of plasmids for SARS-CoV-2 proteins with various tags (e.g., Strep, HA, Turbo) are now available. They enable the identification of numerous potential protein-protein interactions between the SARS-CoV-2 virus and host proteins. RESULTS: We present here a large library of SARS CoV-2 protein constructs fused with green and red fluorescent proteins and their initial characterisation in various human cell lines including lung epithelial cell models (A549, BEAS-2B), as well as in budding yeast. The localisation of a few SARS-CoV-2 proteins matches their proposed interactions with host proteins. These include the localisation of Nsp13 to the centrosome, Orf3a to late endosomes and Orf9b to mitochondria. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This library should facilitate further cellular investigations, notably by imaging techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Peptide Library , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Cell Line , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Time-Lapse Imaging , Viral Proteins/genetics
6.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100103, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936211

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and expeditiously spread across the globe causing a global pandemic. Research on SARS-CoV-2, as well as the closely related SARS-CoV-1 and MERS coronaviruses, is restricted to BSL-3 facilities. Such BSL-3 classification makes SARS-CoV-2 research inaccessible to the majority of functioning research laboratories in the United States; this becomes problematic when the collective scientific effort needs to be focused on such in the face of a pandemic. However, a minimal system capable of recapitulating different steps of the viral life cycle without using the virus' genetic material could increase accessibility. In this work, we assessed the four structural proteins from SARS-CoV-2 for their ability to form virus-like particles (VLPs) from human cells to form a competent system for BSL-2 studies of SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we provide methods and resources of producing, purifying, fluorescently and APEX2-labeling of SARS-CoV-2 VLPs for the evaluation of mechanisms of viral budding and entry as well as assessment of drug inhibitors under BSL-2 conditions. These systems should be useful to those looking to circumvent BSL-3 work with SARS-CoV-2 yet study the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 enters and exits human cells.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Virion/growth & development , Biomimetic Materials/chemistry , Biomimetic Materials/metabolism , Containment of Biohazards/classification , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression , Genes, Reporter , Government Regulation , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , Microscopy, Electron , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virion/genetics , Virion/metabolism , Virion/ultrastructure , Virus Assembly/physiology , Virus Internalization , Virus Release/physiology
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241006, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902048

ABSTRACT

Gene therapy is now an effective approach to treat many forms of retinal degeneration. Delivery agents that are cell-specific, allow for multiple dosing regimens, and have low immunogenicity are needed to expand the utility of gene therapy for the retina. We generated eight novel lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) ranging in size from 50 nm to 150 nm by changing the PEG content from 5% to 0.5%, respectively. Subretinal injections of LNP-mRNA encoding luciferase revealed that 0.5% PEG content within nanoparticles elicits the highest expression. Similar injections of LNP delivered cre mRNA into Ai9 mice revealed cell-specific protein expression in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), confirmed by fundus photography and immunohistochemistry of whole globe cross-sections. To investigate mechanisms of LNP delivery to the eye, we injected mCherry mRNA using the subretinal approach in apoE-/- and Mertk-/- mice. RPE transfection was observed in both mouse models suggesting that LNP intracellular delivery is not solely dependent on apolipoprotein adsorption or phagocytosis. To investigate LNP penetration, particles were delivered to the vitreous chamber via an intravitreal injection. The 0.5% PEG particles mediated the highest luciferase activity and expression was observed in the Müller glia, the optic nerve head and the trabecular meshwork, but failed to reach the RPE. Overall, particles containing less PEG (~150 nm in size) mediated the highest expression in the eye. Thus far, these particles successfully transfect RPE, Müller cells, the optic nerve head and the trabecular meshwork based on route of administration which can expand the utility of LNP-mediated gene therapies for the eye.


Subject(s)
Gene Transfer Techniques , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , Animals , Drug Delivery Systems , Female , Fundus Oculi , Intravitreal Injections , Lipids/chemistry , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout, ApoE , Particle Size , Retinal Pigment Epithelium/drug effects
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(43): 26915-26925, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851432

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic coronaviruses represent an ongoing threat, yet the myriads of circulating animal viruses complicate the identification of higher-risk isolates that threaten human health. Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a newly discovered, highly pathogenic virus that likely evolved from closely related HKU2 bat coronaviruses, circulating in Rhinolophus spp. bats in China and elsewhere. As coronaviruses cause severe economic losses in the pork industry and swine are key intermediate hosts of human disease outbreaks, we synthetically resurrected a recombinant virus (rSADS-CoV) as well as a derivative encoding tomato red fluorescent protein (tRFP) in place of ORF3. rSADS-CoV replicated efficiently in a variety of continuous animal and primate cell lines, including human liver and rectal carcinoma cell lines. Of concern, rSADS-CoV also replicated efficiently in several different primary human lung cell types, as well as primary human intestinal cells. rSADS-CoV did not use human coronavirus ACE-2, DPP4, or CD13 receptors for docking and entry. Contemporary human donor sera neutralized the group I human coronavirus NL63, but not rSADS-CoV, suggesting limited human group I coronavirus cross protective herd immunity. Importantly, remdesivir, a broad-spectrum nucleoside analog that is effective against other group 1 and 2 coronaviruses, efficiently blocked rSADS-CoV replication in vitro. rSADS-CoV demonstrated little, if any, replicative capacity in either immune-competent or immunodeficient mice, indicating a critical need for improved animal models. Efficient growth in primary human lung and intestinal cells implicate SADS-CoV as a potential higher-risk emerging coronavirus pathogen that could negatively impact the global economy and human health.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Virus Replication , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/growth & development , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Gene Expression , Host Specificity , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Mice , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3061, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601843

ABSTRACT

Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is the controlled slippage of the translating ribosome to an alternative frame. This process is widely employed by human viruses such as HIV and SARS coronavirus and is critical for their replication. Here, we developed a high-throughput approach to assess the frameshifting potential of a sequence. We designed and tested >12,000 sequences based on 15 viral and human PRF events, allowing us to systematically dissect the rules governing ribosomal frameshifting and discover novel regulatory inputs based on amino acid properties and tRNA availability. We assessed the natural variation in HIV gag-pol frameshifting rates by testing >500 clinical isolates and identified subtype-specific differences and associations between viral load in patients and the optimality of PRF rates. We devised computational models that accurately predict frameshifting potential and frameshifting rates, including subtle differences between HIV isolates. This approach can contribute to the development of antiviral agents targeting PRF.


Subject(s)
Frameshifting, Ribosomal , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Fusion Proteins, gag-pol/genetics , Genetic Variation , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , K562 Cells , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Transfer/genetics
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