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1.
Acta Biomed ; 93(1): e2022015, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754146

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome (POS) is a clinical entity defined as positional dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation (orthodeoxia) that occurs when sitting or standing up and usually resolves by lying down. Up to April 25th 2021, eleven cases of POS after SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia have been reported on Pubmed. Accordingly, SARS-CoV-2 infection may be considered as an emergent cause of POS due to an increase in ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch. In this article we provide an update on the patient with POS after fibrotic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia, which we previously reported and we discuss the case reports of POS due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Posture , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259153, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699423

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of statins and steroids on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke in patients with interstitial lung disease and pulmonary fibrosis (ILD-PF). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled patients with ILD-PF who were using statins (statin cohort, N = 11,567) and not using statins (nonstatin cohort, N = 26,159). Cox proportional regression was performed to analyze the cumulative incidence of CAD and stroke. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CAD and stroke were determined after sex, age, and comorbidities, as well as the use of inhaler corticosteroids (ICSs), oral steroids (OSs), and statins, were controlled for. RESULTS: Compared with those of patients without statin use, the aHRs (95% CIs) of patients with statin use for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.72 (0.65-0.79) and 0.52 (0.38-0.72), respectively. For patients taking single-use statins but not ICSs/OSs, the aHRs (95% CIs) for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.72 (0.65-0.79)/0.69 (0.61-0.79) and 0.54 (0.39-0.74)/0.50 (0.32-0.79), respectively. For patients using ICSs/OSs, the aHRs (95% CIs) for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.71 (0.42-1.18)/0.74 (0.64-0.85) and 0.23 (0.03-1.59)/0.54 (0.35-0.85), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that statin use, either alone or in combination with OS use, plays an auxiliary role in the management of CAD and ischemic stroke in patients with ILD-PF.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Steroids/therapeutic use , Stroke/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Steroids/administration & dosage , Stroke/complications , Stroke/prevention & control
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19979, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462032

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic led to a worldwide increase of hospitalizations for interstitial pneumonia with thrombosis complications, endothelial injury and multiorgan disease. Common CT findings include lung bilateral infiltrates, bilateral ground-glass opacities and/or consolidation whilst no current laboratory parameter consents rapidly evaluation of COVID-19 risk and disease severity. In the present work we investigated the association of sFLT-1 and CA 15.3 with endothelial damage and pulmonary fibrosis. Serum sFlt-1 has been associated with endothelial injury and sepsis severity, CA 15.3 seems an alternative marker for KL-6 for fibrotic lung diseases and pulmonary interstitial damage. We analysed 262 SARS-CoV-2 patients with differing levels of clinical severity; we found an association of serum sFlt-1 (ROC AUC 0.902, decision threshold > 90.3 pg/mL, p < 0.001 Sens. 83.9% and Spec. 86.7%) with presence, extent and severity of the disease. Moreover, CA 15.3 appeared significantly increased in COVID-19 severe lung fibrosis (ICU vs NON-ICU patients 42.6 ± 3.3 vs 25.7 ± 1.5 U/mL, p < 0.0001) and was associated with lung damage severity grade (ROC AUC 0.958, decision threshold > 24.8 U/mL, p < 0.0001, Sens. 88.4% and Spec. 91.8%). In conclusion, serum levels of sFlt-1 and CA 15.3 appeared useful tools for categorizing COVID-19 clinical stage and may represent a valid aid for clinicians to better personalise treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Mucin-1/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis/blood , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/blood , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
Respir Med ; 189: 106644, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458699

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of 3 novel lung ultrasound (LUS)-based parameters: Pneumonia Score and Lung Staging for pneumonia staging and COVID Index, indicating the probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Adult patients admitted to the emergency department with symptoms potentially related to pneumonia, healthy volunteers and clinical cases from online accessible databases were evaluated. The patients underwent a clinical-epidemiological questionnaire and a LUS acquisition, following a 14-zone protocol. For each zone, a Pneumonia score from 0 to 4 was assigned by the algorithm and by an expert operator (kept blind with respect to the algorithm results) on the basis of the identified imaging signs and the patient Lung Staging was derived as the highest observed score. The output of the operator was considered as the ground truth. The algorithm calculated also the COVID Index by combining the automatically identified LUS markers with the questionnaire answers and compared with the nasopharyngeal swab results. RESULTS: Overall, 556 patients were analysed. A high agreement between the algorithm assignments and the expert operator evaluations was observed, both for Pneumonia Score and Lung Staging, with the latter having sensitivity and specificity over 92% both in the discrimination between healthy/sick patients and between sick patients with mild/severe pneumonia. Regarding the COVID Index, an area under the curve of 0.826 was observed for the classification of patients with/without SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: The proposed methodology allowed the identification and staging of patients suffering from pneumonia with high accuracy. Moreover, it provided the probability of being infected by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Research Design/standards , Ultrasonography/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/classification , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108145, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of pre-existing interstitial lung disease (ILD) on the severity and mortality of COVID-19 remains largely unknown. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the prevalence of ILD among patients with COVID-19 and figure out the relationship between ILD and the poor clinical outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and MedRxiv Database from 1 January 2020 to 26 May 2021. RESULTS: 15 studies with 135,263 COVID-19 patients were included for analysis of ILD prevalence. The pooled prevalence of comorbid ILD in patients with COVID-19 was 1.4% (95% CI, 1.1%-1.8%, I2 = 91%) with significant between-study heterogeneity. Moreover, the prevalence of ILD in non-survival patients with COVID-19 was 2.728-folds higher than that in corresponding survival patients (RR = 2.728, 95% CI 1.162-6.408, I2 = 54%, p = 0.021). Additionally, 2-3 studies were included for comparison analysis of clinical outcome between COVID-19 patients with and without ILD. The results showed that the mortality of COVID-19 patients with ILD was remarkably elevated compared with patients without ILD (RR = 2.454, 95% CI 1.111-5.421, I2 = 87%, p = 0.026). Meanwhile, the pooled RR of ICU admission for ILD vs. non-ILD cases with COVID-19 was 3.064 (95% CI 1.889-4.972, I2 = 0, p < 0.0001). No significant difference in utilizing rate of mechanical ventilation was observed between COVID-19 patients with and without ILD. CONCLUSIONS: There is great variability in ILD prevalence among patients with COVID-19 across the globe. Pre-existing ILD is associated with higher severity and mortality of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): ahead of print, 2020 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389954

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a clinical entity characterized by positional dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation (orthodeoxia) that occurs when sitting or standing up and usually resolves by lying down. POS may result from some cardiopulmonary disorders or from other miscellaneous aetiologies. We report a case of POS in a patient after fibrotic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia associated with pulmonary embolism. The patient did not have any evidence of an intracardiac/intrapulmonary shunt.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211041207, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370934

ABSTRACT

As more patients recover from COVID-19 infection, long-term complications are beginning to arise. Our case report will explore a debilitating long-term complication, Post-COVID Interstitial Lung Disease (PC-ILD). We will introduce a patient who developed PC-ILD in the setting of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, outlining a difficult hospital course, including a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for more than 3 months. We will then discuss the human body's physiological response to the virus and how our patient was not able to adequately mount an immune response. Finally, the pathophysiology of PC-ILD will be explored and correlated with the patient's subsequent computed tomographic images obtained over a 3-month period. The difficult hospital course and complex medical decision-making outlined in this case report serve as a reminder for health care providers to maintain vigilance in protecting our most vulnerable patient population from such a devastating disease process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Immunocompromised Host , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/immunology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(4): 1600-1609, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the main CT features that may help in distinguishing a progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to SSc from COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This multicentric study included 22 international readers grouped into a radiologist group (RADs) and a non-radiologist group (nRADs). A total of 99 patients, 52 with COVID-19 and 47 with SSc-ILD, were included in the study. RESULTS: Fibrosis inside focal ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in the upper lobes; fibrosis in the lower lobe GGOs; reticulations in lower lobes (especially if bilateral and symmetrical or associated with signs of fibrosis) were the CT features most frequently associated with SSc-ILD. The CT features most frequently associated with COVID- 19 pneumonia were: consolidation (CONS) in the lower lobes, CONS with peripheral (both central/peripheral or patchy distributions), anterior and posterior CONS and rounded-shaped GGOs in the lower lobes. After multivariate analysis, the presence of CONs in the lower lobes (P < 0.0001) and signs of fibrosis in GGOs in the lower lobes (P < 0.0001) remained independently associated with COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD, respectively. A predictive score was created that was positively associated with COVID-19 diagnosis (96.1% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity). CONCLUSION: CT diagnosis differentiating between COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD is possible through a combination of the proposed score and radiologic expertise. The presence of consolidation in the lower lobes may suggest COVID-19 pneumonia, while the presence of fibrosis inside GGOs may indicate SSc-ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Scleroderma, Systemic , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Fibrosis , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications , Scleroderma, Systemic/diagnostic imaging , Scleroderma, Systemic/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Respirology ; 26(6): 604-611, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207464

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 was one like no other, as we witnessed the far-reaching impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) global pandemic. Yet despite an unprecedented and challenging year, global research in interstitial lung disease (ILD) continued to break new grounds. Research progress has led to an improved understanding in new diagnostic tools and potential biomarkers for ILD. Studies on the role of antifibrotic therapies, newer therapeutic agents, supportive care strategies and the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continue to reshape the management landscape of ILD. In this concise review, we aim to summarize the key studies published in 2020, highlighting their impact on the various aspects of ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Animals , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Eur Respir J ; 58(6)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding the relationship between interstitial lung disease (ILD) and the natural course of COVID-19. In this study, we investigate whether patients with ILD are more susceptible to COVID-19 than those without ILD and evaluate the impact of ILD on disease severity in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of patients with COVID-19 (n=8070) and a 1:15 age-, sex- and residential area-matched cohort (n=121 050) were constructed between 1 January 2020 and 30 May 2020 in Korea. We performed a nested case-control study to compare the proportions of patients with ILD between the COVID-19 cohort and the matched cohort. Using the COVID-19 cohort, we also evaluated the risk of severe COVID-19 in patients with ILD versus those without ILD. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with ILD was significantly higher in the COVID-19 cohort than in the matched cohort (0.8% versus 0.4%; p<0.001). The odds of having ILD was significantly higher in the COVID-19 cohort than in the matched cohort (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.54-2.61). Among patients in the COVID-19 cohort, patients with ILD were more likely to have severe COVID-19 than patients without ILD (47.8% versus 12.6%), including mortality (13.4% versus 2.8%) (all p<0.001). The risk of severe COVID-19 was significantly higher in patients with ILD than in those without ILD (adjusted OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.24-4.01). CONCLUSION: The risks of COVID-19 and severe presentation were significantly higher in patients with ILD than in those without ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 126, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare condition characterized by dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation in the upright position resolved in the supine position (orthodeoxia). Intracardiac shunt, pulmonary ventilation-perfusion mismatch and others intrapulmonary abnormalities are involved. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of POS associated with two pathophysiological issues: one, cardiac POS caused by a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and second, pulmonary POS due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) interstitial pneumonia. POS has resolved after recovery of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Right-to-left interatrial shunt and intrapulmonary shunt caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia contributed to refractory hypoxemia and POS. Therefore, in case of COVID-19 patient with unexplained POS, the existence of PFO must be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Hypoxia , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Echocardiography/methods , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnosis , Foramen Ovale, Patent/physiopathology , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Posture/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Syndrome , Treatment Outcome
15.
Pulmonology ; 27(5): 423-437, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174466

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a new beta coronavirus, similar to SARS-CoV-1, that emerged at the end of 2019 in the Hubei province of China. It is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. The ability to gain quick control of the pandemic has been hampered by a lack of detailed knowledge about SARS-CoV-2-host interactions, mainly in relation to viral biology and host immune response. The rapid clinical course seen in COVID-19 indicates that infection control in asymptomatic patients or patients with mild disease is probably due to the innate immune response, as, considering that SARS-CoV-2 is new to humans, an effective adaptive response would not be expected to occur until approximately 2-3 weeks after contact with the virus. Antiviral innate immunity has humoral components (complement and coagulation-fibrinolysis systems, soluble proteins that recognize glycans on cell surface, interferons, chemokines, and naturally occurring antibodies) and cellular components (natural killer cells and other innate lymphocytes). Failure of this system would pave the way for uncontrolled viral replication in the airways and the mounting of an adaptive immune response, potentially amplified by an inflammatory cascade. Severe COVID-19 appears to be due not only to viral infection but also to a dysregulated immune and inflammatory response. In this paper, the authors review the most recent publications on the immunobiology of SARS-CoV-2, virus interactions with target cells, and host immune responses, and highlight possible associations between deficient innate and acquired immune responses and disease progression and mortality. Immunotherapeutic strategies targeting both the virus and dysfunctional immune responses are also addressed.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/virology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Mod Rheumatol Case Rep ; 5(1): 101-107, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917630

ABSTRACT

Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 juvenile dermatomyositis (anti-MDA5 JDM) is associated with high risk of developing rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD). Here we report an 11-year-old girl with anti-MDA5 JDM and RP-ILD which led to a fatal outcome, further aggravated by SARS-CoV-2 infection. She was referred to our hospital after being diagnosed with anti-MDA5 JDM and respiratory failure due to RP-ILD. On admission, fibrobronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed Pneumocystis jirovecii infection so treatment with intravenous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was initiated. Due to RP-ILD worsening, immunosuppressive therapy was intensified using methylprednisolone pulses, cyclophosphamide, tofacitinib and intravenous immunoglobulin without response. She developed severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax, further complicated with severe RP-ILD and cervical subcutaneous emphysema. Three real-time RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were made with a negative result. In addition, she was complicated with a secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and a fourth real-time PCR for SARS-CoV-2 performed in BAS sample was positive. Despite aggressive treatment of RP-ILD due to anti-MDA5 JDM, there was no improvement of respiratory failure in the following days and patient developed refractory septic shock and died. Anti-MDA5 JDM patients with RP-ILD have a poor prognosis with a high mortality rate. For this reason, intensive immunosuppressive therapy is essential including the use of promising drugs such as tofacitinib. COVID-19 in children with underlying health conditions like anti-MDA5 JDM may still be at risk for disease and severe complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dermatomyositis/complications , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/complications , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autoantibodies/immunology , Bronchoscopy , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Dermatomyositis/drug therapy , Dermatomyositis/immunology , Disease Progression , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/immunology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/immunology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Shock, Septic/etiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
19.
Radiol Med ; 126(2): 243-249, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843339

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pneumonia is characterized by ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and consolidations on Chest CT, although these CT features cannot be considered specific, at least on a qualitative analysis. The aim is to evaluate if Quantitative Chest CT could provide reliable information in discriminating COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 31, 2020 until April 18, 2020, patients with Chest CT suggestive for interstitial pneumonia were retrospectively enrolled and divided into two groups based on positive/negative COVID-19 RT-PCR results. Patients with pulmonary resection and/or CT motion artifacts were excluded. Quantitative Chest CT analysis was performed with a dedicated software that provides total lung volume, healthy parenchyma, GGOs, consolidations and fibrotic alterations, expressed both in liters and percentage. Two radiologists in consensus revised software analysis and adjusted areas of lung impairment in case of non-adequate segmentation. Data obtained were compared between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients and p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Performance of statistically significant parameters was tested by ROC curve analysis. RESULTS: Final population enrolled included 190 patients: 136 COVID-19 patients (87 male, 49 female, mean age 66 ± 16) and 54 non-COVID-19 patients (25 male, 29 female, mean age 63 ± 15). Lung quantification in liters showed significant differences between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients for GGOs (0.55 ± 0.26L vs 0.43 ± 0.23L, p = 0.0005) and fibrotic alterations (0.05 ± 0.03 L vs 0.04 ± 0.03 L, p < 0.0001). ROC analysis of GGOs and fibrotic alterations showed an area under the curve of 0.661 (cutoff 0.39 L, 68% sensitivity and 59% specificity, p < 0.001) and 0.698 (cutoff 0.02 L, 86% sensitivity and 44% specificity, p < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Quantification of GGOs and fibrotic alterations on Chest CT could be able to identify patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cough/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/blood , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Probability , ROC Curve , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Retrospective Studies , Software , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Young Adult
20.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926781, 2020 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and is associated with severe respiratory disease. There are extensive publications on the chest computed tomography (CT) findings of COVID-19 pneumonia, with ground-glass opacities (GGO) and mixed GGO and consolidation being the most common findings. Those with interstitial thickening manifesting as reticular opacities typically show superimposed ground-glass opacities, giving a crazy-paving pattern. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 77-year-old man with a background of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) who presented with progressive cough and shortness of breath for 2 days. He was in close contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of a nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2. The initial chest radiograph was negative for lung consolidation and ground-glass opacities. During admission, he had worsening shortness of breath with desaturation, prompting a chest CT examination, which was performed on day 14 of illness. The chest CT revealed an atypical finding of predominant focal subpleural interstitial thickening in the right lower lobe. He was provided supportive treatment along with steroid and antibiotics. He recovered well and subsequently tested negative for 2 consecutive swabs. He was discharged after 34 days. CONCLUSIONS Interstitial thickening or reticular pattern on CT has been described in COVID-19 pneumonia, but largely in association with ground-glass opacity or consolidation. This case demonstrates an atypical predominance of interstitial thickening on chest CT in COVID-19 pneumonia on day 14 of illness, which is the expected time of greatest severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Multidetector Computed Tomography/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Radiographic Image Enhancement , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Contrast Media , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Treatment Outcome
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