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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 255-257, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757401

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines that protect against COVID-19 are widely used in many countries owing to their high efficacy and safety profiles. Recently, few severe adverse events, such as anaphylaxis and myocarditis, were reported in healthy individuals. The safety of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines has not been adequately studied in patients with interstitial lung disease. We report 2 cases of acute exacerbation of preexisting interstitial pneumonia associated with mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. In both cases, lung disease was stable before the vaccination. Initial responses to steroid therapy were unfavorable, and intravenous cyclophosphamide was administered in both cases. Both patients were diagnosed with vaccine-related exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia based on laboratory results, radiologic features, and the observed clinical course, which lacked other causative events. We suggest that clinicians should note the possibility of acute exacerbation of pneumonia after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination and carefully monitor patients with interstitial lung disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
2.
Acta Biomed ; 93(1): e2022015, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754146

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome (POS) is a clinical entity defined as positional dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation (orthodeoxia) that occurs when sitting or standing up and usually resolves by lying down. Up to April 25th 2021, eleven cases of POS after SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia have been reported on Pubmed. Accordingly, SARS-CoV-2 infection may be considered as an emergent cause of POS due to an increase in ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch. In this article we provide an update on the patient with POS after fibrotic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia, which we previously reported and we discuss the case reports of POS due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Posture , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(5): e32, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674310

ABSTRACT

Dermatomyositis (DM) is one of the uncommon multi-organ idiopathic inflammatory myopathies that has been reported following the hepatitis B, Influenza, tetanus toxoid, H1N1, and BCG vaccines. However, an association with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is yet to be reported. In this case, we present the case of a 43-year-old Asian Indian female who was diagnosed with DM 10 days after receiving the second dosage of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, in the absence of any additional triggering factors. The diagnosis was established based on physical examination, serological antibodies, magnetic resonance imaging of the muscles, skin biopsy, and electromyography. She received standard treatment for DM, including oral high doses of prednisolone, hydroxychloroquine, mycophenolate, and physiotherapy. The treatment successfully reversed skin changes and muscle weakness. This is the first reported case of classic DM complicated by interstitial lung disease following COVID-19 vaccination. More clinical and functional studies are needed to elucidate this association. Clinicians should be aware of this unexpected adverse event following COVID-19 vaccination and arrange for appropriate management.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Dermatomyositis/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Dermatomyositis/etiology , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Skin/pathology , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Chest ; 161(2): e91-e96, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664780

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old South African man with a medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, seizure disorder, OSA, and latent TB presented to the ER with gradually progressive dyspnea over months. He also reported occasional dry cough and fatigue at presentation but denied fever, chills, chest pain, leg swelling, palpitations, or lightheadedness. He was treated with a course of levofloxacin for presumed community-acquired pneumonia as an outpatient without improvement and had tested negative for COVID-19. He denied occupational or environmental exposures or sick contacts, though he had traveled back to South Africa 1 year before presentation. He had complex partial seizures for the past 22 years, which had been well controlled on phenytoin (300 mg daily). His other home medications included dulaglutide, sertraline, and atorvastatin and had no recent changes. He quit smoking 30 years ago after smoking one pack per day for 10 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Drug Substitution/methods , Lacosamide/administration & dosage , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung , Phenytoin , Seizures/drug therapy , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Phenytoin/administration & dosage , Phenytoin/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/complications , Seizures/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers/adverse effects
5.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591159

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Clinicians and policymakers are promoting widespread use of home technology including spirometry to detect disease progression for patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD); the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated this. Data collating clinicians' views on the potential utility of telehealth in ILD are limited. AIM: This survey investigated clinicians' opinions about contemporary methods and practices used to monitor disease progression in patients with ILD using telehealth. METHODS: Clinicians were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey (SurveyMonkey) of 13 questions designed by an expert panel. Telehealth was defined as home monitoring of symptoms and physiological parameters with regular automatic transmission of data from the patient's home to the clinician. Data are presented as percentages of respondents. RESULTS: A total of 207 clinicians from 23 countries participated in the survey. A minority (81, 39%) reported using telehealth. 50% (n=41) of these respondents completed a further question about the effectiveness of telehealth. A majority of respondents (32, 70%) rated it to be quite or more effective than face-to-face visit. There were a greater number of respondents using telehealth from Europe (94, 45%) than Asia (51, 25%) and America (24%). Clinicians reported the most useful telehealth monitoring technologies as smartphone apps (59%) and wearable sensors (30%). Telehealth was most frequently used for monitoring disease progression (70%), quality of life (63%), medication use (63%) and reducing the need for in-person visits (63%). Clinicians most often monitored symptoms (93%), oxygen saturation (74%) and physical activity (72%). The equipment perceived to be most effective were spirometers (43%) and pulse oximeters (33%). The primary barriers to clinicians' participation in telehealth were organisational structure (80%), technical challenges (63%) and lack of time and/or workload (63%). Clinicians considered patients' barriers to participation might include lack of awareness (76%), lack of knowledge using smartphones (60%) and lack of confidence in telehealth (56%). CONCLUSION: The ILD clinicians completing this survey who used telehealth to monitor patients (n=81) supported its' clinical utility. Our findings emphasise the need for robust research in telehealth as a mode for the delivery of cost-effective healthcare services in ILD and highlight the need to assess patients' perspectives to improve telehealth utility in patients with ILD.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Telemedicine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 95-98, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415567

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old man presented with dyspnea four days after the second dose of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine. Imaging revealed extensive ground-glass opacification. Blood tests were notable for elevated KL-6 levels. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis showed increased lymphocyte-dominant inflammatory cells and decreased CD4/CD8 ratio. These findings were consistent with the diagnosis of drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DIILD). To the best of our knowledge, this has never been reported in previous literature. Treatment with glucocorticoids relieved his symptoms. This paper highlights that although extremely rare, COVID-19 vaccine could cause DIILD, and early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to improve patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dyspnea , Humans , Lung , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/chemically induced , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): ahead of print, 2020 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389954

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a clinical entity characterized by positional dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation (orthodeoxia) that occurs when sitting or standing up and usually resolves by lying down. POS may result from some cardiopulmonary disorders or from other miscellaneous aetiologies. We report a case of POS in a patient after fibrotic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia associated with pulmonary embolism. The patient did not have any evidence of an intracardiac/intrapulmonary shunt.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(5): 799-806, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219727

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The natural history of recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unknown. Because fibrosis with persistent physiological deficit is a previously described feature of patients recovering from similar coronaviruses, treatment represents an early opportunity to modify the disease course, potentially preventing irreversible impairment.Objectives: Determine the incidence of and describe the progression of persistent inflammatory interstitial lung disease (ILD) following SARS-CoV-2 when treated with prednisolone.Methods: A structured assessment protocol screened for sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis. Eight hundred thirty-seven patients were assessed by telephone 4 weeks after discharge. Those with ongoing symptoms had outpatient assessment at 6 weeks. Thirty patients diagnosed with persistent interstitial lung changes at a multidisciplinary team meeting were reviewed in the interstitial lung disease service and offered treatment. These patients had persistent, nonimproving symptoms.Results: At 4 weeks after discharge, 39% of patients reported ongoing symptoms (325/837) and were assessed. Interstitial lung disease, predominantly organizing pneumonia, with significant functional deficit was observed in 35/837 survivors (4.8%). Thirty of these patients received steroid treatment, resulting in a mean relative increase in transfer factor following treatment of 31.6% (standard deviation [SD] ± 27.6, P < 0.001), and forced vital capacity of 9.6% (SD ± 13.0, P = 0.014), with significant symptomatic and radiological improvement.Conclusions: Following SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis, a cohort of patients are left with both radiological inflammatory lung disease and persistent physiological and functional deficit. Early treatment with corticosteroids was well tolerated and associated with rapid and significant improvement. These preliminary data should inform further study into the natural history and potential treatment for patients with persistent inflammatory ILD following SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Aftercare/methods , COVID-19/complications , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
Respirology ; 26(6): 604-611, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207464

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 was one like no other, as we witnessed the far-reaching impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) global pandemic. Yet despite an unprecedented and challenging year, global research in interstitial lung disease (ILD) continued to break new grounds. Research progress has led to an improved understanding in new diagnostic tools and potential biomarkers for ILD. Studies on the role of antifibrotic therapies, newer therapeutic agents, supportive care strategies and the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continue to reshape the management landscape of ILD. In this concise review, we aim to summarize the key studies published in 2020, highlighting their impact on the various aspects of ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Animals , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2
18.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 28(4): 373-381, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205023

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to assess the short-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia, also in relation to radiologic/laboratory/clinical indices of risk at baseline. This prospective follow-up cohort study included 94 patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to a medical ward at the Montichiari Hospital, Brescia, Italy from February 28th to April 30th, 2020. Patients had COVID-19 related pneumonia with respiratory failure. Ninety-four patients out of 193 survivors accepted to be re-evaluated after discharge, on average after 4 months. In » of the patients an evidence of pulmonary fibrosis was detected, as indicated by an altered diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO); in 6-7% of patients the alteration was classified as of moderate/severe degree. We also evaluated quality of life thorough a structured questionnaire: 52% of the patients still lamented fatigue, 36% effort dyspnea, 10% anorexia, 14% dysgeusia or anosmia, 31% insomnia and 21% anxiety. Finally, we evaluated three prognostic indices (the Brixia radiologic score, the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the 4C mortality score) in terms of prediction of the clinical consequences of the disease. All of them significantly predicted the extent of short-term lung involvement. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia is associated to relevant short-term clinical consequences, both in terms of persistence of symptoms and in terms of impairment of DLCO (indicator of a possible development of pulmonary fibrosis); some severity indices of the disease may predict short-term clinical outcome. Further studies are needed to ascertain whether such manifestations may persist long-term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Lung/virology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Italy , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Quality of Life , Time Factors
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167652

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically changed medical care. Healthcare professionals are faced with new issues. Patients who survived COVID-19 have plenty of different continuing symptoms, of which the most common are fatigue and breathlessness. It is not well known how to care for patients with persistent or worsening respiratory symptoms and changes on chest X-ray following COVID-19 pneumonia. In this article, we talk about a subgroup of patients with organizing pneumonia following COVID-19 pneumonia that could be effectively treated with systemic glucocorticoids. It is important that patients with COVID-19 pneumonia be followed-up at least three weeks after diagnosis, in order to recognize early lung damage. We are providing a management algorithm for early diagnosis of lung diseases after COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Algorithms , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Disease Management , Early Diagnosis , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirometry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Walk Test
20.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(6): 1021-1036, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152001

ABSTRACT

Anti-Melanoma Differentiation-Associated gene 5 (MDA-5) Dermatomyositis (MDA5, DM) is a recently identified subtype of myositis characteristically associated with Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease (RP-ILD) and unique cutaneous features. We reviewed PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases and selected 87 relevant articles after screening 1485 search results, aiming to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment approaches of anti-MDA-5 DM described in the literature. The etiopathogenesis is speculatively linked to an unidentified viral trigger on the background of genetic predisposition culminating in an acquired type I interferonopathy. The clinical phenotype is highly varied in different ethnicities, with new clinical features having been recently described, expanding the spectrum of cases that should raise the suspicion of anti-MDA-5 DM. Unfortunately, the diagnosis is frequently missed despite excessive mortality, calling for wider awareness of suspect symptoms. RP ILD is the major determinant of survival, treatment being largely based on observational studies with recent insights into aggressive combined immunosuppression at the outset.


Subject(s)
Dermatomyositis/diagnosis , Dermatomyositis/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dermatomyositis/epidemiology , Dermatomyositis/virology , Disease Progression , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Exanthema/virology , Female , Humans , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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