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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260416, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793553

ABSTRACT

This study determined the association between respiratory symptoms and death from respiratory causes over a period of 45 years. In four cohorts of random samples of Norwegian populations with 103,881 participants, 43,731 persons had died per 31 December 2016. In total, 5,949 (14%) had died from respiratory diseases; 2,442 (41%) from lung cancer, 1,717 (29%) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1,348 (23%) pneumonia, 119 (2%) asthma, 147 (2%) interstitial lung disease and 176 (3%) other pulmonary diseases. Compared with persons without respiratory symptoms the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for lung cancer deaths increased with score of breathlessness on effort and cough and phlegm, being 2.6 (95% CI 2.1-3.2) for breathlessness score 3 and 2.1 (95% CI 1.7-2.5) for cough and phlegm score 5. The HR of COPD death was 6.4 (95% CI 5.4-7.7) for breathlessness score 3 and 3.0 (2.4-3.6) for cough and phlegm score 5. Attacks of breathlessness and wheeze score 2 had a HR of 1.6 (1.4-1.9) for COPD death. The risk of pneumonia deaths increased also with higher breathlessness on effort score, but not with higher cough and phlegm score, except for score 2 with HR 1.5 (1.2-1.8). In this study with >2.4 million person-years at risk, a positive association was observed between scores of respiratory symptoms and deaths due to COPD and lung cancer. Respiratory symptoms are thus important risk factors, which should be followed thoroughly by health care practitioners for the benefit of public health.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Respiration Disorders/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Respiration Disorders/epidemiology , Respiratory Sounds , Risk Factors , Young Adult
2.
Elife ; 112022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675184

ABSTRACT

Background: The optimal procedures to prevent, identify, monitor, and treat long-term pulmonary sequelae of COVID-19 are elusive. Here, we characterized the kinetics of respiratory and symptom recovery following COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal, multicenter observational study in ambulatory and hospitalized COVID-19 patients recruited in early 2020 (n = 145). Pulmonary computed tomography (CT) and lung function (LF) readouts, symptom prevalence, and clinical and laboratory parameters were collected during acute COVID-19 and at 60, 100, and 180 days follow-up visits. Recovery kinetics and risk factors were investigated by logistic regression. Classification of clinical features and participants was accomplished by unsupervised and semi-supervised multiparameter clustering and machine learning. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, 49% of participants reported persistent symptoms. The frequency of structural lung CT abnormalities ranged from 18% in the mild outpatient cases to 76% in the intensive care unit (ICU) convalescents. Prevalence of impaired LF ranged from 14% in the mild outpatient cases to 50% in the ICU survivors. Incomplete radiological lung recovery was associated with increased anti-S1/S2 antibody titer, IL-6, and CRP levels at the early follow-up. We demonstrated that the risk of perturbed pulmonary recovery could be robustly estimated at early follow-up by clustering and machine learning classifiers employing solely non-CT and non-LF parameters. Conclusions: The severity of acute COVID-19 and protracted systemic inflammation is strongly linked to persistent structural and functional lung abnormality. Automated screening of multiparameter health record data may assist in the prediction of incomplete pulmonary recovery and optimize COVID-19 follow-up management. Funding: The State of Tyrol (GZ 71934), Boehringer Ingelheim/Investigator initiated study (IIS 1199-0424). Clinical trial number: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04416100.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
3.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 226, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Higher mortality of COVID-19 patients with lung disease is a formidable challenge for the health care system. Genetic association between COVID-19 and various lung disorders must be understood to comprehend the molecular basis of comorbidity and accelerate drug development. METHODS: Lungs tissue-specific neighborhood network of human targets of SARS-CoV-2 was constructed. This network was integrated with lung diseases to build a disease-gene and disease-disease association network. Network-based toolset was used to identify the overlapping disease modules and drug targets. The functional protein modules were identified using community detection algorithms and biological processes, and pathway enrichment analysis. RESULTS: In total, 141 lung diseases were linked to a neighborhood network of SARS-CoV-2 targets, and 59 lung diseases were found to be topologically overlapped with the COVID-19 module. Topological overlap with various lung disorders allows repurposing of drugs used for these disorders to hit the closely associated COVID-19 module. Further analysis showed that functional protein-protein interaction modules in the lungs, substantially hijacked by SARS-CoV-2, are connected to several lung disorders. FDA-approved targets in the hijacked protein modules were identified and that can be hit by exiting drugs to rescue these modules from virus possession. CONCLUSION: Lung diseases are clustered with COVID-19 in the same network vicinity, indicating the potential threat for patients with respiratory diseases after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pathobiological similarities between lung diseases and COVID-19 and clinical evidence suggest that shared molecular features are the probable reason for comorbidity. Network-based drug repurposing approaches can be applied to improve the clinical conditions of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Repositioning , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , Comorbidity , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning/methods , Gene Regulatory Networks/drug effects , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Humans , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Lung Diseases/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , Systems Biology
4.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 32(1): 43-49, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517485

ABSTRACT

The many socioeconomic disparities in the myriad of diagnoses that make up benign lung diseases are unfortunately a global issue that was most recently highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020. In this chapter, we will be reviewing the socioeconomic disparities in benign lung disease from both a United States perspective as well as a global perspective. We will cover the spectrum of infectious, obstructive, and restrictive lung disease and review the evidence on how social disparities affect these populations and their access to medical care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128568, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465510

ABSTRACT

Importance: Short-term and long-term persistent postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) have not been systematically evaluated. The incidence and evolution of PASC are dependent on time from infection, organ systems and tissue affected, vaccination status, variant of the virus, and geographic region. Objective: To estimate organ system-specific frequency and evolution of PASC. Evidence Review: PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus, the World Health Organization Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease, and CoronaCentral databases were searched from December 2019 through March 2021. A total of 2100 studies were identified from databases and through cited references. Studies providing data on PASC in children and adults were included. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for abstracting data were followed and performed independently by 2 reviewers. Quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies. The main outcome was frequency of PASC diagnosed by (1) laboratory investigation, (2) radiologic pathology, and (3) clinical signs and symptoms. PASC were classified by organ system, ie, neurologic; cardiovascular; respiratory; digestive; dermatologic; and ear, nose, and throat as well as mental health, constitutional symptoms, and functional mobility. Findings: From a total of 2100 studies identified, 57 studies with 250 351 survivors of COVID-19 met inclusion criteria. The mean (SD) age of survivors was 54.4 (8.9) years, 140 196 (56%) were male, and 197 777 (79%) were hospitalized during acute COVID-19. High-income countries contributed 45 studies (79%). The median (IQR) proportion of COVID-19 survivors experiencing at least 1 PASC was 54.0% (45.0%-69.0%; 13 studies) at 1 month (short-term), 55.0% (34.8%-65.5%; 38 studies) at 2 to 5 months (intermediate-term), and 54.0% (31.0%-67.0%; 9 studies) at 6 or more months (long-term). Most prevalent pulmonary sequelae, neurologic disorders, mental health disorders, functional mobility impairments, and general and constitutional symptoms were chest imaging abnormality (median [IQR], 62.2% [45.8%-76.5%]), difficulty concentrating (median [IQR], 23.8% [20.4%-25.9%]), generalized anxiety disorder (median [IQR], 29.6% [14.0%-44.0%]), general functional impairments (median [IQR], 44.0% [23.4%-62.6%]), and fatigue or muscle weakness (median [IQR], 37.5% [25.4%-54.5%]), respectively. Other frequently reported symptoms included cardiac, dermatologic, digestive, and ear, nose, and throat disorders. Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review, more than half of COVID-19 survivors experienced PASC 6 months after recovery. The most common PASC involved functional mobility impairments, pulmonary abnormalities, and mental health disorders. These long-term PASC effects occur on a scale that could overwhelm existing health care capacity, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Survivors , Fatigue/epidemiology , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mobility Limitation , Muscle Weakness/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases
7.
Respiration ; 100(11): 1078-1087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term pulmonary sequelae following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia are not yet confirmed; however, preliminary observations suggest a possible relevant clinical, functional, and radiological impairment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pulmonary sequelae caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at 6-month follow-up. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study, patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and without prior diagnosis of structural lung diseases were stratified by maximum ventilatory support ("oxygen only," "continuous positive airway pressure," and "invasive mechanical ventilation") and followed up at 6 months from discharge. Pulmonary function tests and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), 6-min walking test, chest X-ray, physical examination, and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea score were collected. RESULTS: Between March and June 2020, 312 patients were enrolled (83, 27% women; median interquartile range age 61.1 [53.4, 69.3] years). The parameters that showed the highest rate of impairment were DLCO and chest X-ray, in 46% and 25% of patients, respectively. However, only a minority of patients reported dyspnoea (31%), defined as mMRC ≥1, or showed restrictive ventilatory defects (9%). In the logistic regression model, having asthma as a comorbidity was associated with DLCO impairment at follow-up, while prophylactic heparin administration during hospitalization appeared as a protective factor. The need for invasive ventilatory support during hospitalization was associated with chest imaging abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: DLCO and radiological assessment appear to be the most sensitive tools to monitor patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during follow-up. Future studies with longer follow-up are warranted to better understand pulmonary sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors
8.
J Autoimmun ; 123: 102687, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313201

ABSTRACT

The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with autoimmune/auto-inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AARD) under immunomodulatory treatment has been a focus of interest during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this observational study, demographic data, disease related features and comorbidities, COVID-19 manifestations and outcome as well as antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 were recorded among 77 consecutive patients with underlying AARD infected by SARS-CoV-2. Analysis of data was performed using univariate and multivariate models. Most patients (68.8%) had a mild COVID-19 course. The predominant clinical manifestations were fatigue (58.4%), low grade fever (45.4%) and upper respiratory tract symptoms (68.8%). About a quarter of patients required hospitalization (23.3%) and the mortality rate was 1.3%. Regarding COVID-19 severity, prior treatment with corticosteroids, mycophenolate mofetil or rituximab was more common in patients who developed a more serious disease course (60.0 vs 29.9%, p = 0.003, 40.0 vs 7.5%, p = 0.003, 10.0 vs 0.0%, p = 0.009, respectively). When disease related features and comorbidities were considered in multivariate models, older age and lung disease in the context of the AARD were found to be independent predictive factors for hospitalization (OR [95%]: 1.09 [1.03-1.15] and 6.43 [1.11-37.19]). Among COVID-19 related features, patients with shortness of breath and high-grade fever were more likely to get hospitalized (OR [95%]: 7.06 [1.36-36.57], 12.04 [2.96-48.86]), while anosmia was independently associated with lower hospitalization risk (OR [95%]: 0.09 [0.01-0.99]). Though the majority of AARD patients displayed a mild COVID-19 course, certain underlying disease features and COVID-19 related manifestations should prompt alertness for the physician to identify patients with AARD at high risk for severe COVID-19 and need for hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Connective Tissue Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Comorbidity , Connective Tissue Diseases/drug therapy , Connective Tissue Diseases/immunology , Critical Illness , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Review Literature as Topic , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 668074, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on the role of eosinophils in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are scarce, though available findings suggest a possible association with disease severity. Our study analyzes the relationship between eosinophils and COVID-19, with a focus on disease severity and patients with underlying chronic respiratory diseases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 3018 subjects attended at two public hospitals in Madrid (Spain) with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from January 31 to April 17, 2020. Patients with eosinophil counts less than 0.02×109/L were considered to have eosinopenia. Individuals with chronic respiratory diseases (n=384) were classified according to their particular underlying condition, i.e., asthma, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, or obstructive sleep apnea. RESULTS: Of the 3018 patients enrolled, 479 were excluded because of lack of information at the time of admission. Of 2539 subjects assessed, 1396 patients presented an eosinophil count performed on admission, revealing eosinopenia in 376 cases (26.93%). Eosinopenia on admission was associated with a higher risk of intensive care unit (ICU) or respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) admission (OR:2.21; 95%CI:1.42-3.45; p<0.001) but no increased risk of mortality (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Eosinopenia on admission conferred a higher risk of severe disease (requiring ICU/RICU care), but was not associated with increased mortality. In patients with chronic respiratory diseases who develop COVID-19, age seems to be the main risk factor for progression to severe disease or death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Eosinophils , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Chronic Disease , Eosinophils/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1303: 107-127, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261779

ABSTRACT

In addition to studies focused on estrogen mediation of sex-different regulation of systemic circulations, there is now increasing clinical relevance and research interests in the pulmonary circulation, in terms of sex differences in the morbidity and mortality of lung diseases such as inherent-, allergic- and inflammatory-based events. Thus, female predisposition to pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is an inevitable topic. To better understand the nature of sexual differentiation in the pulmonary circulation, and how heritable factors, in vivo- and/or in vitro-altered estrogen circumstances and changes in the live environment work in concert to discern the sex bias, this chapter reviews pulmonary events characterized by sex-different features, concomitant with exploration of how alterations of genetic expression and estrogen metabolisms trigger the female-predominant pathological signaling. We address the following: PAH (Sect.7.2) is characterized as an estrogenic promotion of its incidence (Sect. 7.2.2), as a function of specific germline mutations, and as an estrogen-elicited protection of its prognosis (Sect.7.2.1). More detail is provided to introduce a less recognized gene of Ephx2 that encodes soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to degrade epoxyeicosatrienic acids (EETs). As a susceptible target of estrogen, Ephx2/sEH expression is downregulated by an estrogen-dependent epigenetic mechanism. Increases in pulmonary EETs then evoke a potentiation of PAH generation, but mitigation of its progression, a phenomenon similar to the estrogen-paradox regulation of PAH. Additionally, the female susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (Sect. 7.3) and asthma (Sect.7.4), but less preference to COVID-19 (Sect. 7.5), and roles of estrogen in their pathogeneses are briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Lung Diseases , Estrogens , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/genetics , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexism
11.
Transplantation ; 105(9): 2072-2079, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impacts of COVID-19 on lung allograft function, rejection, secondary infection, and clinical outcomes in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) remain unknown. METHODS: A 1:2 matched case-control study was performed to evaluate rehospitalization, lung allograft function, and secondary infections up to 90 d after COVID-19 diagnosis (or index dates for controls). RESULTS: Twenty-four LTRs with COVID-19 (cases) and 48 controls were identified. Cases and controls had similar baseline characteristics and lung allograft function. LTRs with COVID-19 had higher incidence of secondary bacterial infection (29.2% versus 6.3%, P = 0.008), readmission (29.2% versus 10.4%, P = 0.04), and for-cause bronchoscopy (33.3% versus 12.5%, P = 0.04) compared with controls. At d 90, mortality in cases versus controls was 8.3% versus 2.1% (P = 0.21), incidence of invasive fungal infections in cases versus controls was 20.8% versus 8.3% (P = 0.13) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) decline ≥10% from baseline occurred in 19% of cases versus 12.2% of controls (P = 0.46). No acute cellular rejection, acute antibody-mediated rejection, or new donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies were observed among cases or controls within 90 d post index date. CONCLUSIONS: We found LTRs with COVID-19 were at risk to develop secondary infections and rehospitalization post COVID-19, compared with controls. While we did not observe post viral acute cellular rejection or antibody-mediated rejection, further studies are needed to understand if LTRs with COVID-19 who did not recover baseline lung function within 90 d have developed chronic lung allograft dysfunction stage progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/surgery , Transplant Recipients , Adult , Aged , Allografts , Comorbidity , DNA, Viral/analysis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
13.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 31(7): 607-611, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164255

ABSTRACT

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common childhood muscular dystrophy. As a result of progressive muscle weakness, pulmonary function decreases during the second decade of life and lung disease contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Corticosteroids are the current standard of care for patients with DMD, despite known adverse effects such as obesity and immunosuppression. Over the past year (2020), the novel coronavirus (COVID-19/SARS-CoV2) outbreak has caused a global pandemic. Restrictive lung disease due to low lung volumes, chronic immunosuppressive treatment with corticosteroids, and obesity are potential risk factors that may contribute to a more severe course of the disease. Out of 116 Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients treated in our tertiary neuromuscular center, six patients with DMD and one with advanced Becker muscular dystrophy were found to be positive for COVID-19 infection. Two of the DMD patients were admitted for hospitalization, of whom one was dependent on daily nocturnal non-invasive ventilation. All patients recovered without complications despite obesity, steroid treatment and severe restrictive lung disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Lung Diseases/therapy , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/etiology , Male , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/complications , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/epidemiology , Obesity/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome
14.
Curr Cardiol Rev ; 17(1): 74-77, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136353

ABSTRACT

Since its outbreak in China at the end of 2019, the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was characterized by both easy spreading and high mortality. The latter proved to be way more elevated in the North of Italy -with a peak of 18.4% in region Lombardia and even 31% in the city of Bergamo and surrounding county- than in the rest of the world. In an attempt to conceptualize the reasons for such a dramatic situation, four key elements have been identified: COVID-19 itself, old age, lung disease, and heart failure. Their harmful combination has been named "The deadly quartet". The underlying risk factors, among which a lot of them are distinctive features of the population in northern Italy, have been summarized as "unmodifiable", "partially modifiable", and "modifiable", for the sake of clarity. Up-to-date scientific evidence in this field has been described in the form of a narrative and easy-to-read review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Lung Diseases/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Hepatology ; 74(3): 1674-1686, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103301

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary disease in liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (PH) constitutes a challenging clinical scenario and may have important implications with regard to prognosis, liver transplantation (LT) candidacy, and post-LT outcome. Pre-LT evaluation should include adequate screening for pulmonary diseases that may occur concomitantly with liver disease as well as for those that may arise as a complication of end-stage liver disease and PH, given that either may jeopardize safe LT and successful outcome. It is key to discriminate those patients who would benefit from LT, especially pulmonary disorders that have been reported to resolve post-LT and are considered "pulmonary indications" for transplant, from those who are at increased mortality risk and in whom LT is contraindicated. In conclusion, in this article, we review the impact of several pulmonary disorders, including cystic fibrosis, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, sarcoidosis, coronavirus disease 2019, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary nodules, interstitial lung disease, hepatic hydrothorax, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and portopulmonary hypertension, on post-LT survival, as well as the reciprocal impact of LT on the evolution of lung function.


Subject(s)
Hypertension, Portal/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Transplantation/mortality , Lung Diseases/complications , Adult , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/mortality , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Child , Cystic Fibrosis , End Stage Liver Disease/complications , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/diagnosis , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/epidemiology , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/mortality , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Liver Transplantation/methods , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Mass Screening , Patient Selection/ethics , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis/epidemiology , Sarcoidosis/mortality , Survival Rate/trends , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic/diagnosis , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic/epidemiology , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic/mortality , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/diagnosis , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/epidemiology , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/mortality
17.
Respir Med Res ; 79: 100801, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scant data are currently available about a potential link between comorbid chronic lung diseases (CLD) and the risk and severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: To describe the clinical characteristics of and outcomes for patients with COVID-19 infection, including patients with comorbid respiratory diseases, who have been primarily hospitalized in the pulmonology department of Strasbourg University Hospital, France. In this retrospective, single-center study, we included all confirmed cases of COVID-19 from March 3 to April 15, 2020. We then compared the symptoms, biological and radiological findings, and outcomes for patients with and without CLD. RESULTS: Of the 124 patients that were enrolled, the median age was 62 years, and 75 patients (60%) were male. Overall, 40% of patients (n=50) had preexisting CLD, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n=15, 12%) and asthma (n=19, 15%). Twenty-eight patients were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU), and six patients died in our unit. CLD were not predictive of ICU hospitalization, but a significantly higher total mortality was observed (17.6% vs. 5.5%, P<0.05) in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest the lack of an over-representation of CLD in COVID-19, representing 40% of patients in this cohort and even within a pulmonology department. CLD were not a risk factor for ICU management. However, a tendency to higher global mortality was observed in COVID-19 patients with CLD. Further studies are warranted to determine the risk of COVID-19 for patients with comorbid CLD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Chronic Disease/therapy , Lung Diseases/therapy , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Obesity/epidemiology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology
18.
Addict Behav ; 113: 106692, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064696

ABSTRACT

Despite a growing body of research examining correlates and consequences of COVID-19, few findings have been published among military veterans. This limitation is particularly concerning as preliminary data indicate that veterans may experience a higher rate of mortality compared to their civilian counterparts. One factor that may contribute to increased rates of death among veterans with COVID-19 is tobacco use. Indeed, findings from a recent meta-analysis highlight the association between lifetime smoking status and COVID-19 progression to more severe or critical conditions including death. Notably, prevalence rates of tobacco use are higher among veterans than civilians. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine demographic and medical variables that may contribute to likelihood of death among veterans testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, we examined the unique influence of lifetime tobacco use on veteran mortality when added to the complete model. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted on 440 veterans (80.5% African American/Black) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (7.3% deceased) at a large, southeastern Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital between March 11, 2020 and April 23, 2020, with data analysis occurring from May 26, 2020 to June 5, 2020. Older age, male gender, immunodeficiency, endocrine, and pulmonary diseases were positively related to the relative risk of death among SARS-CoV-2 positive veterans, with lifetime tobacco use predicting veteran mortality above and beyond these variables. Findings highlight the importance of assessing for lifetime tobacco use among SARS-CoV-2 positive patients and the relative importance of lifetime tobacco use as a risk factor for increased mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Hospitals, Veterans , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data
19.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 185: 114431, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051487

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the binding-site and entry-point for SARS-CoV-2 in human and highly expressed in the lung. Cigarette smoking (CS) is the leading cause of pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Chronic CS leads to upregulation of bronchial ACE2 inducing a high vulnerability in COVID-19 smoker patients. Interestingly, CS-induced dysregulation of pulmonary renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in part contributing into the potential pathogenesis COVID-19 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since, CS-mediated ACE2 activations is not the main pathway for increasing the risk of COVID-19, it appeared that AngII/AT1R might induce an inflammatory-burst in COVID-19 response by up-regulating cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), which hydrolyses specifically the second intracellular messenger 3', 5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP). It must be pointed out that CS might induce PDE4 up-regulation similarly to the COVID-19 inflammation, and therefore could potentiate COVID-19 inflammation opening the potential therapeutic effects of PDE4 inhibitor in both COVID-19-inflammation and CS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cigarette Smoking/drug therapy , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/metabolism , Humans , Lung/physiology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism
20.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(1)2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050665

ABSTRACT

COVID 19 pandemic has brought about a sea change in health care practices across the globe. All specialities have changed their way of working during the pandemic. In this study, we evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on the practice of interventional pulmonology at our centre. All interventional pulmonology procedures done during the three months after implementation of lockdown were evaluated retrospectively for patient demographics, clinical diagnosis, indication for procedure and diagnostic accuracy. The changes in practices, additional human resources requirement, the additional cost per procedure and impact on resident training were also assessed. Procedures done during the month of January 2020 were used as controls for comparison. Twenty-two flexible bronchoscopies (75.8%), four semirigid thoracoscopies (13.7%) and three EBUS-TBNAs (10.3%) were carried out during three month lockdown period as compared to 174 during January 2020. Twenty-three of the procedures were for the diagnostic indication (79%), and six were therapeutic (20.6%). The diagnostic yield in suspected neoplasm was 100% while for suspected infections was 58.3%. The percentage of independent procedures being done by residents reduced from 45.4% to 0%. The workforce required per procedure increased from 0.75 to 4-8, and the additional cost per procedure came out to be 135 USD. To conclude, COVID 19 has impacted the interventional pulmonology services in various ways and brought about a need to reorganize the services, while also thinking of innovative ideas to reduce cost without compromising patient safety.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Infection Control , Lung Diseases , Bronchoscopy/methods , Bronchoscopy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Organizational Innovation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
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