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1.
Lab Med ; 52(5): 493-498, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the role of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included 110 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Biochemical biomarkers, including MR-proADM, were measured at admission. The association of plasma MR-proADM levels with COVID-19 severity, defined as a requirement for mechanical ventilation or in-hospital mortality, was evaluated. RESULTS: Patients showed increased levels of MR-proADM. In addition, MR-proADM was higher in patients who died during hospitalization than in patients who survived (median, 2.59 nmol/L; interquartile range, 2.3-2.95 vs median, 0.82 nmol/L; interquartile range, 0.57-1.03; P <.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed good accuracy of MR-proADM for predicting mortality. A MR-proADM value of 1.73 nmol/L was established as the best cutoff value, with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity (P <.0001). CONCLUSION: We found that MR-proADM could represent a prognostic biomarker of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Protein Precursors/blood , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Triage/methods
2.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 40(9): 936-947, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on management strategies and outcomes among lung transplant (LT) patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We implemented management protocols based on the best available evidence and consensus among multidisciplinary teams. The current study reports our experience and outcomes using this protocol-based management strategy. METHODS: We included single or bilateral LT patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on nasopharyngeal swab between March 1, 2020, to December 15, 2020 (n = 25; median age: 60, range 20-73 years; M: F 17:8). A group of patients with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection during 2016-18 were included to serve as a comparator group (n = 36). RESULTS: As compared to RSV, patients with COVID-19 were more likely to present with constitutional symptoms, spirometric decline, pulmonary opacities, new or worsening respiratory failure, and need for ventilator support. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were less likely to receive a multimodality treatment strategy, and they experienced worse post-infection lung function loss, functional decline, and three-month survival. A significant proportion of patients with COVID-19 needed readmission for worsening allograft function (36.4%), and chronic kidney disease at initial presentation was associated with this complication. Lower pre-morbid FEV1 appeared to increase the risk of new or worsening respiratory failure, which was associated with worse outcomes. Overall hospital survival was 88% (n = 22). Follow-up data was available for all discharged patients (median: 43.5 days, range 15-287 days). A majority had persistent radiological opacities (19/22, 86.4%), with nearly half of the patients with available post-COVID-19 spirometry showing > 10% loss in lung function (6/13, median loss: 14.5%, range 10%-31%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar demographic characteristics and predispositions, LT patients with COVID-19 are sicker and experience worse outcomes as compared to RSV. Despite the availability of newer therapeutic agents, COVID-19 continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Lung Diseases/surgery , Lung Transplantation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Protocols , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Spirometry , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Curr Cardiol Rev ; 17(1): 74-77, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136353

ABSTRACT

Since its outbreak in China at the end of 2019, the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was characterized by both easy spreading and high mortality. The latter proved to be way more elevated in the North of Italy -with a peak of 18.4% in region Lombardia and even 31% in the city of Bergamo and surrounding county- than in the rest of the world. In an attempt to conceptualize the reasons for such a dramatic situation, four key elements have been identified: COVID-19 itself, old age, lung disease, and heart failure. Their harmful combination has been named "The deadly quartet". The underlying risk factors, among which a lot of them are distinctive features of the population in northern Italy, have been summarized as "unmodifiable", "partially modifiable", and "modifiable", for the sake of clarity. Up-to-date scientific evidence in this field has been described in the form of a narrative and easy-to-read review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Lung Diseases/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Interv Neuroradiol ; 26(5): 623-628, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the mortality risk of patients with emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) and COVID-19 during the pandemic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of two cohorts of consecutive patients with ELVO admitted to a quaternary hospital from March 1 to April 17, 2020. We abstracted data from electronic health records on baseline, biomarker profiles, key time points, quality measures and radiographic data. RESULTS: Of 179 patients admitted with ischemic stroke, 36 had ELVO. Patients with COVID-19 and ELVO had a higher risk of mortality during the pandemic versus patients without COVID-19 (OR 16.63, p = 0.004). An age-based sub-analysis showed in-hospital mortality in 60% of COVID-19 positive patients between 61-70 years-old, 66.7% in between 51-60 years-old, 50% in between 41-50 years-old and 33.3% in between 31-40 years old. Patients that presented with pulmonary symptoms at time of stroke presentation had 71.4% mortality rate. 27.3% of COVID-19 patients presenting with ELVO had a good outcome at discharge (mRS 0-2). Patients with a history of cigarette smoking (p = 0.003), elevated d-dimer (p = 0.007), failure to recanalize (p = 0.007), and elevated ferritin levels (p = 0.006) had an increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 and ELVO had a significantly higher risk for mortality compared to COVID-19 negative patients with ELVO. A small percentage of COVID-19 ELVO patients had good outcomes. Age greater than 60 and pulmonary symptoms at presentation have higher risk for mortality. Other risk factors for mortality were a history of cigarette smoking, elevated, failure to recanalize, elevated d-dimer and ferritin levels.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Smoking/mortality , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/mortality , Treatment Outcome
6.
Neurol Sci ; 41(9): 2317-2324, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635550

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the current study, we evaluated factors that increase the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patient death rate by analyzing the data from two cohort hospitals. In addition, we studied whether underlying neurological diseases are risk factors for death. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included 103 adult inpatients (aged ≥ 18 years). We evaluated differences in demographic data between surviving and non-surviving COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: In a multivariate logistic analysis, age and the presence of chronic lung disease and Alzheimer's dementia (AD) were the only significant parameters for predicting COVID-19 non-survival (p < 0.05). However, hypertension, coronary vascular disease, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and history of taking angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), were not significantly associated with the death of COVID-19 patients. The optimal cutoff value obtained from the maximum Youden index was 70 (sensitivity, 80.77%; specificity, 61.04%), and the odds ratio of non-survival increased 1.055 fold for every year of age. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should closely monitor and manage the symptoms of COVID-19 patients who are over the age of 70 years or have chronic lung disease or AD.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Int Med Res ; 48(6): 300060520931298, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611437

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyse mortality statistics in the United Kingdom during the initial phases of the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and to understand the impact of the pandemic on national mortality. METHODS: Retrospective review of weekly national mortality statistics in the United Kingdom over the past 5 years, including subgroup analysis of respiratory mortality rates. RESULTS: During the early phases of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the first months of 2020, there were consistently fewer deaths per week compared with the preceding 5 years. This pattern was not observed at any other time within the past 5 years. We have termed this phenomenon the "SARS-CoV-2 paradox." We postulate potential explanations for this seeming paradox and explore the implications of these data. CONCLUSIONS: Paradoxically, but potentially importantly, lower rather than higher weekly mortality rates were observed during the early stages of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This paradox may have implications for current and future healthcare utilisation. A rebound increase in non-SARS-CoV-2 mortality later this year might coincide with the peak of SARS-CoV-2 admissions and mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Lung Diseases/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , England/epidemiology , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Mortality/trends , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales/epidemiology
8.
Clin Chim Acta ; 508: 110-114, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We observe changes of the main lymphocyte subsets (CD16+CD56、CD19、CD3、CD4、and CD8) in COVID-19-infected patients and explore whether the changes are associated with disease severity. METHODS: One-hundred and fifty-four cases of COVID-19-infected patients were selected and divided into 3 groups (moderate group, severe group and critical group). The flow cytometry assay was performed to examine the numbers of lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: CD3+, CD4+ and CD8 + T lymphocyte subsets were decreased in COVID-19-infected patients. Compared with the moderate group and the sever group, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the critical group decreased greatly (P < 0.001, P = 0.005 or P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocyte counts may reflect the severity of the COVID-19. Monitoring T cell changes has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of severe patients who may become critically ill.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/analysis , CD3 Complex/genetics , CD3 Complex/immunology , CD4 Antigens/genetics , CD4 Antigens/immunology , CD8 Antigens/genetics , CD8 Antigens/immunology , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Selection , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/virology
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