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1.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 681-685, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152244

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we describe preoperative patient selection and outcomes of patients with lung disease secondary to infection from COVID-19 who receive lung transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Lung transplants for patients with lung disease secondary to infection from COVID-19 have been performed successfully in over 200 patients in the United States. The preoperative course of these patients is somewhat atypical in comparison with patients who have had lung transplants related to chronic lung diseases, where there are more traditional indications for lung transplants. COVID-19 patients have more severe pulmonary disease often requiring mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal mechanical ventilation (ECMO), frequent nosocomial infections, and renal and cardiac dysfunction. The intraoperative course of these COVID-19 patients is often longer and requires increased transfusions of blood products in comparison with non-COVID-19 patients. Additionally, in the postoperative period, COVID-19 patients more frequently require mechanical ventilation and ECMO support. However, the survival rate of such patients at 6 months is greater than 90%. SUMMARY: Patients with respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 infection that require a lung transplant generally have a complicated preoperative course and the operations are more complex, but the long-term outcomes are excellent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Lung Diseases , Lung Transplantation , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Lung Diseases/surgery , Retrospective Studies
2.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 26(3): 302-308, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526214

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past two decades, lung transplant has become the mainstay of treatment for several end-stage lung diseases. As the field continues to evolve, the criteria for referral and listing have also changed. The last update to these guidelines was in 2014 and several studies since then have changed how patients are transplanted. Our article aims to briefly discuss these updates in lung transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: This article discusses the importance of early referral of patients for lung transplantation and the concept of the 'transplant window'. We review the referral and listing criteria for some common pulmonary diseases and also cite the updated literature surrounding the absolute and relative contraindications keeping in mind that they are a constantly moving target. Frailty and psychosocial barriers are difficult to assess with the current assessment tools but continue to impact posttransplant outcomes. Finally, we discuss the limited data on transplantation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID19 as well as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation bridge to transplantation. SUMMARY: The findings discussed in this article will strongly impact, if not already, how we select candidates for lung transplantation. It also addresses some aspects of lung transplant such as frailty and ARDS, which need better assessment tools and clinical data.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases , Lung Transplantation , COVID-19 , Humans , Lung Diseases/surgery , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Patient Selection , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 23(3): 133-135, 2020 03 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389585

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, China diagnosed the first patient with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the following development of the epidemic had a huge impact on China and the whole world. For patients with lung occupying lesions, the whole process of diagnosis and treatment can not be carried out as usual due to the epidemic. For thoracic surgeons, the timing of surgical intervention should be very carefully considered. All thoracic surgeons in China should work together to develop the proper procedures for the diagnosis and treatment in this special situation, and continuously update the recommendations based on epidemic changes and further understanding of COVID-19. Here, we only offer some preliminary suggestions based on our own knowledge for further reference and discussion.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Lung Diseases , Pneumonia, Viral , Thoracic Surgical Procedures , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Epidemics , Humans , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/surgery , Patient Care Planning , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Transplantation ; 105(9): 2072-2079, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impacts of COVID-19 on lung allograft function, rejection, secondary infection, and clinical outcomes in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) remain unknown. METHODS: A 1:2 matched case-control study was performed to evaluate rehospitalization, lung allograft function, and secondary infections up to 90 d after COVID-19 diagnosis (or index dates for controls). RESULTS: Twenty-four LTRs with COVID-19 (cases) and 48 controls were identified. Cases and controls had similar baseline characteristics and lung allograft function. LTRs with COVID-19 had higher incidence of secondary bacterial infection (29.2% versus 6.3%, P = 0.008), readmission (29.2% versus 10.4%, P = 0.04), and for-cause bronchoscopy (33.3% versus 12.5%, P = 0.04) compared with controls. At d 90, mortality in cases versus controls was 8.3% versus 2.1% (P = 0.21), incidence of invasive fungal infections in cases versus controls was 20.8% versus 8.3% (P = 0.13) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) decline ≥10% from baseline occurred in 19% of cases versus 12.2% of controls (P = 0.46). No acute cellular rejection, acute antibody-mediated rejection, or new donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies were observed among cases or controls within 90 d post index date. CONCLUSIONS: We found LTRs with COVID-19 were at risk to develop secondary infections and rehospitalization post COVID-19, compared with controls. While we did not observe post viral acute cellular rejection or antibody-mediated rejection, further studies are needed to understand if LTRs with COVID-19 who did not recover baseline lung function within 90 d have developed chronic lung allograft dysfunction stage progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/surgery , Transplant Recipients , Adult , Aged , Allografts , Comorbidity , DNA, Viral/analysis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
6.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 40(9): 936-947, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on management strategies and outcomes among lung transplant (LT) patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We implemented management protocols based on the best available evidence and consensus among multidisciplinary teams. The current study reports our experience and outcomes using this protocol-based management strategy. METHODS: We included single or bilateral LT patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on nasopharyngeal swab between March 1, 2020, to December 15, 2020 (n = 25; median age: 60, range 20-73 years; M: F 17:8). A group of patients with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection during 2016-18 were included to serve as a comparator group (n = 36). RESULTS: As compared to RSV, patients with COVID-19 were more likely to present with constitutional symptoms, spirometric decline, pulmonary opacities, new or worsening respiratory failure, and need for ventilator support. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were less likely to receive a multimodality treatment strategy, and they experienced worse post-infection lung function loss, functional decline, and three-month survival. A significant proportion of patients with COVID-19 needed readmission for worsening allograft function (36.4%), and chronic kidney disease at initial presentation was associated with this complication. Lower pre-morbid FEV1 appeared to increase the risk of new or worsening respiratory failure, which was associated with worse outcomes. Overall hospital survival was 88% (n = 22). Follow-up data was available for all discharged patients (median: 43.5 days, range 15-287 days). A majority had persistent radiological opacities (19/22, 86.4%), with nearly half of the patients with available post-COVID-19 spirometry showing > 10% loss in lung function (6/13, median loss: 14.5%, range 10%-31%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar demographic characteristics and predispositions, LT patients with COVID-19 are sicker and experience worse outcomes as compared to RSV. Despite the availability of newer therapeutic agents, COVID-19 continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Lung Diseases/surgery , Lung Transplantation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Protocols , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Spirometry , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
7.
Respiration ; 100(7): 594-599, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT), as a clinical assessment tool for functional exercise capacity, is an integral component of lung allocation scores (LASs). In times of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, patients underwent 6MWTs wearing a surgical mask in ambulatory care. We investigated the impact of wearing a mask on 6-minute walk distances (6MWDs). METHOD: 6MWDs of 64 patients with end-stage lung diseases wearing an oronasal surgical mask were retrospectively compared to previously investigated 6MWDs of the same cohort, in a pre-COVID-19 pandemic era, without wearing a mask. Four patients were excluded due to a primary vascular disease, 29 patients due to clinically unstable pulmonary functions, and 1 patient due to a psychiatric disorder. RESULTS: The median age of the patients included was 55 (46-58) years; 15 (48%) were male. Ten (32.2%) were on the Eurotransplant lung transplant waiting list with a median LAS of 34.3 (31.9-36.2). Twenty (64.5%) patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, 7 (22.6%) had interstitial lung diseases, and 4 (12.9%) had other end-stage lung diseases. The mean 6MWD without versus with wearing a mask was 306.9 (101.9) versus 305.7 (103.8) m, with a mean difference of -1.19 m (95% confidence interval -13.4 to 11.03). The observed difference is statistically equivalent to zero (p < 0.001). No significant differences in 6MWDs were observed between the clinical groups. CONCLUSION: Wearing an oronasal surgical mask did not affect the 6MWDs of patients with advanced lung diseases. Therefore, a masked 6MWT appears to provide a reliable examination of functional exercise capacity in this cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Masks , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Walk Test/methods , Blood Gas Analysis , Chronic Disease , Exercise Tolerance , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/surgery , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/surgery , Lung Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Minimal Clinically Important Difference , Plethysmography, Whole Body , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/surgery , Reproducibility of Results , Respiratory Insufficiency/surgery , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vital Capacity
8.
Clin Transplant ; 35(3): e14210, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is particularly susceptible to the impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, and evaluation of changes to practice is required to inform future decision-making. METHODS: A retrospective review of the UK Transplant Registry (UKTR) and national survey of UK lung transplant centers has been performed. RESULTS: There was geographic variation in the prevalence of COVID-19 infection across the UK. The number of donors fell by 48% during the early pandemic period. Lung utilization fell to 10% (compared with 24% for the same period of 2019). The number of lung transplants performed fell by 77% from 53, March to May 2019, to 12. Seven (58%) of these were performed in a single-center, designated "COVID-light." The number of patients who died on the lung transplant waiting list increased, compared to the same period of 2019 (p = .0118). Twenty-six lung transplant recipients with confirmed COVID-19 infection were reported during the study period. CONCLUSION: As the pandemic continues, reviewing practice and implementing the lessons learned during this period, including the use of robust donor testing strategies and the provision of "COVID-light" hospitals, are vital in ensuring the safe continuation of our lung transplant program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Lung Transplantation , Pandemics , Registries , Tissue Donors , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , Waiting Lists , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/surgery , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(5): e343-e345, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987093

ABSTRACT

We report risk factors, clinical manifestations, and treatment course of 2 lung transplant recipients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Both patients underwent an initial hospitalization and discharged home, followed by readmission several days later with significant worsening of respiratory status and infectious symptoms. The first patient underwent prolonged hospitalization requiring tracheostomy and feeding tube placement. The second patient declined intubation and expired. The early documented experiences of COVID-19 pneumonia in lung transplant recipients suggest that although recovery is achievable, the high rate of comorbid conditions and immunocompromised state may place these patients at higher risk for poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/surgery , Lung Transplantation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/surgery , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Emphysema/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
Am J Transplant ; 20(7): 1885-1890, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116579

ABSTRACT

With the rapidly expanding pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, there is concern that solid organ transplant recipients will be particularly vulnerable to infection and may experience a more severe clinical course. We report four cases of COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients including recipients of kidney, liver, lung, and heart transplants. We describe each patient's medical history including transplantation history, their clinical presentation and workup, and their course from diagnosis to either hospital discharge or to improvement in symptoms. These reports demonstrate a range of symptoms, clinical severity, and disease course in solid organ transplant recipients with COVID-19, including two hospitalized patients and two patients managed entirely in the outpatient setting.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Immunosuppression Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Transplant Recipients , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , End Stage Liver Disease/complications , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Female , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/surgery , Heart Transplantation , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Liver Transplantation , Lung Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/surgery , Lung Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , United States/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , Washington
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