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1.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 65, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term pulmonary sequelae following hospitalization for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is largely unclear. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise pulmonary sequelae caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at 12-month from discharge. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, observational study, patients hospitalised for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and without prior diagnosis of structural lung diseases were stratified by maximum ventilatory support ("oxygen only", "continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)" and "invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV)") and followed up at 12 months from discharge. Pulmonary function tests and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), 6 min walking test, high resolution CT (HRCT) scan, and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale were collected. RESULTS: Out of 287 patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and followed up at 1 year, DLCO impairment, mainly of mild entity and improved with respect to the 6-month follow-up, was observed more frequently in the "oxygen only" and "IMV" group (53% and 49% of patients, respectively), compared to 29% in the "CPAP" group. Abnormalities at chest HRCT were found in 46%, 65% and 80% of cases in the "oxygen only", "CPAP" and "IMV" group, respectively. Non-fibrotic interstitial lung abnormalities, in particular reticulations and ground-glass attenuation, were the main finding, while honeycombing was found only in 1% of cases. Older patients and those requiring IMV were at higher risk of developing radiological pulmonary sequelae. Dyspnea evaluated through mMRC scale was reported by 35% of patients with no differences between groups, compared to 29% at 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: DLCO alteration and non-fibrotic interstitial lung abnormalities are common after 1 year from hospitalization due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, particularly in older patients requiring higher ventilatory support. Studies with longer follow-ups are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/virology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors
2.
Radiology ; 295(3): 200463, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723927

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective study, chest CTs of 121 symptomatic patients infected with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) from four centers in China from January 18, 2020 to February 2, 2020 were reviewed for common CT findings in relationship to the time between symptom onset and the initial CT scan (i.e. early, 0-2 days (36 patients), intermediate 3-5 days (33 patients), late 6-12 days (25 patients)). The hallmarks of COVID-19 infection on imaging were bilateral and peripheral ground-glass and consolidative pulmonary opacities. Notably, 20/36 (56%) of early patients had a normal CT. With a longer time after the onset of symptoms, CT findings were more frequent, including consolidation, bilateral and peripheral disease, greater total lung involvement, linear opacities, "crazy-paving" pattern and the "reverse halo" sign. Bilateral lung involvement was observed in 10/36 early patients (28%), 25/33 intermediate patients (76%), and 22/25 late patients (88%).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Young Adult
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23205, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545647

ABSTRACT

The association between pulmonary sequelae and markers of disease severity, as well as pro-fibrotic mediators, were studied in 108 patients 3 months after hospital admission for COVID-19. The COPD assessment test (CAT-score), spirometry, diffusion capacity of the lungs (DLCO), and chest-CT were performed at 23 Norwegian hospitals included in the NOR-SOLIDARITY trial, an open-labelled, randomised clinical trial, investigating the efficacy of remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Thirty-eight percent had a CAT-score ≥ 10. DLCO was below the lower limit of normal in 29.6%. Ground-glass opacities were present in 39.8% on chest-CT, parenchymal bands were found in 41.7%. At admission, low pO2/FiO2 ratio, ICU treatment, high viral load, and low antibody levels, were predictors of a poorer pulmonary outcome after 3 months. High levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 during hospitalisation and at 3 months were associated with persistent CT-findings. Except for a negative effect of remdesivir on CAT-score, we found no effect of remdesivir or HCQ on long-term pulmonary outcomes. Three months after hospital admission for COVID-19, a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms, reduced DLCO, and persistent CT-findings was observed. Low pO2/FiO2 ratio, ICU-admission, high viral load, low antibody levels, and high levels of MMP-9 were associated with a worse pulmonary outcome.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/pathology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Antibody Formation , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung Diseases/chemically induced , Lung Diseases/enzymology , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Lab Med ; 52(5): 493-498, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the role of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included 110 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Biochemical biomarkers, including MR-proADM, were measured at admission. The association of plasma MR-proADM levels with COVID-19 severity, defined as a requirement for mechanical ventilation or in-hospital mortality, was evaluated. RESULTS: Patients showed increased levels of MR-proADM. In addition, MR-proADM was higher in patients who died during hospitalization than in patients who survived (median, 2.59 nmol/L; interquartile range, 2.3-2.95 vs median, 0.82 nmol/L; interquartile range, 0.57-1.03; P <.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed good accuracy of MR-proADM for predicting mortality. A MR-proADM value of 1.73 nmol/L was established as the best cutoff value, with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity (P <.0001). CONCLUSION: We found that MR-proADM could represent a prognostic biomarker of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Protein Precursors/blood , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Triage/methods
7.
Respiration ; 100(11): 1078-1087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term pulmonary sequelae following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia are not yet confirmed; however, preliminary observations suggest a possible relevant clinical, functional, and radiological impairment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pulmonary sequelae caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at 6-month follow-up. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study, patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and without prior diagnosis of structural lung diseases were stratified by maximum ventilatory support ("oxygen only," "continuous positive airway pressure," and "invasive mechanical ventilation") and followed up at 6 months from discharge. Pulmonary function tests and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), 6-min walking test, chest X-ray, physical examination, and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea score were collected. RESULTS: Between March and June 2020, 312 patients were enrolled (83, 27% women; median interquartile range age 61.1 [53.4, 69.3] years). The parameters that showed the highest rate of impairment were DLCO and chest X-ray, in 46% and 25% of patients, respectively. However, only a minority of patients reported dyspnoea (31%), defined as mMRC ≥1, or showed restrictive ventilatory defects (9%). In the logistic regression model, having asthma as a comorbidity was associated with DLCO impairment at follow-up, while prophylactic heparin administration during hospitalization appeared as a protective factor. The need for invasive ventilatory support during hospitalization was associated with chest imaging abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: DLCO and radiological assessment appear to be the most sensitive tools to monitor patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during follow-up. Future studies with longer follow-up are warranted to better understand pulmonary sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors
8.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 633-636, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369995

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiologic agent responsible for the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Numerous studies have demonstrated that cardiovascular disease may affect COVID-19 progression. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypertension on viral replication and COVID-19 progression using a hypertensive mouse model infected with SARS-CoV-2. Results revealed that SARS-CoV-2 replication was delayed in hypertensive mouse lungs. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 replication in hypertensive mice treated with the antihypertensive drug captopril demonstrated similar virus replication as SARS-CoV-2-infected normotensive mice. Furthermore, antihypertensive treatment alleviated lung inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 replication (interleukin (IL)-1ß up-regulation and increased immune cell infiltration). No differences in lung inflammation were observed between the SARS-CoV-2-infected normotensive mice and hypertensive mice. Our findings suggest that captopril treatment may alleviate COVID-19 progression but not affect viral replication.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Captopril/therapeutic use , Hypertension/complications , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Captopril/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/virology , Mice , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 27: 1609900, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369742

ABSTRACT

Background: Autopsies on COVID-19 deceased patients have many limitations due to necessary epidemiologic and preventative measures. The ongoing pandemic has caused a significant strain on healthcare systems and is being extensively studied around the world. Clinical data does not always corelate with post-mortem findings. The goal of our study was to find pathognomonic factors associated with COVID-19 mortality in 100 post-mortem full body autopsies. Materials and Methods: Following necessary safety protocol, we performed 100 autopsies on patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 related death. The macroscopic and microscopic pathologies were evaluated along with clinical and laboratory findings. Results: Extensive coagulopathic changes are seen throughout the bodies of diseased patients. Diffuse alveolar damage is pathognomonic of COVID-19 viral pneumonia, and is the leading cause of lethal outcome in younger patients. Extrapulmonary pathology is predominantly seen in the liver and spleen. Intravascular thrombosis is often widespread and signs of septic shock are often present. Conclusion: The described pathological manifestations of COVID-19 in deceased patients are an insight into the main mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 associated lethal outcome. The disease bears no obvious bias in severity, but seems to be more severe in some patients, hinting at genetic or epigenetic factors at play.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Laboratories/statistics & numerical data , Lung Diseases/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are diagnosed and managed as outpatients; however, little is known about the burden of pulmonary disease in this setting. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a convenient tool for detection of COVID-19 pneumonia. Identifying SARS-CoV-2 infected outpatients with pulmonary disease may be important for early risk stratification. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence, natural history and clinical significance of pulmonary disease in outpatients with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive outpatients (CV(+)) were assessed with LUS to identify the presence of interstitial pneumonia. Studies were considered positive based on the presence of B-lines, pleural irregularity and consolidations. A subset of patients underwent longitudinal examinations. Correlations between LUS findings and patient symptoms, demographics, comorbidities and clinical outcomes over 8 weeks were evaluated. RESULTS: 102 CV(+) patients underwent LUS with 42 (41%) demonstrating pulmonary involvement. Baseline LUS severity scores correlated with shortness of breath on multivariate analysis. Of the CV(+) patients followed longitudinally, a majority showed improvement or resolution in LUS findings after 1-2 weeks. Only one patient in the CV(+) cohort was briefly hospitalised, and no patient died or required mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence of LUS findings in outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given the pervasiveness of pulmonary disease across a broad spectrum of LUS severity scores and lack of adverse outcomes, our findings suggest that LUS may not be a useful as a risk stratification tool in SARS-CoV-2 in the general outpatient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/virology , Outpatients , Prevalence , Ultrasonography
11.
Medwave ; 21(6): e8224, 2021 Jul 07.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320618

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This living systematic review aims to provide a timely, rigorous and continuously updated summary of the evidence available on the role of pulmonary rehabilitation in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: This is the protocol of a living systematic review. DATA SOURCES: We will conduct searches in the L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence) platform for COVID-19, a system that maps PICO questions to a repository maintained through regular searches in electronic databases, preprint servers, trial registries and other resources relevant to COVID-19. No date or language restrictions will be applied. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES AND METHODS: We adapted an already published common protocol for multiple parallel systematic reviews to the specificities of this question. We will include randomized trials evaluating the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation as monotherapy or in combination with other interventions-versus sham or no treatment in patients with COVID-19. Two reviewers will independently screen each study for eligibility, extract data, and assess the risk of bias. We will pool the results using meta-analysis and will apply the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethics approval is considered necessary. The results of this review will be widely disseminated via peer-reviewed publications, social networks and traditional media.


OBJETIVO: Proporcionar un resumen oportuno, riguroso y continuamente actualizado de la evidencia disponible sobre el papel de la rehabilitación pulmonar en el tratamiento de los pacientes con COVID-19. DISEÑO: Es el protocolo de una revisión sistemática viva. FUENTE DE DATOS: Realizaremos búsquedas en la plataforma L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence) para COVID-19, un sistema que mapea los componentes de las preguntas de investigación (PICO) en un repositorio mantenido a través de búsquedas regulares en bases de datos electrónicas, servidores de pre-impresión, registros de ensayos y otros recursos relevantes para COVID-19. No se aplicarán restricciones de fecha ni de idioma. CRITERIOS DE ELEGIBILIDAD PARA LA SELECCIÓN DE ESTUDIOS Y MÉTODOS: Se adaptó un protocolo común ya publicado para revisiones sistemáticas paralelas múltiples a las especificidades de la pregunta. Se incluirán ensayos aleatorios que evalúen el efecto de la rehabilitación pulmonar como monoterapia o en combinación con otras intervenciones frente a un tratamiento simulado o ningún tratamiento en pacientes con COVID-19. Dos revisores examinarán de forma independiente cada estudio para determinar su elegibilidad, extraerán los datos y evaluarán el riesgo de sesgo. Se agruparán los resultados mediante un metaanálisis y se aplicará el sistema Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) para evaluar la certeza de las pruebas para cada resultado. ÉTICA Y DIFUSIÓN: No se considera necesaria la aprobación ética. Los resultados de esta revisión se difundirán ampliamente a través de publicaciones revisadas por pares, redes sociales y medios de comunicación tradicionales.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Lung Diseases/rehabilitation , COVID-19/complications , Databases, Factual , Humans , Lung Diseases/virology , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recovery of Function , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic
12.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 40(9): 936-947, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on management strategies and outcomes among lung transplant (LT) patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We implemented management protocols based on the best available evidence and consensus among multidisciplinary teams. The current study reports our experience and outcomes using this protocol-based management strategy. METHODS: We included single or bilateral LT patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on nasopharyngeal swab between March 1, 2020, to December 15, 2020 (n = 25; median age: 60, range 20-73 years; M: F 17:8). A group of patients with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection during 2016-18 were included to serve as a comparator group (n = 36). RESULTS: As compared to RSV, patients with COVID-19 were more likely to present with constitutional symptoms, spirometric decline, pulmonary opacities, new or worsening respiratory failure, and need for ventilator support. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were less likely to receive a multimodality treatment strategy, and they experienced worse post-infection lung function loss, functional decline, and three-month survival. A significant proportion of patients with COVID-19 needed readmission for worsening allograft function (36.4%), and chronic kidney disease at initial presentation was associated with this complication. Lower pre-morbid FEV1 appeared to increase the risk of new or worsening respiratory failure, which was associated with worse outcomes. Overall hospital survival was 88% (n = 22). Follow-up data was available for all discharged patients (median: 43.5 days, range 15-287 days). A majority had persistent radiological opacities (19/22, 86.4%), with nearly half of the patients with available post-COVID-19 spirometry showing > 10% loss in lung function (6/13, median loss: 14.5%, range 10%-31%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar demographic characteristics and predispositions, LT patients with COVID-19 are sicker and experience worse outcomes as compared to RSV. Despite the availability of newer therapeutic agents, COVID-19 continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Lung Diseases/surgery , Lung Transplantation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Protocols , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Spirometry , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(8): 2489-2494, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies investigating clinical and imaging findings of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and predictors for lung injury mostly focus on adults. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of laboratory findings in predicting lung involvement in children with COVID-19. METHODS: Children with COVID-19 confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction or COVID-19 IgM and who underwent chest computed tomography (CT) scans were reviewed retrospectively. Admission absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), ANC/ALC ratio, platelet count, D-dimer, fibrinogen, ferritin, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactate dehydrogenase levels were compared in patients with normal and abnormal CT scans. RESULTS: A total of 101 children were included. Among the patients, 68 (67.3%) had normal CT scans, and 33 (32.7%) had pulmonary involvement. The median CRP, ferritin, and fibrinogen levels were significantly higher in children with abnormal CT findings. The model of binary logistic regression based on the presence of cough, shortness of breath, fibrinogen, ferritin, and CRP levels showed that the possibility of having abnormal CT was 1.021 times more likely for every one unit increase in fibrinogen levels. CONCLUSION: Fibrinogen might be useful to predict pulmonary involvement of COVID-19 in children. Restricting radiological imaging to patients with significant symptoms and high fibrinogen levels might be helpful in children with COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laboratories , Lung Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases/virology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Biomed Phys Eng Express ; 7(4)2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225585

ABSTRACT

Segmenting lesion regions of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) from computed tomography (CT) images is a challenge owing to COVID-19 lesions characterized by high variation, low contrast between infection lesions and around normal tissues, and blurred boundaries of infections. Moreover, a shortage of available CT dataset hinders deep learning techniques applying to tackling COVID-19. To address these issues, we propose a deep learning-based approach known as PPM-Unet to segmenting COVID-19 lesions from CT images. Our method improves an Unet by adopting pyramid pooling modules instead of the conventional skip connection and then enhances the representation of the neural network by aiding the global attention mechanism. We first pre-train PPM-Unet on COVID-19 dataset of pseudo labels containing1600 samples producing a coarse model. Then we fine-tune the coarse PPM-Unet on the standard COVID-19 dataset consisting of 100 pairs of samples to achieve a fine PPM-Unet. Qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that our method can accurately segment COVID-19 infection regions from CT images, and achieve higher performance than other state-of-the-art segmentation models in this study. It offers a promising tool to lay a foundation for quantitatively detecting COVID-19 lesions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Deep Learning , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Lung Diseases/pathology , Neural Networks, Computer , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Algorithms , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/virology , Specimen Handling
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 656362, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211814

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, the outbreak of Sars-CoV-2 pandemic has changed medical practice and daily routine around the world. Huge efforts from pharmacological industries have led to the development of COVID-19 vaccines. In particular two mRNA vaccines, namely the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and the mRNA-1273 (Moderna), and a viral-vectored vaccine, i.e. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca), have recently been approved in Europe. Clinical trials on these vaccines have been published on the general population showing a high efficacy with minor adverse events. However, specific data about the efficacy and safety of these vaccines in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are still lacking. Moreover, the limited availability of these vaccines requires prioritizing some vulnerable categories of patients compared to others. In this position paper, we propose the point of view about the management of COVID-19 vaccination from Italian experts on IMIDs and the identification of high-risk groups according to the different diseases and their chronic therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune System Diseases/virology , Vaccination/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Europe , Expert Testimony , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Glomerulonephritis/immunology , Glomerulonephritis/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/virology , Lung Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung Diseases/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/virology , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/immunology , Skin Diseases/virology , Uveitis/complications , Uveitis/immunology , Uveitis/virology
16.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(1): 11-15, Jan.-Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1167163

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The pandemic caused by coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has changed the routine of surfers, professionals and all those involved in surfing. This unusual global crisis has caused major organizational, financial and social disruption for surfers, coaches, federations and fans. The world of sports, including surfing, entered extreme and uncharted territory, in which all competitions were postponed and many beaches were closed, preventing any kind of surfing activity. The primary objective of this article is to identify potential harmful effects caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on the health of surfers, while the secondary objective is to provide practical recommendations for coaches, professional and amateur surfers to reduce the undesirable consequences of forced quarantine and direct the resumption of surfing activities while protecting the health of those involved. The main problems indicated were: the effects on body composition due to calorie imbalance, possible cardiac and pulmonary alterations caused by COVID-19, musculoskeletal symptoms and the consequences of detraining. The article also suggests recommendations for new attitudes towards surfing. Surfing is a growing sport that has been included in the upcoming Olympic Games in Tokyo. As the sport grows and becomes more professional, measures to protect the health of surfers need to be put in place. The current pandemic situation is extremely delicate and the measures proposed in this study are intended to serve as a guide for surfers and professionals in order to minimize the harmful effects of this situation. Level of Evidence IV; Type of Study: Literature review.


RESUMO A pandemia provocada pela doença do coronavírus (COVID-19) modificou a rotina dos praticantes, profissionais e todos envolvidos no surfe. Essa crise global incomum causou uma grande perturbação organizacional, financeira e social para atletas, treinadores, federações e torcedores. O mundo dos esportes, inclusive o surfe, entrou em uma situação extrema e desconhecida, na qual todas as competições foram adiadas e muitas praias foram fechadas, impedindo qualquer tipo de prática. O objetivo primário deste trabalho é identificar os possíveis efeitos deletérios provocados pela pandemia do COVID-19 sobre a saúde dos surfistas, e o secundário é fornecer recomendações práticas para treinadores, atletas e praticantes para reduzir as consequências indesejadas da quarentena forçada e guiar o retorno às atividades esportivas de forma saudável. Os principais problemas apontados foram: os efeitos na composição corporal devido ao desequilíbrio calórico, possíveis alterações cardíacas e pulmonares provocadas pela COVID-19, sintomas osteomusculares e as consequências do destreinamento. O trabalho também sugere recomendações de novas atitudes na prática do esporte. O surfe é uma modalidade esportiva em crescimento, que estará presente na próxima edição dos Jogos Olímpicos de Tóquio. À medida que o esporte se profissionaliza e cresce, as condutas de suporte de saúde dos praticantes fazem-se necessárias. O momento atual de pandemia é extremamente delicado e as medidas propostas neste estudo visam orientar os atletas e profissionais ligados a esta modalidade esportiva, com a finalidade de minimizar os efeitos deletérios deste momento. Nível de Evidência: IV; Tipo de Estudo: Revisão Sistemática.


RESUMEN La pandemia provocada por la enfermedad del coronavirus (COVID-19) modificó la rutina de los practicantes, profesionales y todos los involucrados en el surf. Esta crisis global inusual ocasionó una gran perturbación organizacional, financiera y social para atletas, entrenadores, federaciones y aficionados. El mundo de los deportes, inclusive el surf, entró en una situación extrema y desconocida, en la que todas las competiciones fueron postergadas y muchas playas fueron cerradas, impidiendo cualquier tipo de práctica. El objetivo primario de este trabajo es identificar los posibles efectos deletéreos provocados por la pandemia de COVID-19 sobre la salud de los surfistas, y el secundario es suministrar recomendaciones prácticas para entrenadores, atletas y practicantes para reducir las consecuencias indeseadas de la cuarentena forzada y guiar el retorno a las actividades deportivas de forma saludable. Los principales problemas apuntados fueron: los efectos en la composición corporal debido al desequilibrio calórico, posibles alteraciones cardíacas y pulmonares provocadas por la COVID-19, síntomas osteomusculares y las consecuencias del desentrenamiento. El trabajo también sugiere recomendaciones de nuevas actitudes en la práctica del deporte. El surf es una modalidad deportiva en crecimiento, que estará presente en la próxima edición de los Juegos Olímpicos de Tokio. A medida que el deporte se profesionaliza y crece, las conductas de soporte de salud de los practicantes se hacen necesarias. El momento actual de pandemia es extremamente delicado y las medidas propuestas en este estudio buscan orientar a los atletas y profesionales vinculados a esta modalidad deportiva, con la finalidad de minimizar los efectos deletéreos de este momento. Nivel de Evidencia: IV; Tipo de Estudio: Revisión Sistemática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Swimming , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Athletes , COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases/virology , Muscular Diseases/virology , Body Composition
17.
Pathol Res Pract ; 221: 153419, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157674

ABSTRACT

Sars-Cov-2 infection is still a healthcare emergency and acute respiratory distress failure with Diffuse Alveolar Damage (DAD) features is the main causes of patients' death. Pathogenic mechanisms of the disease are not clear yet, but new insights are necessary to improve therapeutic management, to prevent fatal irreversible multi-organ damage and to adequately follow up those patients who survive. Here we investigated, by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, a wide number of mapped lung specimens taken from whole body autopsies of 7 patients dead of COVID-19 disease. Our data confirm morphological data of other authors, and enlarge recent reports of the literature suggesting that Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition might be central to COVID-19 lung fibrosing lesions. Furthermore, based upon recent acquisition of new roles in immunity and vascular pathology of the CD31 molecule, we hypothesize that this molecule might be important in the development and treatment of COVID-19 pulmonary lesions. These preliminary findings need further investigations to shed light on the complexity of Sars-Cov-2 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Lung Diseases/pathology , Lung Diseases/virology , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 22, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150431

ABSTRACT

Evidence shows that pulmonary problems in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may set off from vascular injury that progresses to physiological disturbances through a compromised gas exchange, following an infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In this process, inefficient gas exchange in the alveolar could precipitate silent nonclinical hypoxemia. Unfortunately, patients with "silent hypoxemia" do not necessarily experience any breathing difficulty (dyspnea) at the early stage of COVID-19 while the disease progresses. As a result, several asymptomatic, presymptomatic and patients with mild symptoms may escape quarantine measure and thus continue to spread the virus through contacts. Therefore, early diagnosis of "silent hypoxemia", which attracts no clinical warnings, could be an important diagnostic measure to prevent acute respiratory distress syndrome from the risk of pulmonary failure among the presymptomatic and as a screening tool in the asymptomatic who are hitherto potential spreaders of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Lung Diseases/virology , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Lung Diseases/pathology , Oximetry , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Curr Cardiol Rev ; 17(1): 74-77, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136353

ABSTRACT

Since its outbreak in China at the end of 2019, the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was characterized by both easy spreading and high mortality. The latter proved to be way more elevated in the North of Italy -with a peak of 18.4% in region Lombardia and even 31% in the city of Bergamo and surrounding county- than in the rest of the world. In an attempt to conceptualize the reasons for such a dramatic situation, four key elements have been identified: COVID-19 itself, old age, lung disease, and heart failure. Their harmful combination has been named "The deadly quartet". The underlying risk factors, among which a lot of them are distinctive features of the population in northern Italy, have been summarized as "unmodifiable", "partially modifiable", and "modifiable", for the sake of clarity. Up-to-date scientific evidence in this field has been described in the form of a narrative and easy-to-read review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Lung Diseases/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 77, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Even when resting pulse oximetry is normal in the patient with acute Covid-19, hypoxia can manifest on exertion. We summarise the literature on the performance of different rapid tests for exertional desaturation and draw on this evidence base to provide guidance in the context of acute Covid-19. MAIN RESEARCH QUESTIONS: 1. What exercise tests have been used to assess exertional hypoxia at home or in an ambulatory setting in the context of Covid-19 and to what extent have they been validated? 2. What exercise tests have been used to assess exertional hypoxia in other lung conditions, to what extent have they been validated and what is the applicability of these studies to acute Covid-19? METHOD: AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE MEDLINE, Cochrane and PubMed using LitCovid, Scholar and Google databases were searched to September 2020. Studies where participants had Covid-19 or another lung disease and underwent any form of exercise test which was compared to a reference standard were eligible. Risk of bias was assessed using QUADAS 2. A protocol for the review was published on the Medrxiv database. RESULTS: Of 47 relevant papers, 15 were empirical studies, of which 11 described an attempt to validate one or more exercise desaturation tests in lung diseases other than Covid-19. In all but one of these, methodological quality was poor or impossible to fully assess. None had been designed as a formal validation study (most used simple tests of correlation). Only one validation study (comparing a 1-min sit-to-stand test [1MSTST] with reference to the 6-min walk test [6MWT] in 107 patients with interstitial lung disease) contained sufficient raw data for us to calculate the sensitivity (88%), specificity (81%) and positive and negative predictive value (79% and 89% respectively) of the 1MSTST. The other 4 empirical studies included two predictive studies on patients with Covid-19, and two on HIV-positive patients with suspected pneumocystis pneumonia. We found no studies on the 40-step walk test (a less demanding test that is widely used in clinical practice to assess Covid-19 patients). Heterogeneity of study design precluded meta-analysis. DISCUSSION: Exertional desaturation tests have not yet been validated in patients with (or suspected of having) Covid-19. A stronger evidence base exists for the diagnostic accuracy of the 1MSTST in chronic long-term pulmonary disease; the relative intensity of this test may raise safety concerns in remote consultations or unstable patients. The less strenuous 40-step walk test should be urgently evaluated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Exercise Test , Exercise , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Oxygen/blood , Physical Exertion , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea , Exercise Test/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoxia , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/pathology , Lung Diseases/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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