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1.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 276, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Typical features differentiate COVID-19-associated lung injury from acute respiratory distress syndrome. The clinical role of chest computed tomography (CT) in describing the progression of COVID-19-associated lung injury remains to be clarified. We investigated in COVID-19 patients the regional distribution of lung injury and the influence of clinical and laboratory features on its progression. METHODS: This was a prospective study. For each CT, twenty images, evenly spaced along the cranio-caudal axis, were selected. For regional analysis, each CT image was divided into three concentric subpleural regions of interest and four quadrants. Hyper-, normally, hypo- and non-inflated lung compartments were defined. Nonparametric tests were used for hypothesis testing (α = 0.05). Spearman correlation test was used to detect correlations between lung compartments and clinical features. RESULTS: Twenty-three out of 111 recruited patients were eligible for further analysis. Five hundred-sixty CT images were analyzed. Lung injury, composed by hypo- and non-inflated areas, was significantly more represented in subpleural than in core lung regions. A secondary, centripetal spread of lung injury was associated with exposure to mechanical ventilation (p < 0.04), longer spontaneous breathing (more than 14 days, p < 0.05) and non-protective tidal volume (p < 0.04). Positive fluid balance (p < 0.01), high plasma D-dimers (p < 0.01) and ferritin (p < 0.04) were associated with increased lung injury. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory failure, a predominant subpleural distribution of lung injury is observed. Prolonged spontaneous breathing and high tidal volumes, both causes of patient self-induced lung injury, are associated to an extensive involvement of more central regions. Positive fluid balance, inflammation and thrombosis are associated with lung injury. Trial registration Study registered a priori the 20th of March, 2020. Clinical Trials ID NCT04316884.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Lung Injury/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Sweden , Tidal Volume , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
Chin J Traumatol ; 25(3): 170-176, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632163

ABSTRACT

PROPOSE: In this study, we re-assessed the criteria defined by the radiological society of North America (RSNA) to determine novel radiological findings helping the physicians differentiating COVID-19 from pulmonary contusion. METHODS: All trauma patients with blunt chest wall trauma and subsequent pulmonary contusion, COVID-19-related signs and symptoms before the trauma were enrolled in this retrospective study from February to May 2020. Included patients (Group P) were then classified into two groups based on polymerase chain reaction tests (Group Pa for positive patients and Pb for negative ones). Moreover, 44 patients from the pre-pandemic period (Group PP) were enrolled. They were matched to Group P regarding age, sex, and trauma-related scores. Two radiologists blindly reviewed the CT images of all enrolled patients according to criteria defined by the RSNA criteria. The radiological findings were compared between Group P and Group PP; statistically significant ones were re-evaluated between Group Pa and Group Pb thereafter. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of each significant findings were calculated. The Chi-square test was used to compare the radiological findings between Group P and Group PP. RESULTS: In the Group PP, 73.7% of all ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and 80% of all multiple bilateral GGOs were detected (p < 0.001 and p = 0.25, respectively). Single bilateral GGOs were only seen among the Group PP. The Chi-square tests showed that the prevalence of diffused GGOs, multiple unilateral GGOs, multiple consolidations, and multiple bilateral consolidations were significantly higher in the Group P (p = 0.001, 0.01, 0.003, and 0.003, respectively). However, GGOs with irregular borders and single consolidations were more significant among the Group PP (p = 0.01 and 0.003, respectively). Of note, reticular distortions and subpleural spares were exclusively detected in the Group PP. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the criteria set by RSNA for the diagnosis of COVID-19 are not appropriate in trauma patients. The clinical signs and symptoms are not always useful either. The presence of multiple unilateral GGOs, diffused GGOs, and multiple bilateral consolidations favor COVID-19 with 88%, 97.62%, and 77.7% diagnostic accuracy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contusions , Lung Injury , Contusions/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lead , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(1): 270-277, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631285

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare new syndrome occurring after the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine immunization. Patients with VITT are characterized by a variable clinical presentation, likewise also the outcome of these patients is very variable. Here we report the lung ultrastructural findings in the course of VITT of a 58-year-old male patient. Alveoli were mainly dilated, irregular in shape, and occupied by a reticular network of fibrin, while interalveolar septa appeared thickened. The proliferation of small capillaries gave rise to plexiform structures and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis-like features. Near the alveoli occupied by a dense fibrin network, the medium-sized arteries showed a modified wall and an intraluminal thrombus. This scenario looks quite similar to that found during COVID-19, where the lungs suffer from the attack of the antigen-antibodies complexes and the virus respectively. In both diseases, the final outcome is a severe inflammation, activation of the haemostatic system and fibrinolysis.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Lung Injury/etiology , Lung Injury/pathology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fibrin , Humans , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/immunology , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Middle Aged , Parenchymal Tissue/pathology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology
4.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 7686374, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) are indicators of global transmethylation and may play an important role as markers of severity of COVID-19. METHODS: The levels of plasma SAM and SAH were determined in patients admitted with COVID-19 (n = 56, mean age = 61). Lung injury was identified by computed tomography (CT) in accordance with the CT0-4 classification. RESULTS: SAM was found to be a potential marker of lung damage risk in COVID-19 patients (SAM > 80 nM; CT3,4 vs. CT 0-2: relative ratio (RR) was 3.0; p = 0.0029). SAM/SAH > 6.0 was also found to be a marker of lung injury (CT2-4 vs. CT0,1: RR = 3.47, p = 0.0004). There was a negative association between SAM and glutathione level (ρ = -0.343, p = 0.011). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were associated with SAM (ρ = 0.44, p = 0.01) and SAH (ρ = 0.534, p = 0.001) levels. CONCLUSIONS: A high SAM level and high methylation index are associated with the risk of lung injury in patients with COVID-19. The association of SAM with IL-6 and glutathione indicates an important role of transmethylation in the development of cytokine imbalance and oxidative stress in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Injury/blood , S-Adenosylhomocysteine/blood , S-Adenosylmethionine/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Glutathione/blood , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/etiology , Male , Methylation , Middle Aged , Military Personnel , Risk , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
5.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(3): 623-630, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588892

ABSTRACT

AIM: To report on the clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings of adolescents who presented during the SARS-CoV-2 surge with symptoms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), did not test positive for the infection, and were diagnosed with E-cigarette and vaping product use associated lung injury (EVALI). METHODS: A retrospective review of 12 cases of EVALI admitted to the Bristol Meyers Squibb Children's Hospital between February 2020 and June 2020 was conducted. RESULTS: The ages of the patients ranged from 14 to 19 years. There were six males and six females. Three patients had a past history of anxiety, depression, or other psychiatric/mental health disorder, 9 had prolonged coagulation profile (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and/or International Normalized Ratio), and 11 had elevated inflammatory markers. Eight needed respiratory support. All 12 were negative for SARS-CoV-2 PCR. Four were tested for IgG antibodies and were negative. As these cases were admitted to rule out COVID infection, initial treatment included hydroxychloroquine. Steroids were started only after SARS-CoV-2 PCR was shown to be negative. Urine tetrahydrocannabinol was positive in all cases. Chest X-ray and computed tomography findings showed ground glass opacities. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and radiological features are similar in both EVALI and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Inflammatory markers are elevated in both conditions. A detailed social and substance use history in patients presenting with "typical" COVID pneumonia like illness is important. EVALI should be ruled in early to start the appropriate treatment. Given the ongoing pandemic, pediatricians and other health-care providers need to be aware of other conditions that can masquerade as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Lung Injury , Vaping , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/etiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaping/adverse effects , Young Adult
6.
7.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 276, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Typical features differentiate COVID-19-associated lung injury from acute respiratory distress syndrome. The clinical role of chest computed tomography (CT) in describing the progression of COVID-19-associated lung injury remains to be clarified. We investigated in COVID-19 patients the regional distribution of lung injury and the influence of clinical and laboratory features on its progression. METHODS: This was a prospective study. For each CT, twenty images, evenly spaced along the cranio-caudal axis, were selected. For regional analysis, each CT image was divided into three concentric subpleural regions of interest and four quadrants. Hyper-, normally, hypo- and non-inflated lung compartments were defined. Nonparametric tests were used for hypothesis testing (α = 0.05). Spearman correlation test was used to detect correlations between lung compartments and clinical features. RESULTS: Twenty-three out of 111 recruited patients were eligible for further analysis. Five hundred-sixty CT images were analyzed. Lung injury, composed by hypo- and non-inflated areas, was significantly more represented in subpleural than in core lung regions. A secondary, centripetal spread of lung injury was associated with exposure to mechanical ventilation (p < 0.04), longer spontaneous breathing (more than 14 days, p < 0.05) and non-protective tidal volume (p < 0.04). Positive fluid balance (p < 0.01), high plasma D-dimers (p < 0.01) and ferritin (p < 0.04) were associated with increased lung injury. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory failure, a predominant subpleural distribution of lung injury is observed. Prolonged spontaneous breathing and high tidal volumes, both causes of patient self-induced lung injury, are associated to an extensive involvement of more central regions. Positive fluid balance, inflammation and thrombosis are associated with lung injury. Trial registration Study registered a priori the 20th of March, 2020. Clinical Trials ID NCT04316884.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Lung Injury/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Sweden , Tidal Volume , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254167, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295525

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone provides benefits in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), although data regarding immunological profiles and viral clearance are limited. This study aimed to evaluate for differences in biomarkers among patients with severe COVID-19 who did and did not receive dexamethasone. We measured plasma biomarkers of lung epithelial/endothelial injury and inflammation in 31 patients with severe COVID-19 and in 13 controls. Changes in biomarkers and clinical parameters were compared during the 7-day period among COVID-19 patients, and also according to dexamethasone use. Thirty-two patients with severe COVID-19 who received mechanical ventilation (n = 6), high-flow nasal cannula (n = 11), and supplemental oxygen (n = 15) were analyzed. Relative to controls, patients with severe COVID-19 had significantly higher concentrations of biomarkers related to glycocalyx shedding (endocan and syndecan-1), endothelial injury (von Willebrand factor), and inflammation (soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products [sRAGE] and interleukin-6). The 7-day decreases in biomarkers of endothelial injury (angiopoietin-2 [Ang-2] and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]) and sRAGE, but not in the biomarker of lung epithelial injury (surfactant protein D), were correlated with decreases in C-reactive protein and radiologic score at day 7. Twenty patients (63%) received dexamethasone, and the dexamethasone and non-dexamethasone groups differed in terms of disease severity. However, dexamethasone was associated marginally with increased SpO2/FiO2 and significantly with decreases in C-reactive protein and radiologic score after adjusting for baseline imbalances. Furthermore, the dexamethasone group exhibited a significant decrease in the concentrations of Ang-2, ICAM-1, soluble form of the Tie2 receptor (a biomarker of glycocalyx shedding), and sRAGE. Both groups exhibited a clinically insignificant increase in the cycle threshold value. Severe COVID-19 may be characterized by more severe endothelial injury and inflammation, and less severe lung epithelial injury. There is a possibility that dexamethasone improved severe COVID-19 and related endothelial injury without delaying viral clearance.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Viremia/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Lung Injury/blood , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/etiology , Male , Oxygen/blood , Pilot Projects , Viral Load , Viremia/blood
11.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(2)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081352

ABSTRACT

By the beginning of the global pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infection has dramatically impacted on oncology daily practice. In the current oncological landscape, where immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of several malignancies, distinguishing between COVID-19 and immune-mediated pneumonitis can be hard because of shared clinical, radiological and pathological features. Indeed, their common mechanism of aberrant inflammation could lead to a mutual and amplifying interaction.We describe the case of a 65-year-old patient affected by metastatic squamous head and neck cancer and candidate to an experimental therapy including an anti-PD-L1 agent. COVID-19 ground-glass opacities under resolution were an incidental finding during screening procedures and worsened after starting immunotherapy. The diagnostic work-up was consistent with ICIs-related pneumonia and it is conceivable that lung injury by SARS-CoV-2 has acted as an inflammatory primer for the development of the immune-related adverse event.Patients recovered from COVID-19 starting ICIs could be at greater risk of recall immune-mediated pneumonitis. Nasopharyngeal swab and chest CT scan are recommended before starting immunotherapy. The awareness of the phenomenon could allow an easier interpretation of radiological changes under treatment and a faster diagnostic work-up to resume ICIs. In the presence of clinical benefit, for asymptomatic ICIs-related pneumonia a watchful-waiting approach and immunotherapy prosecution are suggested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/diagnosis , Aged , B7-H1 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Lung Injury/diagnosis , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung Injury/virology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Male , Nasopharynx/metabolism , Nasopharynx/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pandemics , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/drug therapy , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/immunology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/virology
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038653

ABSTRACT

A complete understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) physiopathology and related histopathologic lesions is necessary to improve treatment and outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Many studies have focused on autopsy findings in COVID-19-related deaths to try and define any possible specific pattern. Histopathologic alterations are principally found within lungs and blood vessels, and these abnormalities also seem to have the highest clinical impact. Nevertheless, many of the morphological data collected so far are non-specific, fickle, and possibly associated with other co-existing factors. The aim of this minireview is to describe the main histopathological features related to COVID-19 and the mechanism known as "cytokine storm".


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Lung Injury/immunology , Lung Injury/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Autopsy , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2505-2512, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023298

ABSTRACT

To investigate the dynamic changes of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the role of KL-6 as a noninvasive biomarker for predicting long-term lung injury, the clinical information and laboratory tests of 166 COVID-19 patients were collected, and a correlation analysis between KL-6 and other parameters was conducted. There were 17 (10.2%, 17/166) severe/critical and 149 (89.8%, 149/166) mild COVID-19 patients in our cohort. Serum KL-6 was significantly higher in severe/critical COVID-19 patients than in mild patients (median 898.0 vs. 451.2 U/ml, p < .001). KL-6 was next confirmed to be a sensitive and specific biomarker for distinguishing mild and severe/critical patients and correlate to computed tomography lung lesions areas. Serum KL-6 concentration during the follow-up period (>100 days postonset) was well correlated to those concentrations within 10 days postonset (Pearson r = .867, p < .001), indicating the prognostic value of KL-6 levels in predicting lung injury after discharge. Finally, elevated KL-6 was found to be significantly correlated to coagulation disorders, and T cells subsets dysfunctions. In summary, serum KL-6 is a biomarker for assessing COVID-19 severity and predicting the prognosis of lung injury of discharged patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Lung Injury/blood , Mucin-1/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
14.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(1): 29-41, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994132

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Previous studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were mainly focused on cross-sectional analysis. In this study, we sought to evaluate the dynamic changes of immunological and radiographic features, and the association with the outcome of pulmonary lesions in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Peripheral blood samples and radiographic data were collected longitudinally for up to 8 weeks from 158 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients. The chest computed tomography (CT) scans were scored based on a semi-quantification assessment according to the extent of pulmonary abnormalities; the temporal change of the immunological and radiographic features was analyzed. Results: Compared with mild and moderate patients, severe patients had significantly decreased counts of lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells but dramatically elevated counts of neutrophils and levels of interleukin (IL)-6. Sequential monitoring showed a sustained increase in lymphocytes counts and significantly decreased levels of IL-6 in severe patients during the disease course. Notably, patients with persistent pulmonary lesions (CT score ≥ 5 in week 8) showed high levels of IL-6 during the follow-up period, compared with those with recovery lesions (CT score < 5 in week 8). More importantly, the peak expression of IL-6 prior to the aggravated lung injury was mainly found in patients with persistent lesions, and multivariate analysis showed that IL-6 level upon admission was an independent factor associated with the persistent pulmonary injury. Conclusion: Prolonged elevation of IL-6 is associated with persistent pulmonary lesions in COVID-19 patients. Sequential monitoring and timely intervention of IL-6 may favor the clinical management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Injury/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/virology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
15.
J Ultrasound Med ; 40(9): 1823-1838, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921733

ABSTRACT

Scarce data exist regarding the natural history of lung lesions detected on ultrasound in those who survive severe COVID-19 pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: We performed a prospective analysis of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) findings in critically ill COVID-19 patients during and after hospitalization. METHODS: We enrolled 171 COVID-19 intensive care unit patients. POCUS of the lungs was performed with phased array (2-4 MHz), convex (2-6 MHz) and linear (10-15 MHz) transducers, scanning 12 lung areas. Chest computed tomography angiography was performed to exclude suspected pulmonary embolism. Survivors were clinically and sonographically evaluated during a 4 month period for evidence of residual lung injury. Chest computed tomography angiography and echocardiography were used to exclude pulmonary hypertension (PH) and chest high-resolution-computed-tomography to exclude interstitial lung disease (ILD) in symptomatic survivors. RESULTS: Cox regression analysis showed that lymphocytopenia (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.88, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.68-0.96, p = .048), increased lactate (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.94-1.46, p = 0.049), and D-dimers (HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.03-1.44, p = .03) were mortality predictors. Non-survivors had increased incidence of pulmonary abnormalities (B-lines, pleural line irregularities, and consolidations) compared to survivors (p < .05). During follow-up, POCUS with clinical and laboratory parameters integrated in the semi-quantitative Riyadh-Residual-Lung-Injury scale had sensitivity of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.89) and specificity of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.94-0.95) in predicting ILD. The prevalence of PH and ILD (non-specific-interstitial-pneumonia) was 7% and 11.8%, respectively. CONCLUSION: POCUS showed ability to monitor the evolution of severe COVID-19 pneumonia after hospital discharge, supporting its integration in clinical predictive models of residual lung injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Critical Illness , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
16.
J Addict Med ; 15(3): 258-260, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835176

ABSTRACT

E-cigarette or vaping, product associated lung injury is a rampant public health issue with a total of 2807 reported hospitalized patients in the United States as of February 18, 2020. Limited data, non-specific symptoms, non-responsiveness to antibiotics, and the lack of a specific biomarker, make it a diagnosis of exclusion. Overlap of clinical and imaging findings with other ongoing respiratory illness (MERS, SARS and COVID-19) poses a challenge in accurate diagnosis. We compiled 3 cases of patients hospitalized with confirmed vaping-associated lung injury and analyzed their imaging patterns, which revealed bilateral consolidation, ground-glass opacities and pleural effusions. We also reviewed the available literature on pathophysiology, imaging findings of EVALI and other respiratory illness.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/etiology , Vaping/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Lung Injury/epidemiology , Lung Injury/pathology , Male , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(3)2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745210

ABSTRACT

'Tree-in-bud' (TIB) appearance in computed tomography (CT) chest is most commonly a manifestation of infection. We here describe an unusual cause of TIB during the COVID-19 pandemic. A young male patient who had a history of fever, cough, and respiratory distress presented in the emergency department. As these symptoms matched with coronavirus infection, the COVID-19 test was done, which was found negative. He was then moved to the intensive care unit where he developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and was put on mechanical ventilation. Further workup did not reveal any source of infection, as all his cultures were negative, but his CT chest showed a tree-in-bud appearance. After obtaining a detailed history from his friends, the patient was found a chronic abuser of inhaled cocaine and treated with intravenous steroids. Subsequently, he was weaned from the ventilator and discharged from the intensive care unit after becoming asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
Cocaine Smoking/adverse effects , Cocaine-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung Injury/etiology , Lung Injury/therapy , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(3)2020 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740518

ABSTRACT

Lung Ultrasound (LUS) is regarded to be potentially useful to diagnose lung injury in older adults living in nursing homes with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. We aimed at evaluating presence lung injury among senior nursing home residents by LUS performed with portable wireless scanner echography. The study population consisted of 150 residents with a mean age of 88 years (85% female) residing in 12 nursing homes in Northern Italy. Subjects had to have a history of recent onset of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 pneumonia or have been exposed to the contagion of patients carrying the disease. COVID-19 testing was performed with SARS-CoV-2 nasal-pharyngeal (NP) swabs. Positive subjects to LUS scanning were considered those with non-coascelent B-lines in >3 zones, coalescent B-lines in >3 zones and with iperdensed patchy non-consolidated lungs. Sixty-three percent had positive NP testing and 65% had LUS signs of pulmonary injury. LUS had a sensitivity of 79% in predicting positive NP testing. Sixteen percent of residents tested negative for SARSCoV-2 carried the signs of COVID-19 lung injury at LUS. There were 92 patients (61%) with current or recent symptoms.Positivity to LUS scanning was reported in 73% of residents with symptoms, while it was 53% in those without (P=0.016). A positive NP testing was observed in 66% of residents with symptoms and in 57% of those without (P=0.27). We conclude that assessment of LUS by portable wireless scanner echography can be profitability utilized to diagnose lung injury among senior nursing home residents with or without symptoms compatible with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Ultrasonography , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography/instrumentation , Ultrasonography/methods , Wireless Technology
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