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1.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (12): 15-19, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599981

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the features of preoperative preparation and postoperative outcomes in patients with lung cancer and previous COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 7 patients with non-small cell lung cancer and previous bilateral viral pneumonia between June 2020 and January 2021. In 3 cases, lung cancer was detected in a hospital for COVID-19 patients. Four patients had persistent structural changes in X-ray images. After appropriate preparation, all patients underwent total resection. RESULTS: At admission, all patients had severe physical and functional exhaustion associated with prolonged hypoxia and adynamia that required preoperative rehabilitation. Considering high risk of thromboembolic complications, we administered anticoagulation throughout the entire perioperative period and after discharge. Surgical treatment included anatomical resection (extended lobectomy). Postoperative complications occurred in 2 cases and were associated with prolonged air discharge through the pleural drainage tube. CONCLUSION: As we study the consequences of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19, it becomes obvious that a new category of patients requiring specific diagnosis and treatment has emerged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , Lung , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(1): 61-65, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report our experience in starting RATS (robotic-assisted thoracic surgery) lobectomy program during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data from 20 consecutive cases undergoing RATS lobectomy between August 2020 and April 2021 were prospectively accumulated into our database. RESULTS: The mean operational time was 235±69 minutes (median 210, range 175 to 370). Conversion-to-open rate was 5 %. One patient was converted to an open procedure during surgery due to surgical bleeding. One patient (5 %), with sever chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), had prolonged air leak with chest drainage 11 days and conservative treatment. Morbidity rate was 10 % (2 patients). Estimated costs of RATS lobectomy in our department were $9,590 (range $8,250-$12,730). 30-days mortality was 0%. CONCLUSIONS: Safe robotic surgery is based not only on improved robotic equipment, but also on good technical skills and medical knowledge. It requires training of the entire operating room team. The learning curve is steep, involving port placement, use of the correct robotic arms, availability of the proper instrumentation, and proper patient positioning (Tab. 2, Ref. 28).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Pandemics , Pneumonectomy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
3.
Tuberk Toraks ; 69(4): 499-509, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594579

ABSTRACT

Introduction: One of the patient groups adversely affected during the COVID19 pandemic is those suffering with cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of lung cancer (LC) patients with COVID-19. Materials and Methods: Three thousand seven-hundred and fifty hospitalized patients with a presumptive diagnosis of COVID-19 in a tertiary referral hospital between March 2020-February 2021 were retrospectively evaluated. Among them, 36 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with a history of primary LC were included in the study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to assess the risk factors associated with severe disease. Result: Of the 36 patients included in the study, 28 (77%) were males and 8 (23%) were females. Median age was 67 years (min-max: 53-81 years). Six patients (17%) had a diagnosis of small cell LC, whereas 30 patients (83%) had a diagnosis of non-small cell LC. The most common symptoms were fever (n= 28, 77%), coughing and myalgia (n= 21, 58%) and dyspnea (n= 18, 50%). The most common radiological finding was ground glass opacity (GGO) (n= 30), of which 13 was bilateral and 17 was unilateral in distribution. Nearly 30% (n= 11) of LC patients with COVID-19 developed severe disease, 5% (n= 2) of the 36 patients were admitted to intensive care unit and all of these patients eventually expired. LC patients with COVID-19 and patchy consolidation on computed tomography of thorax (Th CT) on admission had a higher risk of developing severe disease in univariate (HR 2.41, 95%CI: 1.4- 4.4, p= 0.04) and multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR 0.48, 95%CI: 0.24-0.97, p= 0.03). Conclusions: Clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiographic findings were similar in LC patients with COVID-19 when compared with the general population, LC patients have a higher mortality rate than the general population, with a 5% mortality rate in our series. Our findings suggest that LC may be a risk factor associated with the prognosis of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Aged , Female , Humans , Lung , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 745925, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581122

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted much of day-to-day life in the US and around the world. Smokers have a higher risk of adverse outcomes due to COVID-19. This study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on risky behaviors and health changes in lower income African-American smokers eligible for Low dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening, who may be more adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 22 African-American daily smokers who were eligible for LDCT screening participated in this study. The mean age of participants was 61.2 years old (SD = 4.7), 77.3% of the smokers were female, all participants had an income below $20,000, and 63.6% were on Medicaid. Descriptive statistics were used to provide summary information on demographics, COVID-19, and health status. Results showed that participants increased cigarette smoking, spent more time on screens, increased sugary drink consumption, consumed more vegetables and fruits, and engaged in more gardening activities during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, participants also decreased physical activity time and slept less during the pandemic. In general, more than one-third of participants gained more body weight and reported increased stress and anxiety. Our results suggest that African-American smokers who qualify for LDCT screening should be encouraged to consider strategies not only for smoking cessation, but also risky behavior control and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , African Americans , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smokers , United States/epidemiology
6.
Workplace Health Saf ; 69(12): 580-584, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571726

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses challenges for palliative care. Terminal patients cannot wear masks and may demonstrate unspecific symptoms reminiscent of those caused by COVID-19. This report is about a terminally ill patient with lung cancer who displayed fever, cough, and fatigue. During hospital admission screening, the patient tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. When admitting his wife to stay with him, she also had to test for SARS-CoV-2 and displayed a positive test result. Until the positive results were reported, six staff members were infected with SARS-CoV-2, even though they were routinely wearing respirators. This resulted in the palliative care unit having to be closed. Hospitals need strict and adequate testing and re-testing strategies even for intra-hospital transfers. Workers must strictly adhere to recommended respirator practices. Ventilation of patient rooms is essential due to the possible enrichment of particle aerosols containing viruses, as negative pressure rooms are not recommended in all countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Male , Palliative Care , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Terminally Ill
8.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 112023, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the latest global spatio-temporal pattern of lung cancer burden attributable to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) is crucial to prioritize global lung cancer prevention, as well as environment improvement. METHODS: Data on lung cancer attributable to ambient PM2.5 were downloaded from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019. The numbers and age-standardized rates on lung cancer mortality (ASMR) and disability-adjusted life years (ASDR) were estimated by age, sex, region, and country. We used estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) to quantify the temporal trends of ASMR and ASDR from 1990 to 2019. RESULTS: In 2019, the number of global lung cancer deaths and DALYs attributable to ambient PM2.5 was approximately 0.31 million and 7.02 million respectively, among which more deaths and DALYs occurred in males. At GBD region level, the heaviest burden occurred in East Asia, accounting for over 50% worldwide, with China ranked first worldwide. The number of ambient PM2.5 attributable lung cancer deaths and DALYs has over doubled from 1990 to 2019, but high sociodemographic index (SDI) region had a rapid decrease, with EAPC -2.21 in ASMR (95% CI: -2.32, -2.09). The age-specific mortality rate or DALY rate has increased in all age groups in low to middle SDI regions from 1990 to 2019. The ASMR or ASDR showed an inverted V-shaped association with SDI. The EAPC in ASMR or ASDR was highly negatively correlated with ASMR or ASDR in 1990 and SDI in 2019, with coefficients around 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: The number of ambient PM2.5-related lung cancer deaths and DALYs has largely increased because of the increase of exposure to PM2.5, population growth, and aging. Local governments should do economic activities under the consideration of public health, especially in high-burden areas.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Particulate Matter , Disability-Adjusted Life Years , Global Burden of Disease , Global Health , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Male , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(11)2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534176

ABSTRACT

In forensic pathology, apparently straightforward cases can often hide rarities that, if not correctly interpreted, can alter the results of the entire investigation, leading to misinterpretations. This occurs when the investigation is conducted to assess medical malpractice. An unexpected death, with no known apparent cause, is often linked to an underlying disease process of unclear etiological origin whose nature can, unfortunately, be properly investigated only post-mortem. This presentation shows a case study, in which it was possible to reconduct the death of a patient to a natural pathology and not to medical treatment. Here, the authors illustrate a case with a hamartoma developed in chronic inflammatory conditions (bronchiectasis) that was difficult to differentiate from lung cancer due to the inability to perform specific instrumental examinations. The hamartoma, usually benign and identifiable by standard instrumental investigations, in this case, led to the patient's death precisely during the execution of a bronchoscopy. However, in the absence of a certain cause of death, public opinion unanimously attributes a patient's disease to medical error. Indeed, a routine practice such as bronchoscopy should not cause death and consequently, the doctor must have made a mistake. Fortunately, the autopsy not only demonstrated the origin of the bleeding but also unveiled the reason for this, as rare congenital lung disease. Fate, one might say.


Subject(s)
Hamartoma , Lung Neoplasms , Malpractice , Cause of Death , Hamartoma/complications , Hamartoma/diagnosis , Humans , Retrospective Studies
11.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 23(11): 134, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530397

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the past year, the fast spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has represented a global health threat, especially for cancer patients, that has required an urgent reorganization of clinical activities. Here, we will critically revise the profound impact that the pandemic has generated in lung cancer patients, as well the most significant challenges that oncologists have to face to maintain the highest possible standards in the management of lung cancer patients in the pandemic era. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidences suggested a higher susceptibility and mortality of lung cancer patients due to COVID-19. The hard management of this patient population has been also due to the potential cross interference of anti-tumor drugs on SARS-Cov-2 infection and to the differential diagnosis between COVID-19 pneumonitis and drug-related pneumonitis. COVID-19 pandemic has generated a profound reshaping of oncological activities and the development of recommendations by the oncology scientific community to prioritize anti-tumor treatments for lung cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Comorbidity , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Medical Oncology/methods , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 7005-7017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524524

ABSTRACT

The tumor suppressor protein p53 remains in a wild type but inactive form in ~50% of all human cancers. Thus, activating it becomes an attractive approach for targeted cancer therapies. In this regard, our lab has previously discovered a small molecule, Inauhzin (INZ), as a potent p53 activator with no genotoxicity. Method: To improve its efficacy and bioavailability, here we employed nanoparticle encapsulation, making INZ-C, an analog of INZ, to nanoparticle-encapsulated INZ-C (n-INZ-C). Results: This approach significantly improved p53 activation and inhibition of lung and colorectal cancer cell growth by n-INZ-C in vitro and in vivo while it displayed a minimal effect on normal human Wi38 and mouse MEF cells. The improved activity was further corroborated with the enhanced cellular uptake observed in cancer cells and minimal cellular uptake observed in normal cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of these nanoparticles showed that the nanoparticle encapsulation prolongates the half-life of INZ-C from 2.5 h to 5 h in mice. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that we have established a nanoparticle system that could enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of INZ-C as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Indoles/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacokinetics , Indoles/therapeutic use , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Phenothiazines/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacokinetics , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
13.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(11): 1108, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507022
14.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(12): 1792-1799, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506038
15.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505920

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on outcomes in lung cancer leading to later stage presentation, less curative treatment and higher mortality. This has amplified the existing problem of late-stage presentation in lung cancer and is a call to arms for a multifaceted strategy to address this, including public awareness campaigns to promote healthcare review in patients with persistent chest symptoms. We report the learning from patient and public insight work from across the North of England exploring the barriers to seeking healthcare review with persistent chest symptoms. Members of the public described how a lack of importance is placed on the common symptoms of lung cancer and a feeling of being unworthy of review by healthcare professionals. They would feel motivated to seek review by dispelling the nihilism of lung cancer and would be able to take action more easily by removing the logistical hassle in the process. We propose a four-pillar framework (validation-endorsement-motivation-action) for developing the content of any public awareness campaigns promoting early diagnosis of lung cancer based on the findings of this comprehensive insight work. All providers and commissioners must work together to overcome the perceived and real barriers to patients with persistent chest symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21526, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500514

ABSTRACT

Earlier in 2020, seven Italian regions, which cover 62% of the Italian population, set up the Mimico-19 network to monitor the side effects of the restrictive measures against Covid-19 on volumes and quality of care. To this aim, we retrospectively analysed hospital discharges data, computing twelve indicators of volume and performance in three clinical areas: cardiology, oncology, and orthopaedics. Weekly indicators for the period January-July 2020 were compared with the corresponding average for 2018-2019; comparisons were performed within 3 sub-periods: pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-lockdown. The weekly trend of hospitalisations for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) showed a 40% reduction, but the proportion of STEMI patients with a primary PTCA did not significantly change from previous years. Malignant neoplasms surgery volumes differed substantially by site, with a limited reduction for lung cancer (< 20%) and greater declines (30-40%) for breast and prostate cancers. The percentage of timely surgery for femoral neck in the elderly remained constantly higher than the previous 2 years whereas hip and knee replacements fell dramatically. Hospitalisations have generally decreased, but the capacity of a timely and effective response in time-dependent pathways of care was not jeopardized throughout the period. General trends did not show important differences across regions, regardless of the different burden of Covid-19. Preventive and primary care services should adopt a pro-active approach, moving towards the identification of at-risk conditions that were neglected during the pandemic and timely addressing patients to the secondary care system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/statistics & numerical data , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/statistics & numerical data , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Italy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/pathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
18.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(11): 1821-1839, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492352

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which enters host cells through the cell surface proteins ACE2 and TMPRSS2. METHODS: Using a variety of normal and malignant models and tissues from the aerodigestive and respiratory tracts, we investigated the expression and regulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. RESULTS: We find that ACE2 expression is restricted to a select population of epithelial cells. Notably, infection with SARS-CoV-2 in cancer cell lines, bronchial organoids, and patient nasal epithelium induces metabolic and transcriptional changes consistent with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including up-regulation of ZEB1 and AXL, resulting in an increased EMT score. In addition, a transcriptional loss of genes associated with tight junction function occurs with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2, is repressed by EMT through the transforming growth factor-ß, ZEB1 overexpression, and onset of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. This suggests a novel model of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in which infected cells shift toward an increasingly mesenchymal state, associated with a loss of tight junction components with acute respiratory distress syndrome-protective effects. AXL inhibition and ZEB1 reduction, as with bemcentinib, offer a potential strategy to reverse this effect. CONCLUSIONS: These observations highlight the use of aerodigestive and, especially, lung cancer model systems in exploring the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses and offer important insights into the potential mechanisms underlying the morbidity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 in healthy patients and patients with cancer alike.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Bronchi , Humans , Lung , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Oncology (Williston Park) ; 35(1): 26-28, 2021 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485807

ABSTRACT

Against the difficult and trying backdrop of the pandemic, cancer investigators persisted, and for patients with lung cancer, that persistence paid off in spectacular ways. With several new FDA approved treatments, as well as 2 new targetable mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 2020 was a banner year in the overall lung cancer space. ONCOLOGY® recently sat down with Jennifer W. Carlisle, MD, of Emory University's Winship Cancer Institute, to discuss the many advances made during the last year for patients with lung cancer along with her hopes for further significant milestones in the year to come.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Precision Medicine , SARS-CoV-2
20.
In Vivo ; 35(6): 3333-3337, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: A considerable number of patients with lung cancer are scheduled for definitive or adjuvant radiotherapy. Prevalence and potential risk factors of pre-radiotherapy sleep disturbances were evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nineteen factors were retrospectively investigated for associations with pre-radiotherapy sleep disturbances in 77 lung cancer patients. Factors included COVID-19 pandemic; age; gender; performance score; comorbidity index; history of another malignancy; distress score; number of emotional, physical or practical problems; patient's request for psychological support; histology; tumor stage; upfront surgery; chemotherapy; and type of radiotherapy. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients (40.3%) reported sleep disturbances that were significantly associated with distress score 6-10 (p=0.019), ≥2 emotional problems (p=0.001), ≥5 physical problems (p<0.001), and request for psychological support (p=0.006). Trends were found for female gender (p=0.064) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (p=0.057). CONCLUSION: Many lung cancer patients assigned to radiotherapy reported sleep disturbances. Risk factors can be used to identify patients in need of psychological support already before treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Pandemics , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
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