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1.
Intern Med ; 61(8): 1219-1223, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089579

ABSTRACT

A 44-year-old man developed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia during immunochemotherapy consisting of carboplatin, paclitaxel, and pembrolizumab for non-small cell lung cancer. Low-grade fever, followed by mild hypoxemia, and febrile neutropenia, were observed, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was administered until the recovery of neutropenia, when he developed a high fever, severe hypoxemia, and hypotension accompanied by consolidation in the bilateral lungs. His conditions promptly improved after treatment including hydrocortisone and the primary and metastatic tumors remained regressed for 10 months without further treatment. Post-COVID-19 organizing pneumonia during cancer immunochemotherapy can be aggravated by immune-checkpoint inhibitors and G-CSF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Adult , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16040, 2022 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050522

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a serious threat to human health and life. The effective prevention and treatment of COVID-19 complications have become crucial to saving patients' lives. During the phase of mass spread of the epidemic, a large number of patients with pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancers were inevitably infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Lung cancers have the highest tumor morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, and pulmonary fibrosis itself is one of the complications of COVID-19. Idiopathic lung fibrosis (IPF) and various lung cancers (primary and metastatic) become risk factors for complications of COVID-19 and significantly increase mortality in patients. Therefore, we applied bioinformatics and systems biology approaches to identify molecular biomarkers and common pathways in COVID-19, IPF, colorectal cancer (CRC) lung metastasis, SCLC and NSCLC. We identified 79 DEGs between COVID-19, IPF, CRC lung metastasis, SCLC and NSCLC. Meanwhile, based on the transcriptome features of DSigDB and common DEGs, we identified 10 drug candidates. In this study, 79 DEGs are the common core genes of the 5 diseases. The 10 drugs were found to have positive effects in treating COVID-19 and lung cancer, potentially reducing the risk of pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung Neoplasms , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Computational Biology , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273691, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is spreading rapidly worldwide, and the population is generally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, especially those with cancer. Hence, our study aims to design a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical characteristics and prognoses of lung cancer patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The protocol is prepared following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The literature will be searched in Embase, Pubmed, the Cochrane Library, LitCovid, and CNKI for potentially eligible articles. The quality of the articles will be used in the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) and Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Statistical analysis will be performed through RevMan 5 software. This review protocol has been registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022306866). DISCUSSION: To clarify whether COVID-19 affects the clinical symptoms and prognoses of lung cancer patients. Further study is needed to establish the best evidence-based for the management of lung cancer patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The definitive conclusion will be important to physicians effectively manage lung cancer patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
4.
Thorac Cancer ; 13(20): 2911-2914, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019069

ABSTRACT

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a systemic inflammatory disease caused by a variety of factors, including infections and certain drugs. A 70-year-old man who was diagnosed with a postoperative recurrence of lung adenocarcinoma received nivolumab, ipilimumab, pemetrexed and carboplatin every 3 weeks for two cycles followed by nivolumab and ipilimumab, which resulted in a partial response. Four days after the dose of nivolumab, the patient returned with diarrhea and fever. The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 infection accompanied by severe colitis. Although intensive care was performed, the patient suddenly went into cardiopulmonary arrest. Examination revealed an abnormally high interleukin-6 level, suggesting CRS. This is the first report of a patient with CRS accompanied with COVID-19 infection during treatment with ICIs. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a systemic inflammatory disease caused by a variety of factors, including infections and certain drugs. Here, we report a case of non-small cell lung cancer with CRS caused by COVID-19 infection during treatment with nivolumab and ipilimumab. Fever is a common event in cancer patients, especially in COVID-19-infected patients, but when fever develops during cancer immunotherapy, CRS should always be kept in mind.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Carboplatin/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Ipilimumab/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Nivolumab/adverse effects , Pemetrexed/therapeutic use
5.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 687, 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) may be more predisposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and have a poorer prognosis. Currently, there is still a lack of effective anti-LUAD/COVID-19 drugs. Thus, this study aimed to screen for an effective anti-LUAD/COVID-19 drug and explore the potential mechanisms. METHODS: Firstly, we performed differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis on LUAD transcriptome profiling data in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), where intersections with COVID-19-related genes were screened out. Then, we conducted Cox proportional hazards analyses on these LUAD/COVID-19 DEGs to construct a risk score. Next, LUAD/COVID-19 DEGs were uploaded on Connectivity Map to obtain drugs for anti-LUAD/COVID-19. Finally, we used network pharmacology, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to explore the drug's therapeutic targets and potential mechanisms for anti-LUAD/COVID-19. RESULTS: We identified 230 LUAD/COVID-19 DEGs and constructed a risk score containing 7 genes (BTK, CCL20, FURIN, LDHA, TRPA1, ZIC5, and SDK1) that could classify LUAD patients into two risk groups. Then, we screened emetine as an effective drug for anti-LUAD/COVID-19. Network pharmacology analyses identified 6 potential targets (IL6, DPP4, MIF, PRF1, SERPING1, and SLC6A4) for emetine in anti-LUAD/COVID-19. Molecular docking and MD simulation analyses showed that emetine exhibited excellent binding capacities to DDP4 and the main protease (Mpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that emetine may inhibit the entry and replication of SARS-CoV-2 and enhance tumor immunity by bounding to DDP4 and Mpro.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung , COVID-19 , Emetine , Lung Neoplasms , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/complications , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Emetine/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors/genetics
6.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 551, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated pneumonitis has a high mortality rate; however, information regarding the related risk factors remains limited. This study aimed to analyze risk factors for pneumonitis, including smoking and lung metastasis (LM), in patients with extrapulmonary primary tumors. METHODS: Data of 110 patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) (nivolumab/pembrolizumab) for treating extrapulmonary primary tumors at the Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital between January 2015 and December 2019 were retrospectively collected. The association between the onset of pneumonitis and treatment-related factors was analyzed by logistic regression. The severity of pneumonitis was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0. Risk factors, such as the absence or presence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and LM, or other clinical factors, including smoking status before ICI administration, were analyzed. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses indicated that the amount of smoking was significantly associated with an increase in the development of all-grade pneumonitis types (odds ratio (OR) = 20.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 20.03-20.66; p = 0.029). LM and ILD were significantly related to an increase in the development of symptomatic pneumonitis (≥ Grade 2) (OR = 10.08, 95% CI = 1.69-199.81; p = 0.076, and OR = 6.76, 95% CI = 1.13-40.63; p = 0.037, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-screening for ILD and LM and recognizing patients' smoking history is important for determining the risk of ICI-induced pneumonitis and allowing safe ICI administration.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung Neoplasms , Pneumonia , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
7.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1148, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that the skeletal muscle index at the third lumbar vertebra (L3 SMI) had reasonable specificity and sensitivity in nutritional assessment and prognostic prediction in digestive system cancers, but its performance in lung cancer needs further investigation. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 110 patients with advanced lung cancer. The L3 SMI, the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score (PG-SGA score), body mass index (BMI), and serological indicators were analyzed. According to PG-SGA scores, patients were divided into severe malnutrition (≥9 points), mild to moderate malnutrition (≥3 points and ≤ 8 points), and no malnutrition (≤2 points) groups. Pearson correlation and logistic regression analysis were adopted to find factors related to malnutrition, and a forest plot was drawn. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to compare the diagnostic values of malnutrition among factors, which were expressed by the area under curve (AUC). RESULTS: 1. The age of patients in the severe malnutrition group, the mild to moderate malnutrition group, and the no malnutrition group significantly differed, with mean ages of 63.46 ± 10.01 years, 60.42 ± 8.76 years, and 55.03 ± 10.40 years, respectively (OR = 1.062, 95%CI: 1.008 ~ 1.118, P = 0.024; OR = 1.100, 95%CI: 1.034 ~ 1.170, P = 0.002). Furthermore, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) of the severe malnutrition group was significantly higher than that of the no malnutrition group, with statistical significance. The difference between the mild to moderate malnutrition group and the no malnutrition group were not statistically significant, with NLR of 4.07 ± 3.34 and 2.47 ± 0.92, respectively (OR = 1.657,95%CI: 1.036 ~ 2.649, P = 0.035). The L3 SMI of patients in the severe malnutrition and mild to moderate malnutrition groups were significantly lower than that of the patients in the no malnutrition group, with statistical significance. The L3 SMI of patients in the severe malnutrition group, mild to moderate malnutrition group, and no malnutrition group were 27.40 ± 4.25 cm2/m2, 38.19 ± 6.17 cm2/m2, and 47.96 ± 5.02 cm2/m2, respectively (OR = 0.600, 95%CI: 0.462 ~ 0.777, P < 0.001; OR = 0.431, 95%CI: 0.320 ~ 0.581, P < 0.001). 2. The Pearson correlation analysis showed that the PG-SGA score positively correlated with age (r = 0.296, P < 0.05) but negatively correlated with L3 SMI (r = - 0.857, P < 0.05). The L3 SMI was also negatively correlated with age (r = - 0.240, P < 0.05). 3. The multivariate analysis showed that the L3 SMI was an independent risk factor for malnutrition (OR = 0.446, 95%CI: 0.258 ~ 0.773, P = 0.004; OR = 0.289, 95%CI: 0.159 ~ 0.524, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: 1. The differences in the L3 SMI was statistically significant among advanced lung cancer patients with different nutritional statuses. 2. In the nutritional assessment of patients with lung cancer, the L3 SMI was consistent with the PG-SGA. 3. The L3 SMI is an independent predictor of malnutrition in patients with advanced lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms/complications , Malnutrition/etiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Vertebral Body/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Clin Lab ; 67(11)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma (IgD-MM) is a rare but aggressive disease. The safety and effectiveness of anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody (daratumumab) have not been known in either IgD-MM or MM complicated with secondary neoplasm. METHODS: A fragile IgD-MM patient had an aggressively relapsed disease concurrent with lung cancer and severe thrombocytopenia, which led to a dilemma for management. After a failure of ixazomib-based chemotherapy, a salvage therapy with daratumumab unexpectedly induced complete remission and platelet recovery, and the patient successfully proceeded to lung cancer surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Our case indicates daratumumab is both safe and effective for refractory IgD-MM with severe complications.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Multiple Myeloma , Thrombocytopenia , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy
9.
Asian J Surg ; 45(8): 1553-1558, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814136

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is limited literature on patients with a history of COVID-19 pneumonia who underwent anatomical lung resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study was aimed to share the early postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent lung resection after COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 30 patients who underwent lobectomy with thoracotomy and systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection due to NSCLC in a single center between November 2018 and September 2021. The patients were divided into two groups regarding COVID-19 pneumonia history; the COVID-19 group consisted of 14 patients (46.7%) and the non-COVID-19 group 16 (53.3%) patients. The patients' age, gender, comorbidity, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) value, tumor type and size, resection type, postoperative air leak duration, total drainage volume, drain removal time, postoperative complications, and length of stay (LOS) were recorded. RESULTS: 9 (30%) patients were female, and 21 (70%) were male. The mean age was 62.1 ± 8.91 years. Our comparison of postoperative air leak duration, total drainage volume, time to drain removal, postoperative complications, and LOS between the COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups revealed no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: Anatomical lung resection can be performed safely in NSCLC patients with a history of COVID-19 pneumonia without significant difference in early postoperative morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonectomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted/adverse effects
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 846605, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798935

ABSTRACT

Cigarette smoking is reported in about one third of adults worldwide. A strong relationship between cigarette smoke exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as lung cancer has been proven. However, about 15% of lung cancer cases, and between one fourth and one third of COPD cases, occur in never-smokers. The effects of cigarette smoke on the innate as well as the adaptive immune system have been widely investigated. It is assumed that certain immunologic features contribute to lung cancer and COPD development in the absence of smoking as the major risk factor. In this article, we review different immunological aspects of lung cancer and COPD with a special focus on non-smoking related risk factors.


Subject(s)
Cigarette Smoking , Lung Neoplasms , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , Causality , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Risk Factors , Tobacco
12.
Mol Med Rep ; 25(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715860

ABSTRACT

In addition to the angiotensin­converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a number of host cell entry mediators have been identified for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus­2 (SARS­CoV­2), including transmembrane protease serine 4 (TMPRSS4). The authors have recently demonstrated the upregulation of TMPRSS4 in 11 different cancers, as well as its specific expression within the central nervous system using in silico tools. The present study aimed to expand the initial observations and, using immunohistochemistry, TMPRSS4 protein expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and lungs was further mapped. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue arrays and lung tissues of patients with non­small cell lung cancer with concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) infection using TMPRSS4 antibody. The results revealed that TMPRSS4 was abundantly expressed in the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, jejunum, ileum, colon, liver and pancreas. Moreover, the extensive TMPRSS4 protein expression in the lungs of a deceased patient with COVID­19 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial carcinoma, as well in the adjacent normal tissue, was demonstrated for the first time, at least to the best of our knowledge. On the whole, the immunohistochemistry data of the present study suggest that TMPRSS4 may be implicated in the broader (pulmonary and extra­pulmonary) COVID­19 symptomatology; thus, it may be responsible for the tropism of this coronavirus both in the GI tract and lungs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung/pathology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/virology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Male , Membrane Proteins/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/analysis , Virus Internalization
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e220130, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700096

ABSTRACT

Importance: Large cohorts of patients with active cancers and COVID-19 infection are needed to provide evidence of the association of recent cancer treatment and cancer type with COVID-19 mortality. Objective: To evaluate whether systemic anticancer treatments (SACTs), tumor subtypes, patient demographic characteristics (age and sex), and comorbidities are associated with COVID-19 mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: The UK Coronavirus Cancer Monitoring Project (UKCCMP) is a prospective cohort study conducted at 69 UK cancer hospitals among adult patients (≥18 years) with an active cancer and a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. Patients registered from March 18 to August 1, 2020, were included in this analysis. Exposures: SACT, tumor subtype, patient demographic characteristics (eg, age, sex, body mass index, race and ethnicity, smoking history), and comorbidities were investigated. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was all-cause mortality within the primary hospitalization. Results: Overall, 2515 of 2786 patients registered during the study period were included; 1464 (58%) were men; and the median (IQR) age was 72 (62-80) years. The mortality rate was 38% (966 patients). The data suggest an association between higher mortality in patients with hematological malignant neoplasms irrespective of recent SACT, particularly in those with acute leukemias or myelodysplastic syndrome (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.30-3.60) and myeloma or plasmacytoma (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.04-2.26). Lung cancer was also significantly associated with higher COVID-19-related mortality (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.11-2.25). No association between higher mortality and receiving chemotherapy in the 4 weeks before COVID-19 diagnosis was observed after correcting for the crucial confounders of age, sex, and comorbidities. An association between lower mortality and receiving immunotherapy in the 4 weeks before COVID-19 diagnosis was observed (immunotherapy vs no cancer therapy: OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.31-0.86). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study of patients with active cancer suggest that recent SACT is not associated with inferior outcomes from COVID-19 infection. This has relevance for the care of patients with cancer requiring treatment, particularly in countries experiencing an increase in COVID-19 case numbers. Important differences in outcomes among patients with hematological and lung cancers were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Registries , United Kingdom
14.
Thorac Cancer ; 13(8): 1220-1223, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685174

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) shortly after the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) vaccination in a 65-year-old woman with non-small-cell lung cancer under a combination treatment of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors. She had no history of diabetic mellitus. A few days after the second shot of COVID-19 vaccination, she developed DKA. We speculate that the immune-related adverse event and immunogenicity of vaccination synergistically induced DKA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Lung Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , CTLA-4 Antigen/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
15.
Dermatol Online J ; 27(11)2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675050

ABSTRACT

Vaccine development for COVID-19 has progressed expeditiously. To date, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized the Moderna/mRNA-1273, Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2), and Johnson & Johnson's Janssen (JNJ-78436735) vaccines for use in the United States. Immediate side effects have included myalgia fatigue, chills, fever, and headache. We report an elderly patient with a history of lung cancer and no prior history of autoimmune disease who developed cutaneous lupus erythematosus two ½ months after the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms , Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous/etiology , Aged , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous/pathology , Male
16.
Future Oncol ; 18(6): 719-725, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674207

ABSTRACT

Aim: To delineate clinical correlates of COVID-19 infection severity in hospitalized patients with malignancy. Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective review of all hospitalized patients with a hematologic and/or solid tumor malignancy presenting to the authors' institution between 1 March 2020 and 5 January 2021, with a laboratory confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations between specific severity outcomes and clinical characteristics. Results: Among 2771 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 246 (8.88%) met inclusion criteria. Patients who were actively receiving treatment had an increased rate of death following admission (odds ratio [OR]: 2.7). After adjusting for significant covariates, the odds ratio increased to 4.4. Patients with cancer involvement of the lungs had a trend toward increased odds of death after adjusting for covariates (OR: 2.3). Conclusions: Among COVID-19 positive hospitalized cancer patients, systemic anti-cancer therapy was associated with significantly increased odds of mortality.


Plain language summary Though cancer is a biologically heterogenous disease with a wide spectrum of clinical features and behavior, accumulating evidence suggests that cancer patients are at greater susceptibility to COVID-19 infection and more likely to experience morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 infection than non-cancer patients. In this study, the authors reviewed the clinical characteristics of patients with a diagnosis of cancer hospitalized with COVID-19 to assess potential correlates of COVID-19 severity in this population. Notably, analysis of the hospital data revealed a statistically significant increased incidence of mortality in cancer patients who were receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy or targeted therapy, than in those not on therapy. Likewise, there was a trend toward increased mortality in those with either primary or metastatic tumor involvement of the lung compared with those without lung involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , California/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(1): 73-108, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622955

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread around the world and became a global pandemic in 2020. One promising drug target for SARS-CoV-2 is the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). This study was designed to explore the expression status, prognostic significance and molecular functions of TMPRSS2 in lung cancer. TMPRSS2 expression was investigated using the TIMER, Oncomine, UALCAN, GEO, HPA and TCGA databases. The prognostic value of TMPRSS2 was examined using Cox regression and a nomogram. KEGG, GO and GSEA were performed to investigate the cellular function of TMPRSS2 in lung cancer. The relationship between TMPRSS2 and immune infiltration was determined using the TIMER and CIBERSORT algorithms. TMPRSS2 mRNA and protein expression was significantly reduced in lung cancer. Decreased TMPRSS2 expression and increased DNA methylation of TMPRSS2 were associated with various clinicopathological parameters in patients with lung cancer. Low TMPRSS2 mRNA expression also correlated with poor outcome in lung cancer patients. Moreover, a nomogram was constructed and exhibited good predictive power for the overall survival of lung cancer patients. KEGG and GO analyses and GSEA implied that multiple immune- and metabolism-related pathways were significantly linked with TMPRSS2 expression. Intriguingly, TMPRSS2 expression associated with immune cell infiltration in lung cancer. More importantly, TMPRSS2 expression was markedly decreased in SARS-CoV-infected cells. These findings indicate that TMPRSS2 may be a promising prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for lung cancer through metabolic pathways and immune cell infiltration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Immune System/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Young Adult
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 798276, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606542

ABSTRACT

Effects of initiation of programmed-death-protein 1 (PD1) blockade during active SARS-CoV-2 infection on antiviral immunity, COVID-19 course, and underlying malignancy are unclear. We report on the management of a male in his early 40s presenting with highly symptomatic metastatic lung cancer and active COVID-19 pneumonia. After treatment initiation with pembrolizumab, carboplatin, and pemetrexed, the respiratory situation initially worsened and high-dose corticosteroids were initiated due to suspected pneumonitis. After improvement and SARS-CoV-2 clearance, anti-cancer treatment was resumed without pembrolizumab. Immunological analyses with comparison to otherwise healthy SARS-CoV-2-infected ambulatory patients revealed a strong humoral immune response with higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive IgG and neutralizing serum activity. Additionally, sustained increase of Tfh as well as activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was observed. Sequential CT scans showed regression of tumor lesions and marked improvement of the pulmonary situation, with no signs of pneumonitis after pembrolizumab re-challenge as maintenance. At the latest follow-up, the patient is ambulatory and in ongoing partial remission on pembrolizumab. In conclusion, anti-PD1 initiation during active COVID-19 pneumonia was feasible and cellular and humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 appeared enhanced in our hospitalized patient. However, distinguishing COVID-19-associated changes from anti-PD1-associated immune-related pneumonitis posed a considerable clinical, radiographic, and immunologic challenge.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (12): 15-19, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599981

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the features of preoperative preparation and postoperative outcomes in patients with lung cancer and previous COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 7 patients with non-small cell lung cancer and previous bilateral viral pneumonia between June 2020 and January 2021. In 3 cases, lung cancer was detected in a hospital for COVID-19 patients. Four patients had persistent structural changes in X-ray images. After appropriate preparation, all patients underwent total resection. RESULTS: At admission, all patients had severe physical and functional exhaustion associated with prolonged hypoxia and adynamia that required preoperative rehabilitation. Considering high risk of thromboembolic complications, we administered anticoagulation throughout the entire perioperative period and after discharge. Surgical treatment included anatomical resection (extended lobectomy). Postoperative complications occurred in 2 cases and were associated with prolonged air discharge through the pleural drainage tube. CONCLUSION: As we study the consequences of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19, it becomes obvious that a new category of patients requiring specific diagnosis and treatment has emerged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , Lung , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Workplace Health Saf ; 69(12): 580-584, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571726

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses challenges for palliative care. Terminal patients cannot wear masks and may demonstrate unspecific symptoms reminiscent of those caused by COVID-19. This report is about a terminally ill patient with lung cancer who displayed fever, cough, and fatigue. During hospital admission screening, the patient tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. When admitting his wife to stay with him, she also had to test for SARS-CoV-2 and displayed a positive test result. Until the positive results were reported, six staff members were infected with SARS-CoV-2, even though they were routinely wearing respirators. This resulted in the palliative care unit having to be closed. Hospitals need strict and adequate testing and re-testing strategies even for intra-hospital transfers. Workers must strictly adhere to recommended respirator practices. Ventilation of patient rooms is essential due to the possible enrichment of particle aerosols containing viruses, as negative pressure rooms are not recommended in all countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Male , Palliative Care , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Terminally Ill
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