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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321664

ABSTRACT

GCSF prophylaxis is recommended in patients on chemotherapy with a >20% risk of febrile neutropenia and is to be considered if there is an intermediate risk of 10−20%. GCSF has been suggested as a possible adjunct to immunotherapy due to increased peripheral neutrophil recruitment and PD-L1 expression on neutrophils with GCSF use and greater tumour volume decrease with higher tumour GCSF expression. However, its potential to increase neutrophil counts and, thus, NLR values, could subsequently confer poorer prognoses on patients with advanced NSCLC. This analysis follows on from the retrospective multicentre observational cohort Spinnaker study on advanced NSCLC patients. The primary endpoints were OS and PFS. The secondary endpoints were the frequency and severity of AEs and irAEs. Patient information, including GCSF use and NLR values, was collected. A secondary comparison with matched follow-up duration was also undertaken. Three hundred and eight patients were included. Median OS was 13.4 months in patients given GCSF and 12.6 months in those not (p = 0.948). Median PFS was 7.3 months in patients given GCSF and 8.4 months in those not (p = 0.369). A total of 56% of patients receiving GCSF had Grade 1−2 AEs compared to 35% who did not receive GCSF (p = 0.004). Following an assessment with matched follow-up, 41% of patients given GCSF experienced Grade 1−2 irAEs compared to 23% of those not given GCSF (p = 0.023). GCSF prophylaxis use did not significantly affect overall or progression-free survival. Patients given GCSF prophylaxis were more likely to experience Grade 1−2 adverse effects and Grade 1−2 immunotherapy-related adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Progression-Free Survival , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
2.
Tomography ; 9(2): 759-767, 2023 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Novel coronavirus-related disease (COVID-19) has profoundly influenced hospital organization and structures worldwide. In Italy, the Lombardy Region, with almost 17% of the Italian population, rapidly became the most severely affected area since the pandemic beginning. The first and the following COVID-19 surges significantly affected lung cancer diagnosis and subsequent management. Much data have been already published regarding the therapeutic repercussions whereas very few reports have focused on the consequences of the pandemic on diagnostic procedures. METHODS: We, here, would like to analyze data of novel lung cancer diagnosis performed in our Institution in Norther Italy where we faced the earliest and largest outbreaks of COVID-19 in Italy. RESULTS: We discuss, in detail, the strategies developed to perform biopsies and the safe pathways created in emergency settings to protect lung cancer patients in subsequent therapeutic phases. Quite unexpectedly, no significant differences emerged between cases enrolled during the pandemic and those before, and the two populations were homogeneous considering the composition and diagnostic and complication rates. CONCLUSIONS: By pointing out the role of multidisciplinarity in emergency contexts, these data will be of help in the future for designing tailored strategies to manage lung cancer in a real-life setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Pandemics , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19 Testing
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(2)2023 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232658

ABSTRACT

We describe the first case of anti-CV2 paraneoplastic polyneuropathy associated with lung adenocarcinoma. Our patient presented with progressive unsteadiness and numbness involving bilateral upper and lower limbs. He had symmetrical length-dependent lower motor neuron pattern of weakness and numbness involving both small and large fibres with prominent sensory ataxia. An extended workup for the polyneuropathy involving a serum paraneoplastic antineuronal antibody panel showed a positive reaction for anti-CV2 antibody. CT scan of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis revealed a right upper lung nodule and histopathological examination of the nodule revealed lung adenocarcinoma. He was scheduled for chemotherapy following his discharge and there was improvement of his sensorimotor polyneuropathy following his chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Paraneoplastic Polyneuropathy , Male , Humans , Paraneoplastic Polyneuropathy/etiology , Hypesthesia , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/complications , Motor Neurons/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Autoantibodies
5.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 34: 100678, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Durvalumab following chemoradiation in unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has led to improved outcomes. The schedule of administration has been determined by pharmacokinetic studies. This study evaluates real-world efficacy and safety outcomes of extended dosing (ED) vs. standard dosing (SD) of durvalumab. METHODS: Stage III NSCLC patients treated at the Cancer center of Southeastern Ontario with consolidative durvalumab from March 2017-December 2020 were included. Patient characteristics and outcomes were evaluated through retrospective review. Comparisons were made using chi-square and t-tests. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyze overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 35 patients were included; 15 (43%) switched to ED. Distant recurrence rates were higher in the ED group (53% vs. 20%, p = 0.07), with no differences in the sites of disease recurrence. A similar proportion of patients were alive in the ED vs. SD group (93% vs. 80%, p = 0.3), with no significant difference in OS. There were less grade 3 or greater immune-related adverse events in the ED group (0% vs. 20%). Treatment discontinuation occurred in 47% vs. 50% in the ED vs. SD groups, respectively, owing to toxicity in 20% of patients in the ED group vs. 40% in the SD group. CONCLUSIONS: Extended dosing has similar efficacy and toxicity to standard dosing; however, there was a higher rate of toxicity necessitating discontinuation in the SD group, which may have impacted the clinical decision-making to switch to ED. Our data is limited by a small sample size and should be further validated in larger cohorts.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 445, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the current climate of the pandemic, lung cancer patients are especially vulnerable to complications from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. As a high-risk population group, these patients are strongly advised to receive coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination in accordance with Center for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines to minimize morbidity and mortality. In recent years, immunotherapy has taken a preeminent role in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with dramatic improvement in overall survival. Reactive lymphadenopathy following the administration of a coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination can confound the radiographic interpretation of positron emission tomography-computed tomography or computed tomography scans from lung cancer patients receiving immunotherapy. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present a case of a 61-year-old Caucasian female and former smoker who developed cervical, hilar, supraclavicular, mediastinal, and left retroauricular lymphadenopathy following her coronavirus disease 2019 booster vaccination. At the time, she had been receiving long-term immunotherapy for the treatment of advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Biopsy was pursued owing to concerns of treatment failure and confirmed recurrent malignancy. CONCLUSION: This case report highlights the importance of lymph node biopsies in lung cancer patients who present with contralateral lymphadenopathy following coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination to rule out tumor recurrence in this deserving patient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Lymphadenopathy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
7.
Acta Med Okayama ; 76(5): 593-596, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117475

ABSTRACT

We encountered a woman with re-enlarged axillary lymph nodes during a computed tomography (CT) scan for surveillance of lung adenocarcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis at the initial diagnosis that had shrunk with standard chemotherapy. We first suspected cancer recurrence and considered a change in the chemotherapeutic regimen. However, after careful history taking regarding the timing of her Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, and subsequent careful, close follow-up, radiological shrinkage suggested a strictly benign cause. Especially in lung cancer with a medical history of axillary lymph node involvement, cliniciansshould be aware that vaccine-associated lymphadenopathy can mimic cancer recurrence and sometimesprompt serious misjudgment regarding a current treatment course and strategy.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Lymphadenopathy , Female , Humans , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology
8.
Curr Oncol ; 29(11): 8677-8685, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We have recently reported a 35% drop in new lung cancer diagnoses and a 64% drop in lung cancer surgeries during the first year of the pandemic. METHODS: The target population was divided into three cohorts: pre-COVID-19 (2019), first year of COVID-19 (2020), and second year of COVID-19 (2021). RESULTS: The number of new lung cancer diagnoses during the second year of the pandemic increased by 75%, with more than 50% being in the advanced/metastatic stage. There was a significant increase in cases with multiple extrathoracic sites of metastases during the pandemic. During the first year of the pandemic, significantly more patients were treated with radiosurgery compared to the pre-COVID-19 year. During the second year, the number of radiosurgery and surgical cases returned to pre-COVID-19 levels. No significant changes were observed in systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapy. No statistical difference was identified in the mean wait time for diagnosis and treatment during the three years of observation. However, the wait time for surgery was prolonged compared to the pre-COVID-19 cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The significant drop in new diagnoses of lung cancer during the first year of the pandemic was followed by an almost two-fold increase in the second year, with the increased rate of metastatic disease with multiple extra-thoracic site metastases. Limited access to surgery resulted in the more frequent use of radiosurgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Radiosurgery , Humans , Canada/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Combined Modality Therapy
10.
Thorac Cancer ; 13(20): 2911-2914, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019069

ABSTRACT

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a systemic inflammatory disease caused by a variety of factors, including infections and certain drugs. A 70-year-old man who was diagnosed with a postoperative recurrence of lung adenocarcinoma received nivolumab, ipilimumab, pemetrexed and carboplatin every 3 weeks for two cycles followed by nivolumab and ipilimumab, which resulted in a partial response. Four days after the dose of nivolumab, the patient returned with diarrhea and fever. The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 infection accompanied by severe colitis. Although intensive care was performed, the patient suddenly went into cardiopulmonary arrest. Examination revealed an abnormally high interleukin-6 level, suggesting CRS. This is the first report of a patient with CRS accompanied with COVID-19 infection during treatment with ICIs. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a systemic inflammatory disease caused by a variety of factors, including infections and certain drugs. Here, we report a case of non-small cell lung cancer with CRS caused by COVID-19 infection during treatment with nivolumab and ipilimumab. Fever is a common event in cancer patients, especially in COVID-19-infected patients, but when fever develops during cancer immunotherapy, CRS should always be kept in mind.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Carboplatin/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Ipilimumab/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Nivolumab/adverse effects , Pemetrexed/therapeutic use
11.
J Am Soc Cytopathol ; 11(6): 368-374, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015565

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) has been used during the endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) procedure as standard practice. Because of the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic, our institute had had to discontinue ROSE and adopt a direct-to-cell block approach. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether this change has had significant effects on the cytopathology quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1903 EBUS-TBNA cases from 734 patients were collected (1097 cases with ROSE for 452 patients; 806 cases without ROSE but with direct-to-cell block for 282 patients). The clinical and cytology data were analyzed using SAS, version 9.4, software to render calculated standardized residuals and a fitted multivariate generalized linear model. RESULTS: On average, a biopsy from a patient with ROSE was 0.936 (=exp -0.066) times less likely to be reported as satisfactory compared with a biopsy from a patient without ROSE, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.785). The inadequacy rate of EBUS-TBNA was 6.4% higher on average for cases with ROSE compared with a direct-to-cell block approach. However, this difference was also not statistically significant. The proportions of biopsies reported as diagnostic for malignancy and other were significantly different between the ROSE and no-ROSE groups with a standardized residual of 1.80 (P = 0.036) and -2.27 (P = 0.012), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Discontinuing ROSE and using a direct-to-cell block approach had no negative effects on cytopathology quality. This practice can be considered acceptable during the COVID-19 pandemic when social distancing and the shortage of staff and supplies have resulted in challenges to delivering quality care to cancer patients whose treatment cannot be postponed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Pandemics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods
12.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 8, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009383

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary blastoma (PB) comprises a rare heterogeneous group of lung tumours typically containing immature epithelial and mesenchymal structures that imitate the embryonic lung tissue and extremely rarely occurs during pregnancy. Although cough and haemoptysis are the most common PB symptoms, they usually indicate other serious pregnancy-related complications. CASE PRESENTATION: The article presents the unusual case of a 22-year-old pregnant woman diagnosed with PB during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: PB is characterized by poor prognosis and patients' outcome relies on a rapid diagnosis. Surgery remains the most common and effective treatment. Due to the extreme rarity, the literature contains only single mentions of PB in pregnancy, thus its impact on the course of pregnancy and the developing fetus remains unknown.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pulmonary Blastoma/diagnosis , Cesarean Section , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Pregnancy , Pulmonary Blastoma/drug therapy , Pulmonary Blastoma/pathology , Pulmonary Blastoma/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(8)2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992986

ABSTRACT

We present a rare complication of microwave ablation (MWA) in a male patient in his 80s. His massive pulmonary necrosis and tension pneumothorax required urgent surgery. However, the damage to the lung tissue was too large, deep and fragile. We failed to suture or conduct wedge resection on the lung lesion, so, left upper lobectomy was necessary. Therefore, we suggest that it is probably possible to reduce the frequency and time threshold when performing MWA for the elderly with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Catheter Ablation , Lung Neoplasms , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Microwaves/adverse effects , Necrosis/etiology , Necrosis/surgery , Octogenarians
14.
Lung Cancer ; 172: 142-153, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983620

ABSTRACT

Targeted therapy against actionable variants has revolutionised the treatment landscape for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Approximately half of NSCLC adenocarcinomas have an actionable variant, making molecular testing a critical component of the diagnostic process to personalise therapeutic options, optimise clinical outcomes and minimise toxicity. Recently, genomic testing in England has undergone major changes with the introduction of Genomic Laboratory Hubs, designed to consolidate and enhance existing laboratory provision and deliver genomic testing as outlined in the National Genomic Test Directory. Similar changes are ongoing in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. However, multiple challenges exist with current tissue acquisition procedures and the molecular testing pathway in the UK, including quantity and quality of available tissue, adequacy rates, test availability among genomic laboratories, turnaround times, multidisciplinary team communication, and limited guidance and standardisation. The COVID-19 pandemic has added an extra layer of complexity. Herein, we summarise best practice recommendations, based on expert opinion, to overcome existing challenges in the UK. The least invasive biopsy technique should be undertaken with the aim of acquiring the greatest quality and quantity of tissue. Use of sedation should be considered to improve patient experience. Rapid on-site evaluation may also be useful to help guide adequate sampling, and liquid biopsy may be beneficial in some instances. Sample processing should be appropriate to facilitate biomarker testing, in particular, next-generation sequencing for comprehensive genomic information. Steps to optimise tissue utilisation and turnaround times, such as planning of tissue usage, limiting immunohistochemistry, tumour enrichment, and reflex testing at diagnosis, should be implemented. Guidelines for tissue acquisition and sample processing may help to improve sample adequacy to perform downstream testing. Communication among genomic laboratories will help to standardise test availability across England and local auditing could identify further areas for optimisation, including ways to improve turnaround times and adequacy rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Pandemics , United Kingdom
15.
J Surg Oncol ; 126(6): 1114-1122, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965552

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Important differences in Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are related to the delay in the diagnosis to the treatment, hospitals' specialised status, comorbidities, tumour stage and histological type. METHODS: A 19-year retrospective cohort study was conducted, including 681 patients with NSCLC in clinical-stage IA-IB. The variables analysed were gender, age, schooling, type of health care provider, type of treatment, period of 5-year treatment, the time between first attendance to diagnosis and the time between diagnosis and treatment, and hospital's specialised status. RESULTS: Patients who underwent radiotherapy alone had three times more risk of death than those who underwent surgery alone (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR] = 3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.45-4.82; p <0.001). The independent risk of death factors was being treated in nonhigh complexity centres in oncology hospitals and having started the treatment more than 2 months after diagnosis (adjHR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.26-2.56; p <0.001) and (adjHR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.33-3.00; p <0.001), respectively. In addition, the patients diagnosed between 2011 and 2015 had a 40% lower risk of death when compared to those diagnosed between 2000 and 2005 (95% CI: 0.38-0.94; p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: The overall survival in curative intent Stage-I lung cancer patients' treatment was associated with the 5-year diagnosis group, the delayed time between diagnosis and treatment and the hospital qualification.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/pathology , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
16.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962326

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the single biggest cause of cancer death. The diagnostic pathway can be complex, including specialist cancer diagnostics that are not performed at every hospital. One such example is endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS), a day-case bronchoscopic procedure used for nodal staging and tissue diagnosis. In this proof-of-concept pilot in Greater Manchester, we tested a novel digital EBUS booking platform. This platform was accessible across multiple acute care trusts and provided visibility of all available EBUS appointments, allowing referring teams to book directly into the appropriate slot. During a 6-month pilot, 193 EBUS procedures were booked through this new single-queue platform. The median waiting times reduced by 2 days from 9 to 7 days (22% reduction and saving approximately 386 days in total) and reduced variation in waiting times by 1 day from 5 to 4 days (20% reduction). 98% of patients who completed an experience of care survey felt the process was 'very well' or 'well' organised and 77% felt the most important factor in deciding where to have their EBUS was the earliest possible appointment regardless of travel. This proof-of-concept pilot has shown improvements in cancer waiting times with significant future potential in delivering specialist cancer diagnostics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Bronchoscopy , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Pandemics
17.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 9422902, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950460

ABSTRACT

Objective: Molecular targeted drug therapy and chemotherapy are the main treatments for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, and the combination of both has advantages in prolonging patients' progression-free survival and overall survival. This study investigated the effects of bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy under nursing intervention on CT, cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA21-1), and gastrin-releasing peptide precursor (ProGRP) and prognosis of lung cancer patients. Methods: 102 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer admitted to our hospital from January 2018 to May 2019 were divided into observation group and control group, with 51 cases each. The control group was treated with basic chemotherapy, and the observation group was treated with bevacizumab in combination with the control group, and both groups used nursing interventions. The clinical effects, CYFRA21-1 and ProGRP levels, baseline data, CT parameters, 24-month cumulative survival, and the effects of CYFRA21-1 and ProGRP on long-term survival and lung function were compared. Results: The disease control rate of the observation group was 94.12%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (76.47%); after 7 d, 30 d, 60 d, and 90 d of treatment, the levels of CYFRA21-1 and ProGRP were statistically downregulated. The difference in lymph node metastasis, lesion diameter, plain Eff-Z, venous stage, and arterial stage normalized iodine concentrations (NIC) was statistically significant; the survival rate at 24 months in the observation group was 74.51% (38/51); the cumulative survival rate at 24 months in the control group was 52.94% (27/51), and the difference was statistically significant (X 2 = 4.980, P = 0.026). The cumulative survival rate at 24 months was significantly lower in patients with high expression of CYFRA21-1 and ProGRP compared with those with low expression of CYFRA21-1 and ProGRP. After treatment, in the observation group, the forceful spirometry (FVC), forceful expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC levels were significantly different from those before treatment and were significantly different from those in the control group. Conclusion: Bevacizumab in combination with standard chemotherapy regimens with nursing interventions could benefit patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and had a good prospect of application.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Antigens, Neoplasm , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans , Keratin-19 , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Peptide Fragments , Prognosis , Protein Precursors , Recombinant Proteins , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
Lung Cancer ; 170: 185-193, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914798

ABSTRACT

Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is a well-established treatment for patients with medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pulmonary oligometastases. The use of single-fraction SABR in this setting is supported by excellent local control and safety profiles which appear equivalent to multi-fraction SABR based on the available data. The resource efficiency and reduction in hospital outpatient visits associated with single-fraction SABR have been particularly advantageous during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the increased interest, single-fraction SABR in subgroups of patients remains controversial, including those with centrally located tumours, synchronous targets, proximity to dose-limiting organs at risk, and concomitant severe respiratory illness. This review provides an overview of the published randomised evidence evaluating single-fraction SABR in primary lung cancer and pulmonary oligometastases, the common clinical challenges faced, immunogenic effect of SABR, as well as technical and cost-utility considerations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Radiosurgery , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Radiosurgery/adverse effects
20.
ESMO Open ; 7(3): 100446, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SAKK 17/16 study showed promising efficacy data with lurbinectedin as second- or third-line palliative therapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Here, we evaluated long-term outcome and analyzed the impact of lurbinectedin monotherapy on the tumor microenvironment at the cellular and molecular level to predict outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two patients were treated with lurbinectedin in this single-arm study. Twenty-nine samples were available at baseline, and seven additional matched samples at day one of cycle two of treatment. Survival curves and rates between groups were compared using the log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier method. Statistical significance was set at P value <0.05. RESULTS: Updated median overall survival (OS) was slightly increased to 11.5 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.8-13.8 months]. Thirty-six patients (85%) had died. The OS rate at 12 and 18 months was 47% (95% CI 32.1% to 61.6%) and 31% (95% CI 17.8% to 45.0%), respectively. Median progression-free survival was 4.1 months (95% CI 2.6-5.5 months). No new safety signals were observed. Patients with lower frequencies of regulatory T cells, as well as lower tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) at baseline, had a better OS. Comparing matched biopsies, a decrease of M2 macrophages was observed in five out of seven patients after exposure to lurbinectedin, and two out of four patients showed increased CD8+ T-cell infiltrates in tumor. DISCUSSION: Lurbinectedin continues to be active in patients with progressing malignant pleural mesothelioma. According to our very small sample size, we hypothesize that baseline TAMs and regulatory T cells are associated with survival. Lurbinectedin seems to inhibit conversion of TAMs to M2 phenotype in humans.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Mesothelioma, Malignant , Mesothelioma , Carbolines , Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mesothelioma/drug therapy , Mesothelioma/pathology , Palliative Care , Tumor Microenvironment
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