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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2459, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387462

ABSTRACT

A deeper understanding of the molecular biology of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the host response to the virus, is urgently needed. Commonalities exist between the host immune response to viral infections and cancer. Here, we defined transcriptional signatures of SARS-CoV-2 infection involving hundreds of genes common across lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (A549, Calu-3) and normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE), with additional signatures being specific to one or both adenocarcinoma lines. Cross-examining eight transcriptomic databases, we found that host transcriptional responses of lung adenocarcinoma cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection shared broad similarities with host responses to multiple viruses across different model systems and patient samples. Furthermore, these SARS-CoV-2 transcriptional signatures were manifested within specific subsets of human cancer, involving ~ 20% of cases across a wide range of histopathological types. These cancer subsets show immune cell infiltration and inflammation and involve pathways linked to the SARS-CoV-2 response, such as immune checkpoint, IL-6, type II interferon signaling, and NF-κB. The cell line data represented immune responses activated specifically within the cancer cells of the tumor. Common genes and pathways implicated as part of the viral host response point to therapeutic strategies that may apply to both SARS-CoV-2 and cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , A549 Cells , Bronchi/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic , Transcriptome , Virus Replication/genetics
2.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 43(6): e859-e860, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348084

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, causes much more severe disease in adults than in children. Although it is anticipated that immune compromised children and children with cancer may be at higher risk of developing severe or fatal COVID-19, there are no currently published reports of fatal disease in a child with cancer. Because of the discrepancy in disease severity between adult and pediatric patients, we report the case of an adolescent with pulmonary metastatic osteosarcoma who died of COVID-19 early in the course of the pandemic in New York City in the hope that heightening awareness that pulmonary metastatic disease may predispose to a more severe outcome will increase surveillance in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Bone Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Osteosarcoma/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Bone Neoplasms/complications , Bone Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Male , Osteosarcoma/complications , Osteosarcoma/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Severity of Illness Index
3.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(6): 885-894, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274648

ABSTRACT

Importance: In 2018, only half of US women obtained all evidence-based cancer screenings. This proportion may have declined during the COVID-19 pandemic because of social distancing, high-risk factors, and fear. Objective: To evaluate optimal screening strategies in women who obtain some, but not all, US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)-recommended cancer screenings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This modeling study was conducted from January 31, 2017, to July 20, 2020, and used 4 validated mathematical models from the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network using data from 20 million simulated women born in 1965 in the US. Interventions: Forty-five screening strategies were modeled that combined breast, cervical, colorectal, and/or lung cancer (LC) screenings; restricted to 1, 2, 3 or 4 screenings per year; or all eligible screenings once every 5 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Modeled life-years gained from restricted cancer screenings as a fraction of those attainable from full compliance with USPSTF recommendations (maximum benefits). Results were stratified by LC screening eligibility (LC-eligible/ineligible). We repeated the analysis with 2018 adherence rates, evaluating the increase in adherence required for restricted screenings to have the same population benefit as USPSTF recommendations. Results: This modeling study of 20 million simulated US women found that it was possible to reduce screening intensity to 1 carefully chosen test per year in women who were ineligible for LC screening and 2 tests per year in eligible women while maintaining 94% or more of the maximum benefits. Highly ranked strategies screened for various cancers, but less often than recommended by the USPSTF. For example, among LC-ineligible women who obtained just 1 screening per year, the optimal strategy frequently delayed breast and cervical cancer screenings by 1 year and skipped 3 mammograms entirely. Among LC-eligible women, LC screening was essential; strategies omitting it provided 25% or less of the maximum benefits. The top-ranked strategy restricted to 2 screenings per year was annual LC screening and alternating fecal immunochemical test with mammography (skipping mammograms when due for cervical cancer screening, 97% of maximum benefits). If adherence in a population of LC-eligible women obtaining 2 screenings per year were to increase by 1% to 2% (depending on the screening test), this model suggests that it would achieve the same benefit as USPSTF recommendations at 2018 adherence rates. Conclusions and Relevance: This modeling study of 45 cancer screening strategies suggests that women who are noncompliant with cancer screening guidelines may be able to reduce USPSTF-recommended screening intensity with minimal reduction in overall benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Early Detection of Cancer , Models, Theoretical , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Mammography , Patient Compliance , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology
4.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 28: 100406, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258358

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 Pneumonia of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic infection, persists to have high disease burden especially in cancer patients. Increased inflammation and thromboembolic processes are blamed to influence cancer patients more than the others but due to lack of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of the both the virus itself and the response of the host, more basic and translational disease modeling research is needed to understand Cancer-Covid-19 interaction. In this study, serum samples from the patients, who were hospitalized due to Covid-19 pneumonia, applied to different cancer cells and cytotoxicity, motility, proliferation and gene expression analysis were performed. Serum samples derived from healthy volunteers and the fetal bovine serum that is used regularly in cell culture experiments used as controls. Hospitalized Covid-19 patients who had also cancer, were retrospectively screened, and their clinical course were recorded. Overall 12 Patient (PS) and 4 healthy serums (CS) were included in the experiments. PS applied cells showed increased motility in A549 cells as well as lost cell to cell connection in MCF7 and HCT116 cells, and induced expression of VIM, ZEB1 and SNAIL2 mRNA levels. Eight cancer diagnosed patients who were hospitalized due to Covid-19 between April and September 2020 were also reviewed retrospectively, which 5 of them were dead during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thorax CT images of the 2 patients showed increased metastatic nodules in the lungs as of January 2021. The results of the study indicate that metastasis may be one of the prolonged consequences of COVID-19 pandemic in cancer sufferers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/physiology , Immune Sera , Neoplasms/pathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immune Sera/adverse effects , Immune Sera/toxicity , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology
5.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(6): 885-894, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206734

ABSTRACT

Importance: In 2018, only half of US women obtained all evidence-based cancer screenings. This proportion may have declined during the COVID-19 pandemic because of social distancing, high-risk factors, and fear. Objective: To evaluate optimal screening strategies in women who obtain some, but not all, US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)-recommended cancer screenings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This modeling study was conducted from January 31, 2017, to July 20, 2020, and used 4 validated mathematical models from the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network using data from 20 million simulated women born in 1965 in the US. Interventions: Forty-five screening strategies were modeled that combined breast, cervical, colorectal, and/or lung cancer (LC) screenings; restricted to 1, 2, 3 or 4 screenings per year; or all eligible screenings once every 5 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Modeled life-years gained from restricted cancer screenings as a fraction of those attainable from full compliance with USPSTF recommendations (maximum benefits). Results were stratified by LC screening eligibility (LC-eligible/ineligible). We repeated the analysis with 2018 adherence rates, evaluating the increase in adherence required for restricted screenings to have the same population benefit as USPSTF recommendations. Results: This modeling study of 20 million simulated US women found that it was possible to reduce screening intensity to 1 carefully chosen test per year in women who were ineligible for LC screening and 2 tests per year in eligible women while maintaining 94% or more of the maximum benefits. Highly ranked strategies screened for various cancers, but less often than recommended by the USPSTF. For example, among LC-ineligible women who obtained just 1 screening per year, the optimal strategy frequently delayed breast and cervical cancer screenings by 1 year and skipped 3 mammograms entirely. Among LC-eligible women, LC screening was essential; strategies omitting it provided 25% or less of the maximum benefits. The top-ranked strategy restricted to 2 screenings per year was annual LC screening and alternating fecal immunochemical test with mammography (skipping mammograms when due for cervical cancer screening, 97% of maximum benefits). If adherence in a population of LC-eligible women obtaining 2 screenings per year were to increase by 1% to 2% (depending on the screening test), this model suggests that it would achieve the same benefit as USPSTF recommendations at 2018 adherence rates. Conclusions and Relevance: This modeling study of 45 cancer screening strategies suggests that women who are noncompliant with cancer screening guidelines may be able to reduce USPSTF-recommended screening intensity with minimal reduction in overall benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Early Detection of Cancer , Models, Theoretical , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Mammography , Patient Compliance , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology
6.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(5): 845-857, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic coronaviruses include Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2. These viruses have induced outbreaks worldwide, and there are currently no effective medications against them. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop potential drugs against coronaviruses. METHODS: High-throughput technology is widely used to explore differences in messenger (m)RNA and micro (mi)RNA expression profiles, especially to investigate protein-protein interactions and search for new therapeutic compounds. We integrated miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in MERS-CoV-infected cells and compared them to mock-infected controls from public databases. RESULTS: Through the bioinformatics analysis, there were 251 upregulated genes and eight highly differentiated miRNAs that overlapped in the two datasets. External validation verified that these genes had high expression in MERS-CoV-infected cells, including RC3H1, NF-κB, CD69, TNFAIP3, LEAP-2, DUSP10, CREB5, CXCL2, etc. We revealed that immune, olfactory or sensory system-related, and signal-transduction networks were discovered from upregulated mRNAs in MERS-CoV-infected cells. In total, 115 genes were predicted to be related to miRNAs, with the intersection of upregulated mRNAs and miRNA-targeting prediction genes such as TCF4, NR3C1, and POU2F2. Through the Connectivity Map (CMap) platform, we suggested potential compounds to use against MERS-CoV infection, including diethylcarbamazine, harpagoside, bumetanide, enalapril, and valproic acid. CONCLUSIONS: The present study illustrates the crucial roles of miRNA-mRNA interacting networks in MERS-CoV-infected cells. The genes we identified are potential targets for treating MERS-CoV infection; however, these could possibly be extended to other coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung/virology , Coronavirus Infections , Epithelial Cells/virology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/genetics , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/metabolism , Blood Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19 , Chemokine CXCL2/genetics , Chemokine CXCL2/metabolism , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein A/genetics , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein A/metabolism , Disease Outbreaks , Dual-Specificity Phosphatases/genetics , Dual-Specificity Phosphatases/metabolism , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatases/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatases/metabolism , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha-Induced Protein 3/metabolism
7.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(2)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081352

ABSTRACT

By the beginning of the global pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infection has dramatically impacted on oncology daily practice. In the current oncological landscape, where immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of several malignancies, distinguishing between COVID-19 and immune-mediated pneumonitis can be hard because of shared clinical, radiological and pathological features. Indeed, their common mechanism of aberrant inflammation could lead to a mutual and amplifying interaction.We describe the case of a 65-year-old patient affected by metastatic squamous head and neck cancer and candidate to an experimental therapy including an anti-PD-L1 agent. COVID-19 ground-glass opacities under resolution were an incidental finding during screening procedures and worsened after starting immunotherapy. The diagnostic work-up was consistent with ICIs-related pneumonia and it is conceivable that lung injury by SARS-CoV-2 has acted as an inflammatory primer for the development of the immune-related adverse event.Patients recovered from COVID-19 starting ICIs could be at greater risk of recall immune-mediated pneumonitis. Nasopharyngeal swab and chest CT scan are recommended before starting immunotherapy. The awareness of the phenomenon could allow an easier interpretation of radiological changes under treatment and a faster diagnostic work-up to resume ICIs. In the presence of clinical benefit, for asymptomatic ICIs-related pneumonia a watchful-waiting approach and immunotherapy prosecution are suggested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/diagnosis , Aged , B7-H1 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Lung Injury/diagnosis , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung Injury/virology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Male , Nasopharynx/metabolism , Nasopharynx/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pandemics , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/drug therapy , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/immunology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/virology
8.
Curr Oncol ; 28(1): 847-852, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069796

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 is a serious global challenge affecting millions of people worldwide. Cancer patients are at risk for infection exposure and serious complications. A prompt diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial for the timely adoption of isolation measures and the appropriate management of cancer treatments. In lung cancer patients the symptoms of infection 19 may resemble those exhibited by the underlying oncologic condition, possibly leading to diagnostic overlap and delays. Moreover, cancer patients might display a prolonged positivity of nasopharyngeal RT-PCR assays for SARS-CoV-2, causing long interruptions or delay of cancer treatments. However, the association between the positivity of RT-PCR assays and the patient's infectivity remains uncertain. We describe the case of a patient with non-small cell lung cancer, and a severe ab extrinseco compression of the trachea, whose palliative radiotherapy was delayed because of the prolonged positivity of nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2. The patient did not show clinical symptoms suggestive of active infection, but the persistent positivity of RT-PCR assays imposed the continuation of isolation measures and the delay of radiotherapy for over two months. Finally, the negative result of SARS-CoV-2 viral culture allowed us to verify the absence of viral activity and to rule out the infectivity of the patient, who could finally continue her cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/virology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Carrier State/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Time-to-Treatment
10.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(2): 1925-1934, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043084

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory syndrome, reported at the end of 2019 in China originally and immediately spread affecting over ten million world population to date. This pandemic is more lethal for the older population and those who previously suffered from other ailments such as cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, and other immune system affecting abnormalities including cancers. Lung cancer is an important comorbidity of COVID-19. In this review, we emphasized the impact of lung tumor microenvironment (TME) on the possibility of enhanced severity of infection caused by the SARS-Co-V2. The compromised lung TME is further susceptible to the attack of viruses. The lung cells are also abundant in the virus entry receptors. Several SARS-Co-V2 proteins can modulate the lung TME by disrupting the fragile immune mechanisms contributing to cytokine storming and cellular metabolic variations. We also discussed the impact of medication used for lung cancer in the scenario of this infection. Since other respiratory infections can be a risk factor for lung cancer, COVID-19 recovered patients should be monitored for tumor development, especially if there is genetic susceptibility or it involves exposure to other risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tumor Microenvironment , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027278

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases represent a relevant issue in lung cancer patients. Bacterial and viral infections might influence the patients' prognosis, both directly affecting the immune system and indirectly impairing the outcome of anticancer treatments, mainly immunotherapy. In this analysis, we aimed to review the current evidence in order to clarify the complex correlation between infections and lung cancer. In detail, we mainly explored the potential impact on immunotherapy outcome/safety of (1) bacterial infections, with a detailed focus on antibiotics; and (2) viral infections, discriminating among (a) human immune-deficiency virus (HIV), (b) hepatitis B/C virus (HBV-HCV), and (c) Sars-Cov-2. A series of studies suggested the prognostic impact of antibiotic therapy administration, timing, and exposure ratio in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, probably through an antibiotic-related microbiota dysbiosis. Although cancer patients with HIV, HBV, and HCV were usually excluded from clinical trials evaluating immunotherapy, some retrospective and prospective trials performed in these patient subgroups reported similar results compared to those described in not-infected patients, with a favorable safety profile. Moreover, patients with thoracic cancers are particularly at risk of COVID-19 severe outcomes and mortality. Few reports speculated about the prognostic implications of anticancer therapy, including immunotherapy, in lung cancer patients with concomitant Sars-Cov-2 infection, showing, to date, inconsistent results. The correlation between infectious diseases and immunotherapy remains to be further explored and clarified in the context of dedicated trials. In clinical practice, the accurate and prompt multidisciplinary management of lung cancer patients with infections should be encouraged in order to select the best treatment options for these patients, avoiding unexpected toxicities, while maintaining the anticancer effect.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Virus Diseases/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/pathology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/pathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/microbiology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/virology , HIV/drug effects , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B/pathology , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/pathology , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/microbiology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Microbiota/drug effects , Microbiota/immunology
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e23877, 2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024158

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has become a common threat to global human health and is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Some asymptomatic patients with early-stage lung cancer who have COVID-19 receive surgical treatment but develop severe pneumonia and other complications or even experience postoperative death, and they may have a worse prognosis compared with healthy individuals infected with COVID-19. However, there is no evidence that COVID-19 is a risk factor for lung cancer patients. This systematic review aims to evaluate the incidence and prognosis of COVID-19 in lung cancer patients and provide evidence-based medical support for clinical treatment. METHODS: We will search 6 medical databases to identify eligible studies published from the establishment of the database to the present. The quality of the included literature will be evaluated using the bias risk assessment tool in Cochrane 5.1.0, and a meta-analysis will be performed using Stata 14.0. Heterogeneity will be statistically assessed using χ2 tests. RESULTS: The study will integrate existing research findings to investigate the prevalence and severity rate of patients with lung cancer infected with SARS-CoV-2 and analyze the prognosis and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with or without COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide evidence to support whether COVID-19 is a risk factor for lung cancer and provide guidance for clinical prevention and treatment based on the evidence obtained in light of the unpredictable threat posed by COVID-19. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for this systematic review as it will involve the collection and analysis of secondary data. The results of the review will be reported in international peer-reviewed journals. PRORPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020195967.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Research Design , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(2): 1620-1632, 2021 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1022288

ABSTRACT

Both lung adenocarcinoma and coronavirus disease 2019 would cause pulmonary inflammation. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2, also plays a key role in lung adenocarcinoma. To study the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung adenocarcinoma patients, mRNA and microRNA profiles were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus followed by bioinformatics analysis. A network which regards angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as the center was structured. In addition, via immunological analysis to explore the essential mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility in lung adenocarcinoma. Compared with normal tissue, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was increased in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Furthermore, a total of 7 correlated differently expressed mRNAs (ACE2, CXCL9, MMP12, IL6, AZU1, FCN3, HYAL1 and IRAK3) and 5 correlated differently expressed microRNAs (miR-125b-5p, miR-9-5p, miR-130b-5p, miR-381-3p and miR-421) were screened. Interestingly, the most frequent toll-like receptor signaling pathway was enriched by mRNA (interlukin 6) and miRNA (miR-125b-5p) sets simultaneously. In conclusion, it was assumed that miR-125b-5p-ACE2-IL6 axis could alter the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung adenocarcinoma patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Transcriptome , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/metabolism , Computational Biology , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets ; 21(5): 428-442, 2021 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A higher incidence of COVID-19 infection was demonstrated in cancer patients, including lung cancer patients. This study was conducted to get insights into the enhanced frequency of COVID-19 infection in cancer. METHODS: Using different bioinformatics tools, the expression and methylation patterns of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were analyzed in healthy and malignant tissues, focusing on lung adenocarcinoma and data were correlated to clinical parameters and smoking history. RESULTS: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were heterogeneously expressed across 36 healthy tissues with the highest expression levels in digestive, urinary and reproductive organs, while the overall analysis of 72 paired tissues demonstrated significantly lower expression levels of ACE2 in cancer tissues when compared to normal counterparts. In contrast, ACE2, but not TMPRSS2, was overexpressed in LUAD, which inversely correlated to the promoter methylation. This upregulation of ACE2 was age-dependent in LUAD, but not in normal lung tissues. TMPRSS2 expression in non-neoplastic lung tissues was heterogeneous and dependent on sex and smoking history, while it was downregulated in LUAD of smokers. Cancer progression was associated with a decreased TMPRSS2 but unaltered ACE2. In contrast, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 of lung metastases derived from different cancer subtypes was higher than organ metastases of other sites. TMPRSS2, but not ACE2, was associated with LUAD patients' survival. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive molecular analyses revealed a heterogeneous and distinct expression and/or methylation profile of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in healthy lung vs. LUAD tissues across sex, age and smoking history and might have implications for COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung/virology , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/epidemiology , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Down-Regulation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Methylation , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Smoking/adverse effects , Up-Regulation/genetics
18.
Genomics ; 112(6): 4912-4923, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752713

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic that began to spread worldwide caused by SARS-CoV-2. Lung cancer patients are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 enters into the host by the ACE2 receptor. Thus, ACE2 is the key to understand the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the lack of knowledge about the biomarker of COVID-19 warrants the development of ACE2 biomarkers. The analysis of ACE2 expression in lung cancer was performed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Therefore, we investigated the prognosis, clinical characteristics, and mutational analysis of lung cancer. We also analyzed the shared proteins between the COVID-19 and lung cancer, protein-protein interactions, gene-miRNAs, gene-transcription factors (TFs), and the signaling pathway. Finally, we compared the mRNA expression of ACE2 and its co-expressed proteins using the TCGA. The up-regulation of ACE2 in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) was found irrespective of gender and age. We found the low survival rate in high expression of ACE2 in lung cancer patients and 16 mutational positions. The functional assessment of targeted 12,671, 3107, and 29 positive genes were found in COVID-19 disease, LUAD, and LUSC, respectively. Then, we identified eight common genes that interact with 20 genes, 219 miRNAs, and 16 TFs. The common genes performed the mRNA expression in lung cancer, which proved the ACE2 is the best potential biomarker compared to co-expressed genes. This study uncovers the relationship between COVID-19 disease and lung cancer. We identified ACE2 and also its co-expressed proteins are the potential biomarker and therapy as the current COVID-19 disease and lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/mortality , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/mortality , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Computational Biology/methods , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Male , MicroRNAs , Middle Aged , Mutation , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , Young Adult
19.
Thorac Cancer ; 11(10): 2983-2986, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713354

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with a heavy burden on the mental and physical health of patients, regional healthcare resources, and global economic activity. Many patients with lung cancer are thought to be affected by this situation. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on lung cancer treatment scheduling. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of lung cancer patients who were undergoing anticancer treatment at the National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center (600 beds) in Kyoto, Japan, between 1 March 2020 and 31 May 2020. After the medical records were reviewed, the patients were assigned to one of two groups, depending on whether their lung cancer treatment schedule was delayed. We assessed the characteristics, types of histopathology and treatment, and the reason for the delay. A total 15 (9.1%) patients experienced a delay in lung cancer treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with a treatment delay received significantly more immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) monotherapy than patients without a treatment delay (P = 0.0057). On the contrary, no patients receiving molecular targeted agents experienced a treatment delay during the COVID-19 pandemic period (P = 0.0027). The treatments of most of the patients were delayed at their request. We determined that 9.1% lung cancer patients suffered anxiety and requested a treatment delay during the COVID-19 pandemic. Oncologists should bear in mind that patients with cancer have more anxiety than expected under unprecedented circumstances such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Lung Neoplasms/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Time-to-Treatment , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Health Services Research , Humans , Japan , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/physiopathology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Male , Medical Records , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Surg Oncol ; 122(6): 1020-1026, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a new, highly contagious, and life-threatening virus. We aimed to demonstrate how we proceeded with bronchoscopic procedures without published guidelines at the inception of the pandemic period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All bronchoscopic procedures applied from the first case seen in Turkey (11 March-15 May) were evaluated retrospectively. Patient data on indications, diagnosis, types of procedures, and the results of COVID-19 tests were recorded. RESULTS: This study included 126 patients; 36 required interventional bronchoscopic techniques (28.6%), 74 required endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS; 58.7%), and 16 required flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (12.7%). All interventional rigid bronchoscopic techniques were performed for emergent indications: malignant airway obstruction (66.7%), tracheal stenosis (25%), and bronchopleural fistula (8.3%). Malignancy was diagnosed in 59 (79.7%), 12 (50%), and 4 (25%) patients who underwent EBUS, interventional procedures, and fibreoptic bronchoscopy, respectively. All personnel wore personal protective equipment and patients wore a surgical mask, cap, and disposable gown. Of the patients, 31 (24.6%) were tested for COVID-19 and all the results were negative. COVID-19 was not detected in any of the patients after a 14-day follow-up period. CONCLUSION: This study was based on our experiences and demonstrated that EBUS and/or bronchoscopy should not be postponed in patients with known or suspected lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/complications , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoscopy/standards , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
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