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JAMA ; 327(7): 652-661, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718161


Importance: Lung transplantation is a potentially lifesaving treatment for patients who are critically ill due to COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but there is limited information about the long-term outcome. Objective: To report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients who had COVID-19-associated ARDS and underwent a lung transplant at a single US hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective case series of 102 consecutive patients who underwent a lung transplant at Northwestern University Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois, between January 21, 2020, and September 30, 2021, including 30 patients who had COVID-19-associated ARDS. The date of final follow-up was November 15, 2021. Exposures: Lung transplant. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of lung transplant, including postoperative complications, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and survival, were recorded. Results: Among the 102 lung transplant recipients, 30 patients (median age, 53 years [range, 27 to 62]; 13 women [43%]) had COVID-19-associated ARDS and 72 patients (median age, 62 years [range, 22 to 74]; 32 women [44%]) had chronic end-stage lung disease without COVID-19. For lung transplant recipients with COVID-19 compared with those without COVID-19, the median lung allocation scores were 85.8 vs 46.7, the median time on the lung transplant waitlist was 11.5 vs 15 days, and preoperative venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was used in 56.7% vs 1.4%, respectively. During transplant, patients who had COVID-19-associated ARDS received transfusion of a median of 6.5 units of packed red blood cells vs 0 in those without COVID-19, 96.7% vs 62.5% underwent intraoperative venoarterial ECMO, and the median operative time was 8.5 vs 7.4 hours, respectively. Postoperatively, the rates of primary graft dysfunction (grades 1 to 3) within 72 hours were 70% in the COVID-19 cohort vs 20.8% in those without COVID-19, the median time receiving invasive mechanical ventilation was 6.5 vs 2.0 days, the median duration of intensive care unit stay was 18 vs 9 days, the median post-lung transplant hospitalization duration was 28.5 vs 16 days, and 13.3% vs 5.5% required permanent hemodialysis, respectively. None of the lung transplant recipients who had COVID-19-associated ARDS demonstrated antibody-mediated rejection compared with 12.5% in those without COVID-19. At follow-up, all 30 lung transplant recipients who had COVID-19-associated ARDS were alive (median follow-up, 351 days [IQR, 176-555] after transplant) vs 60 patients (83%) who were alive in the non-COVID-19 cohort (median follow-up, 488 days [IQR, 368-570] after lung transplant). Conclusions and Relevance: In this single-center case series of 102 consecutive patients who underwent a lung transplant between January 21, 2020, and September 30, 2021, survival was 100% in the 30 patients who had COVID-19-associated ARDS as of November 15, 2021.

COVID-19/complications , Lung Transplantation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/surgery , Adult , Aged , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Humans , Lung Transplantation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Ann Transplant ; 26: e929946, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200360


BACKGROUND This single-center study analyzed distinctions between lung transplants performed in the Department of Cardiac and Vascular surgery of the University Clinical Center in Gdansk, Poland before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS There were 189 patients who underwent the qualification procedure to lung transplantation in the Department of Cardiac and Vascular Surgery of the University Clinical Center in Gdansk, Poland in the years 2019 and 2020. The control group consisted of 12 patients transplanted in 2019, and the study group consisted of 16 patients transplanted in 2020. RESULTS During 2019, the qualification process was performed in 102 patients with pulmonary end-stage diseases. In 2020, despite the 3-month lockdown related to organizational changes in the hospital, 87 qualification processes were performed. The mortality rate of patients on the waiting list in 2020 was 14.3% (6 patients died), and during 2019 the rate was also 14.3% (4 patients died). Donor qualifications were according to ISHLT criteria. The distribution of donors in both years was similar. There was no relationship between the geographic area of residence and source of donors. In 2019, all 12 patients had double-lung transplant. In 2020, 11 patients had double-lung transplant and 5 patients had single-lung transplant. There was no difference in ventilation time and PGD aside from a shorter ICU stay in 2020. CONCLUSIONS Lung transplants were relatively well-conducted despite the continued obstacles of the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Lung Transplantation/trends , Tissue and Organ Procurement/trends , Waiting Lists/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Lung Transplantation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Tissue and Organ Procurement/organization & administration
Exp Clin Transplant ; 19(11): 1117-1123, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067949


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has dramatically changed medical practices worldwide. These changes have been aimed both to reallocate resources toward fighting the novel coronavirus and to prevent its transmission during nonurgent medical and surgical interventions. Heart and lung transplantation could not be an exception, as most transplant centers have either restricted their activity to only urgent, lifesaving procedures or stopped these surgical procedures for various periods of time depending on the local virus epidemiology. The effect of this infection on the immunosuppressed heart and lung transplant recipient is still questionable; however, there are limited reports suggesting that there is no increased risk of transmission or more severe disease course compared with that shown in the general population. Transplant organizations have disseminated early recommendations as a guidance in a yet evolving situation. Finally, data suggest that lung transplant could potentially serve as an ultimate, lifesaving procedure for COVID-19-related end-stage respiratory failure in carefully selected patients.

COVID-19/transmission , Heart Transplantation , Lung Transplantation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/surgery , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Health Services Needs and Demand , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Heart Transplantation/mortality , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Lung Transplantation/mortality , Needs Assessment , Patient Safety , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome