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1.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 119(25): 429-435, 2022 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is the third worldwide coronavirus-associated disease outbreak in the past 20 years. Lung involvement, with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe cases, is the main clinical feature of this disease; the cardiovascular system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract can also be affected. The pathophysiology of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary organ damage was almost completely unknown when the pandemic began. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search concerning the structural changes and pathophysiology of COVID-19, with a focus on imaging techniques. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical, electron-microscopic and molecular pathological analyses of tissues obtained by autopsy have improved our understanding of COVID-19 pathophysiology, including molecular regulatory mechanisms. Intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) has been found to be a prominent pattern of damage in the affected organs of COVID-19 patients. In IA, an existing vessel changes by invagination of the endothelium and formation of an intraluminal septum, ultimately giving rise to two new lumina. This alters hemodynamics within the vessel, leading to a loss of laminar flow and its replacement by turbulent, inhomogeneous flow. IA, which arises because of ischemia due to thrombosis, is itself a risk factor for the generation of further microthrombi; these have been detected in the lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, and placenta of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Studies of autopsy material from various tissues of COVID-19 patients have revealed ultrastructural evidence of altered microvascularity, IA, and multifocal thrombi. These changes may contribute to the pathophysiology of post-acute interstitial fibrotic organ changes as well as to the clinical picture of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(3): 694-696, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180006
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26143, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191018

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly emerging infectious respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Currently, more than 100 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed worldwide, with over 2.4 million mortalities. The pandemic affects people of all ages but older individuals and those with severe chronic illnesses, including cancer patients, are at higher risk. PATIENT CONCERNS: The impact of cancer treatment on the progression of COVID-19 is unclear. Therefore, we assessed the effects of chemotherapy on COVID-19 outcomes for 2 cancer patients. On January 24, 2020, a level I response to a major public health emergency was initiated in Hubei Province, China, which includes Enshi Autonomous Prefecture that has a population of 4.026 million people. As of April 30, 2020, 252 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 11 asymptomatic carriers were identified in Enshi. DIAGNOSIS: Among the confirmed cases and asymptomatic carriers, 2 patients were identified who were previously diagnosed with malignant tumors, including one with hepatocellular carcinoma and the other with cardia carcinoma. INTERVENTIONS: These 2 patients were receiving or just completed chemotherapy at the time of their COVID-19 diagnosis. OUTCOMES: Both patients were followed and presented favorable outcomes. The positive outcomes for these 2 patients could be partially explained by their recent chemotherapy that impacted their immune status. Also, their relatively younger ages and lack of comorbidities were likely factors in their successful recovery from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Anticancer treatment might enhance a patient's ability to respond favorably to COVID-19 infection. However, anticancer treatment is likely to impact immune function differently in different individuals, which can influence disease outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cyclobutanes/therapeutic use , Docetaxel/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/immunology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Organoplatinum Compounds/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sorafenib/therapeutic use , Stomach Neoplasms/complications , Stomach Neoplasms/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26034, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191014

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To determine the role of ultra-low dose chest computed tomography (uld CT) compared to chest radiographs in patients with laboratory-confirmed early stage SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.Chest radiographs and uld CT of 12 consecutive suspected SARS-CoV-2 patients performed up to 48 hours from hospital admission were reviewed by 2 radiologists. Dosimetry and descriptive statistics of both modalities were analyzed.On uld CT, parenchymal abnormalities compatible with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were detected in 10/12 (83%) patients whereas on chest X-ray in, respectively, 8/12 (66%) and 5/12 (41%) patients for reader 1 and 2. The average increment of diagnostic performance of uld CT compared to chest X-ray was 29%. The average effective dose was, respectively, of 0.219 and 0.073 mSv.Uld CT detects substantially more lung injuries in symptomatic patients with suspected early stage SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia compared to chest radiographs, with a significantly better inter-reader agreement, at the cost of a slightly higher equivalent radiation dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Observer Variation , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Radiation Dosage , Radiography, Thoracic/adverse effects , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiometry/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
6.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104296, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is characterized by a heterogeneous clinical presentation, ranging from mild symptoms to severe courses of disease. 9-20% of hospitalized patients with severe lung disease die from COVID-19 and a substantial number of survivors develop long-COVID. Our objective was to provide comprehensive insights into the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 and to identify liquid biomarkers for disease severity and therapy response. METHODS: We studied a total of 85 lungs (n = 31 COVID autopsy samples; n = 7 influenza A autopsy samples; n = 18 interstitial lung disease explants; n = 24 healthy controls) using the highest resolution Synchrotron radiation-based hierarchical phase-contrast tomography, scanning electron microscopy of microvascular corrosion casts, immunohistochemistry, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging, and analysis of mRNA expression and biological pathways. Plasma samples from all disease groups were used for liquid biomarker determination using ELISA. The anatomic/molecular data were analyzed as a function of patients' hospitalization time. FINDINGS: The observed patchy/mosaic appearance of COVID-19 in conventional lung imaging resulted from microvascular occlusion and secondary lobular ischemia. The length of hospitalization was associated with increased intussusceptive angiogenesis. This was associated with enhanced angiogenic, and fibrotic gene expression demonstrated by molecular profiling and metabolomic analysis. Increased plasma fibrosis markers correlated with their pulmonary tissue transcript levels and predicted disease severity. Plasma analysis confirmed distinct fibrosis biomarkers (TSP2, GDF15, IGFBP7, Pro-C3) that predicted the fatal trajectory in COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: Pulmonary severe COVID-19 is a consequence of secondary lobular microischemia and fibrotic remodelling, resulting in a distinctive form of fibrotic interstitial lung disease that contributes to long-COVID. FUNDING: This project was made possible by a number of funders. The full list can be found within the Declaration of interests / Acknowledgements section at the end of the manuscript.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Fibrosis , Biomarkers/analysis , Ischemia/pathology
7.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 92(4)2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155498

ABSTRACT

Dear Editor, we read the original study by De Michele et al. titled "Post severe COVID-19 infection lung damages study. The experience of early three months multidisciplinary follow-up" with great interest...


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging
8.
Technol Health Care ; 30(6): 1299-1314, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a deadly viral infection spreading rapidly around the world since its outbreak in 2019. In the worst case a patient's organ may fail leading to death. Therefore, early diagnosis is crucial to provide patients with adequate and effective treatment. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to build machine learning prediction models to automatically diagnose COVID-19 severity with clinical and computed tomography (CT) radiomics features. METHOD: P-V-Net was used to segment the lung parenchyma and then radiomics was used to extract CT radiomics features from the segmented lung parenchyma regions. Over-sampling, under-sampling, and a combination of over- and under-sampling methods were used to solve the data imbalance problem. RandomForest was used to screen out the optimal number of features. Eight different machine learning classification algorithms were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The experimental results showed that the COVID-19 mild-severe prediction model trained with clinical and CT radiomics features had the best prediction results. The accuracy of the GBDT classifier was 0.931, the ROUAUC 0.942, and the AUCPRC 0.694, which indicated it was better than other classifiers. CONCLUSION: This study can help clinicians identify patients at risk of severe COVID-19 deterioration early on and provide some treatment for these patients as soon as possible. It can also assist physicians in prognostic efficacy assessment and decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Machine Learning , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Algorithms , Retrospective Studies
10.
Radiology ; 305(3): 709-717, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138184

ABSTRACT

Background Post-COVID-19 condition encompasses symptoms following COVID-19 infection that linger at least 4 weeks after the end of active infection. Symptoms are wide ranging, but breathlessness is common. Purpose To determine if the previously described lung abnormalities seen on hyperpolarized (HP) pulmonary xenon 129 (129Xe) MRI scans in participants with post-COVID-19 condition who were hospitalized are also present in participants with post-COVID-19 condition who were not hospitalized. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, nonhospitalized participants with post-COVID-19 condition (NHLC) and posthospitalized participants with post-COVID-19 condition (PHC) were enrolled from June 2020 to August 2021. Participants underwent chest CT, HP 129Xe MRI, pulmonary function testing, and the 1-minute sit-to-stand test and completed breathlessness questionnaires. Control subjects underwent HP 129Xe MRI only. CT scans were analyzed for post-COVID-19 interstitial lung disease severity using a previously published scoring system and full-scale airway network (FAN) modeling. Analysis used group and pairwise comparisons between participants and control subjects and correlations between participant clinical and imaging data. Results A total of 11 NHLC participants (four men, seven women; mean age, 44 years ± 11 [SD]; 95% CI: 37, 50) and 12 PHC participants (10 men, two women; mean age, 58 years ±10; 95% CI: 52, 64) were included, with a significant difference in age between groups (P = .05). Mean time from infection was 287 days ± 79 (95% CI: 240, 334) and 143 days ± 72 (95% CI: 105, 190) in NHLC and PHC participants, respectively. NHLC and PHC participants had normal or near normal CT scans (mean, 0.3/25 ± 0.6 [95% CI: 0, 0.63] and 7/25 ± 5 [95% CI: 4, 10], respectively). Gas transfer (Dlco) was different between NHLC and PHC participants (mean Dlco, 76% ± 8 [95% CI: 73, 83] vs 86% ± 8 [95% CI: 80, 91], respectively; P = .04), but there was no evidence of other differences in lung function. Mean red blood cell-to-tissue plasma ratio was different between volunteers (mean, 0.45 ± 0.07; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.47]) and PHC participants (mean, 0.31 ± 0.10; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.37; P = .02) and between volunteers and NHLC participants (mean, 0.37 ± 0.10; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.44; P = .03) but not between NHLC and PHC participants (P = .26). FAN results did not correlate with Dlco) or HP 129Xe MRI results. Conclusion Nonhospitalized participants with post-COVID-19 condition (NHLC) and posthospitalized participants with post-COVID-19 condition (PHC) showed hyperpolarized pulmonary xenon 129 MRI and red blood cell-to-tissue plasma abnormalities, with NHLC participants demonstrating lower gas transfer than PHC participants despite having normal CT findings. © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Parraga and Matheson in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Xenon Isotopes , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea
11.
Acute Med ; 21(3): 131-138, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 has had a dramatic impact on the delivery of acute care globally. Accurate risk stratification is fundamental to the efficient organisation of care. Point-of-care lung ultrasound offers practical advantages over conventional imaging with potential to improve the operational performance of acute care pathways during periods of high demand. The Society for Acute Medicine and the Intensive Care Society undertook a collaborative evaluation of point-of-care imaging in the UK to describe the scope of current practice and explore performance during real-world application. METHODS: A retrospective service evaluation was undertaken of the use of point-of-care lung ultrasound during the initial wave of coronavirus infection in the UK. We report an evaluation of all imaging studies performed outside the intensive care unit. An ordinal scale was used to measure the severity of loss of lung aeration. The relationship between lung ultrasound, polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 and 30-day outcomes were described using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Data were collected from 7 hospitals between February and September 2020. In total, 297 ultrasound examinations from 295 patients were recorded. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were positive in 145 patients (49.2% 95%CI 43.5-54.8). A multivariate model combining three ultrasound variables showed reasonable discrimination in relation to the polymerase chain reaction reference (AUC 0.77 95%CI 0.71-0.82). The composite outcome of death or intensive care admission at 30 days occurred in 83 (28.1%, 95%CI 23.3-33.5). Lung ultrasound was able to discriminate the composite outcome with a reasonable level of accuracy (AUC 0.76 95%CI 0.69-0.83) in univariate analysis. The relationship remained statistically significant in a multivariate model controlled for age, sex and the time interval from admission to scan Conclusion: Point-of-care lung ultrasound is able to discriminate patients at increased risk of deterioration allowing more informed clinical decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Point-of-Care Systems , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
S Afr Med J ; 112(11): 850-854, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Available clinical data have revealed that COVID-19 is associated with a risk of pulmonary microthrombosis and small airway disease, especially in patients with severe disease. These patients present with persistent pulmonary symptoms after recovery, with ventilation and perfusion abnormalities present on several imaging modalities. Few data are available on the occurrence of this complication in patients who earlier presented with a milder form of COVID-19, and their long-term follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of persistent lung perfusion abnormalities as a result of suspected air trapping or microthrombosis in non-hospitalised patients diagnosed with COVID-19. The long-term follow-up of these patients will also be investigated. METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted at the nuclear medicine department of Universitas Academic Hospital, Bloemfontein. We reviewed the studies of 78 non-hospitalised patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection referred to our department from July 2020 to June 2021 for a perfusion-only single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) study or a ventilation perfusion (VQ) SPECT/CT study. All 78 patients were suspected of having pulmonary embolism, and had raised D-dimer levels, with persistent, worsening or new onset of cardiopulmonary symptoms after the diagnosis of COVID-19. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients were studied. The median (interquartile range) age was 45 (41 - 58) years and the majority (88.5%) were females. Twenty-two (28.2%) of these patients had matching VQ defects with mosaic attenuation on CT. All 9 of the patients who had follow-up studies had abnormalities that persisted, even after 1 year. CONCLUSION: We confirm that persistent ventilation and perfusion abnormalities suspicious of small airway disease and pulmonary microthrombosis can occur in non-hospitalised patients diagnosed with a milder form of COVID-19. Our study also shows that these complications remain present even 1 year after the initial diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Perfusion
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 931480, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123468

ABSTRACT

Background: Omicron has become the dominant variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) globally. We aimed to compare the clinical and pulmonary computed tomography (CT) characteristics of the patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron with those of patients infected with the Alpha viral strain. Methods: Clinical profiles and pulmonary CT images of 420 patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) at Ningbo First Hospital between January 2020 and April 2022 were collected. Demographic characteristics, symptoms, and imaging manifestations of patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant were compared with those of patients infected with the Alpha strain. Results: A total of 38 patients were diagnosed to be infected with the Alpha strain of SARS-CoV-2, whereas 382 patients were thought to be infected with the Omicron variant. Compared with patients infected with the Alpha strain, those infected with the Omicron variant were younger, and a higher proportion of men were infected (P < 0.001). Notably, 93 (24.3%) of the patients infected with Omicron were asymptomatic, whereas only two (5.3%) of the patients infected with the Alpha strain were asymptomatic. Fever (65.8%), cough (63.2%), shortness of breath (21.1%), and diarrhea (21.1%) were more common in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha strain, while runny nose (24.1%), sore throat (31.9%), body aches (13.6%), and headache (12.3%) were more common in patients with the Omicron variant. Compared with 33 (86.84%) of 38 patients infected with the Alpha strain, who had viral pneumonia on pulmonary CT images, only 5 (1.3%) of 382 patients infected with the Omicron variant had mild foci. In addition, the distribution of opacities in the five patients was unilateral and centrilobular, whereas most patients infected with the Alpha strain had bilateral involvement and multiple lesions in the peripheral zones of the lung. Conclusion: The SARS-CoV-2 Alpha strain mainly affects the lungs, while Omicron is confined to the upper respiratory tract in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276859, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A convenient way to conduct pulmonary function tests while preventing infectious diseases was proposed, together with countermeasures for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The correlation between diagnosis result and diagnosis result was examined for patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) of the most abounding as a subject of spirometry, and the possibility of using this method as an alternative to spirometry was examined. SETTING: This study was conducted in Kanagawa, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Ten normal volunteers and 15 volunteers with mild COPD participated in this study. OUTCOME MEASURES: All images were taken by EXAVISTA (Hitachi, Japan) between October 2019 and February 2020. Continuous fluoroscopic images were taken in 12.5 frames per second for 10-20 s per subject. Images that do not adopt the automatic image processing of the equipment and only carry out the signal correction of each pixel were used for the analysis. RESULTS: The mean total dose for all volunteers was 0.2 mGy. There was no major discrepancy in the detection of lung field geometry, and no diagnostic problems were noted by the radiologist and physician. CONCLUSIONS: Existing X-ray cine imaging was used to extract frequency-tunable imaging. It is possible to identify abnormal regions on the images compared to spirometry, and it does not require maximum effort respiration; therefore, it is possible to perform a stable examination because the patient's physical condition and the ability of laboratory technicians on the day are less affected. This can also be used as a countermeasure in examining patients with infectious diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN UMIN000043868.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiration Disorders , Humans , X-Rays , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging
15.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277624, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on the long-term pulmonary sequelae following SARS-CoV-2 infection is limited. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of hospitalized and non-hospitalized adult patients age >18 with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR three months prior to enrolment between June and December 2020. Participants underwent full pulmonary function test (PFT), cardiopulmonary exercise testing at 3 months and 6 months. Primary outcome was mean differences of forced vital capacity (FVC), diffuse capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and oxygen consumption (VO2) at 6 vs. 3 months. Secondary outcomes were respiratory outcomes classified into 5 clinical groups-no lung disease, resolved lung disease, persistent lung disease, PFT abnormalities attributable to pre-existing lung disease or other factors, and mild PFT abnormalities of uncertain clinical significance. RESULTS: Fifty-one, 30 hospitalized and 21 non-hospitalized, participants were included. Median age was 51 years; 20 (39.2%) were female. Mean (±SD) percent predicted values of FVC, DLCO and VO2 at 3 vs 6-month-visits were 96.2 ± 15.6 vs. 97.6 ± 15.5, 73.74 ±18 vs. 78.5 ± 15.5, and 75.5 ± 18.9 vs. 76.1 ± 21.5, respectively. Nineteen (37%) patients had physiologic and/or radiographic evidence of lung disease at 3 months with eight (15.7%) continuing to have persistent disease at 6 months. History of diabetes, hypertension, ICU admission and elevated D-Dimer levels were associated with persistent lung disease at 6 months. INTERPRETATION: Persistent lung disease at 6 months post SARS-CoV-2 infection exists. Changes of lung function between 3- and 6-months are not significant. A longer follow-up is required to determine long-term prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration Disorders , Adult , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Infant , Male , COVID-19/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Function Tests , Disease Progression
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(39): e30744, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the radiographic features of patients with progressive and nonprogressive coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 1, 2020, to February 28, 2022, by using the keywords: "COVID-19", "novel Coronavirus", "2019-novel coronavirus", "CT", "radiology" and "imaging". We summarized the computed tomography manifestations of progressive and nonprogressive COVID-19 pneumonia. The meta-analysis was performed using the Stata statistical software version 16.0. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies with 1092 patients were included in this analysis. The findings of this meta-analysis indicated that the dominating computed tomography characteristics of progressive patients were a crazy-paving pattern (odds ratio [OR] = 2.10) and patchy shadowing (OR = 1.64). The dominating lesions distribution of progressive patients were bilateral (OR = 11.62), central mixed subpleural (OR = 1.37), and central (OR = 1.36). The other dominating lesions of progressive patients were pleura thickening (OR = 2.13), lymphadenopathy (OR = 1.74), vascular enlargement (OR = 1.39), air bronchogram (OR = 1.29), and pleural effusion (OR = 1.29). Two patterns of lesions showed significant links with the progression of disease: nodule (P = .001) and crazy-paving pattern (P = .023). Four lesions distribution showed significant links with the progression of disease: bilateral (P = .004), right upper lobe (P = .003), right middle lobe (P = .001), and left upper lobe (P = .018). CONCLUSION: Nodules, crazy-paving pattern, and/or new lesions in bilateral, upper and middle lobe of right lung, and lower lobe of left lung may indicate disease deterioration. Clinicians should formulate or modify treatment strategies in time according to these specific conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
17.
Magn Reson Med ; 87(4): 1784-1798, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114544

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To develop an isotropic high-resolution stack-of-spirals UTE sequence for pulmonary imaging at 0.55 Tesla by leveraging a combination of robust respiratory-binning, trajectory correction, and concomitant-field corrections. METHODS: A stack-of-spirals golden-angle UTE sequence was used to continuously acquire data for 15.5 minutes. The data was binned to a stable respiratory phase based on superoinferior readout self-navigator signals. Corrections for trajectory errors and concomitant field artifacts, along with image reconstruction with conjugate gradient SENSE, were performed inline within the Gadgetron framework. Finally, data were retrospectively reconstructed to simulate scan times of 5, 8.5, and 12 minutes. Image quality was assessed using signal-to-noise, image sharpness, and qualitative reader scores. The technique was evaluated in healthy volunteers, patients with coronavirus disease 2019 infection, and patients with lung nodules. RESULTS: The technique provided diagnostic quality images with parenchymal lung SNR of 3.18 ± 0.0.60, 4.57 ± 0.87, 5.45 ± 1.02, and 5.89 ± 1.28 for scan times of 5, 8.5, 12, and 15.5 minutes, respectively. The respiratory binning technique resulted in significantly sharper images (p < 0.001) as measured with relative maximum derivative at the diaphragm. Concomitant field corrections visibly improved sharpness of anatomical structures away from iso-center. The image quality was maintained with a slight loss in SNR for simulated scan times down to 8.5 minutes. Inline image reconstruction and artifact correction were achieved in <5 minutes. CONCLUSION: The proposed pulmonary imaging technique combined efficient stack-of-spirals imaging with robust respiratory binning, concomitant field correction, and trajectory correction to generate diagnostic quality images with 1.75 mm isotropic resolution in 8.5 minutes on a high-performance 0.55 Tesla system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Artifacts , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276738, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098753

ABSTRACT

Presently, coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is spreading worldwide without an effective treatment method. For COVID-19, which is often asymptomatic, it is essential to adopt a method that does not cause aggravation, as well as a method to prevent infection. Whether aggravation can be predicted by analyzing the extent of lung damage on chest computed tomography (CT) scans was examined. The extent of lung damage on pre-intubation chest CT scans of 277 patients with COVID-19 was assessed. It was observed that aggravation occurred when the CT scan showed extensive damage associated with ground-glass opacification and/or consolidation (p < 0.0001). The extent of lung damage was similar across the upper, middle, and lower fields. Furthermore, upon comparing the extent of lung damage based on the number of days after onset, a significant difference was found between the severe pneumonia group (SPG) with intubation or those who died and non-severe pneumonia group (NSPG) ≥3 days after onset, with aggravation observed when ≥14.5% of the lungs exhibited damage at 3-5 days (sensitivity: 88.2%, specificity: 72.4%) and when ≥20.1% of the lungs exhibited damage at 6-8 days (sensitivity: 88.2%, specificity: 69.4%). Patients with aggravation suddenly developed hypoxemia after 7 days from the onset; however, chest CT scans obtained in the paucisymptomatic phase without hypoxemia indicated that subsequent aggravation could be predicted based on the degree of lung damage. Furthermore, in subjects aged ≥65 years, a significant difference between the SPG and NSPG was observed in the extent of lung damage early beginning from 3 days after onset, and it was found that the degree of lung damage could serve as a predictor of aggravation. Therefore, to predict and improve prognosis through rapid and appropriate management, evaluating patients with factors indicating poor prognosis using chest CT is essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Hypoxia , Retrospective Studies
19.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 296, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anticoagulant treatment is recommended for at least three months after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related acute pulmonary embolism (PE), but the persistent pulmonary clot burden after that time is unknown. METHODS: Lung perfusion was assessed by ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) SPECT/CT in 20 consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated acute PE after a minimum of three months anticoagulation therapy in a retrospective observational study. RESULTS: Remaining perfusion defects after a median treatment period of six months were observed in only two patients. All patients (13 men, seven women, mean age 55.6 ± 14.5 years) were on non-vitamin K direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). No recurrent venous thromboembolism or anticoagulant-related bleeding complications were observed. Among patients with partial clinical recovery, high-risk PE and persistent pulmonary infiltrates were significantly more frequent (p < 0.001, respectively). INTERPRETATION: Temporary DOAC treatment seems to be safe and efficacious for resolving pulmonary clot burden in SARS-CoV-2-associated acute PE. Partial clinical recovery is more likely caused by prolonged SARS-CoV-2-related parenchymal lung damage rather than by persistent pulmonary perfusion defects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Perfusion
20.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(12): 1614-1624, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098205

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The appraisal of disease severity and prediction of adverse outcomes using risk stratification tools at early disease stages is crucial to diminish mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While lung ultrasound (LUS) as an imaging technique for the diagnosis of lung diseases has recently gained a leading position, data demonstrating that it can predict adverse outcomes related to COVID-19 is scarce. The main aim of this study is therefore to assess the clinical significance of bedside LUS in COVID-19 patients who presented to the emergency department (ED). Methods: Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to the ED of our hospital between March 2021 and May 2021 and who underwent a 12-zone LUS and a lung computed tomography scan were included prospectively. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used to predict adverse events, which was our primary outcome. The secondary outcome was to discover the association of LUS score and computed tomography severity score (CT-SS) with the composite endpoints. Results: We assessed 234 patients [median age 59.0 (46.8-68.0) years; 59.4% M), including 38 (16.2%) in-hospital deaths for any cause related to COVID-19. Higher LUS score and CT-SS was found to be associated with ICU admission, intubation, and mortality. The LUS score predicted mortality risk within each stratum of NEWS. Pairwise analysis demonstrated that after adjusting a base prediction model with LUS score, significantly higher accuracy was observed in predicting both ICU admission (DBA -0.067, P = .011) and in-hospital mortality (DBA -0.086, P = .017). Conclusion: Lung ultrasound can be a practical prediction tool during the course of COVID-19 and can quantify pulmonary involvement in ED settings. It is a powerful predictor of ICU admission, intubation, and mortality and can be used as an alternative for chest computed tomography while monitoring COVID-19-related adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Point-of-Care Systems , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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