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1.
Ter Arkh ; 94(11): 1333-1339, 2022 Dec 26.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234221

ABSTRACT

The viral infectious disease pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has affected over 500 million people and killed over 6 million. This is the official data provided by the WHO as of the end of May 2022. Among people who have recovered from COVID-19, post-COVID syndrome is quite common. Scattered epidemiological studies on post-COVID syndrome, however, indicate its high relevance. One of the manifestations of post-COVID syndrome is the development of pulmonary fibrosis (PF). This article is devoted to the analysis of literature data on epidemiology, immunomorphology, as well as X-ray morphological and functional characteristics of PF in patients with post-COVID syndrome. Attention is drawn to the various phenotypes of the post-COVID syndrome and the incidence of PF, which, as clinical practice shows, is most common in people who have had severe COVID-19. This article discusses in detail the molecular biological and immunological mechanisms of PF development. The fibrotic process of the lung parenchyma is not an early manifestation of the disease; as a rule, radiomorphological signs of this pathological process develop after four weeks from the onset of acute manifestations of a viral infection. The characteristic signs of PF include those that indicate the process of remodulation of the lung tissue: volumetric decrease in the lungs, "cellular" degeneration of the lung parenchyma, bronchiectasis and traction bronchiolectasis. The process of remodulating the lung tissue, in the process of fibrosis, is accompanied by a violation of the lung function; a particularly sensitive test of functional disorders is a decrease in the diffusion capacity of the lung tissue. Therefore, in the process of monitoring patients with post-COVID syndrome, a dynamic study of the ventilation function of the lungs is recommended. The main clinical manifestation of PF is dyspnea that occurs with minimal exertion. Shortness of breath also reflects another important aspect of fibrous remodulation of the lung parenchyma - oxygen dissociation is disturbed, which reflects a violation of the gas exchange function of the lungs. There are no generally accepted treatments for PF in post-COVID syndrome. The literature considers such approaches as the possibility of prescribing antifibrotic therapy, hyaluronidase, and medical gases: thermal helium, nitric oxide, and atomic hydrogen. The article draws attention to the unresolved issues of post-covid PF in people who have had COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Dyspnea
2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 15(11): 4625-4641, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239369

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The severity of COVID-19 increases with each decade of life, a phenomenon that suggest that organismal aging contributes to the fatality of the disease. In this regard, we and others have previously shown that COVID-19 severity correlates with shorter telomeres, a molecular determinant of aging, in patient's leukocytes. Lung injury is a predominant feature of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection that can further progress to lung fibrosis in post-COVID-19 patients. Short or dysfunctional telomeres in Alveolar type II (ATII) cells are sufficient to induce pulmonary fibrosis in mouse and humans. Here, we analyze telomere length and the histopathology of lung biopsies from a cohort of alive post-COVID-19 patients and a cohort of age-matched controls with lung cancer. We found loss of ATII cellularity and shorter telomeres in ATII cells concomitant with a marked increase in fibrotic lung parenchyma remodeling in post- COVID-19 patients compared to controls. These findings reveal a link between presence of short telomeres in ATII cells and long-term lung fibrosis sequel in Post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Mice , Animals , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Lung/pathology , Neoplasms/pathology , Telomere/pathology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2022 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243838

ABSTRACT

Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLD) or Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are a heterogeneous group of lung conditions with common characteristics that can progress to fibrosis. Within this group of pneumonias, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is considered the most common. This disease has no known cause, is devastating and has no cure. Chronic lesion of alveolar type II (ATII) cells represents a key mechanism for the development of IPF. ATII cells are specialized in the biosynthesis and secretion of pulmonary surfactant (PS), a lipid-protein complex that reduces surface tension and minimizes breathing effort. Some differences in PS composition have been reported between patients with idiopathic pulmonary disease and healthy individuals, especially regarding some specific proteins in the PS; however, few reports have been conducted on the lipid components. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which phospholipids (PLs) could be involved in the development of the fibroproliferative response.


Subject(s)
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Pulmonary Surfactants , Humans , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Surfactants/metabolism , Phospholipids , Lung/pathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(1): e1010171, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327858

ABSTRACT

The development of physiological models that reproduce SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary human cells will be instrumental to identify host-pathogen interactions and potential therapeutics. Here, using cell suspensions directly from primary human lung tissues (HLT), we have developed a rapid platform for the identification of viral targets and the expression of viral entry factors, as well as for the screening of viral entry inhibitors and anti-inflammatory compounds. The direct use of HLT cells, without long-term cell culture and in vitro differentiation approaches, preserves main immune and structural cell populations, including the most susceptible cell targets for SARS-CoV-2; alveolar type II (AT-II) cells, while maintaining the expression of proteins involved in viral infection, such as ACE2, TMPRSS2, CD147 and AXL. Further, antiviral testing of 39 drug candidates reveals a highly reproducible method, suitable for different SARS-CoV-2 variants, and provides the identification of new compounds missed by conventional systems, such as VeroE6. Using this method, we also show that interferons do not modulate ACE2 expression, and that stimulation of local inflammatory responses can be modulated by different compounds with antiviral activity. Overall, we present a relevant and rapid method for the study of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Adult , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Investigational/pharmacology , Drugs, Investigational/therapeutic use , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/therapy , Inflammation/virology , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
5.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104296, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is characterized by a heterogeneous clinical presentation, ranging from mild symptoms to severe courses of disease. 9-20% of hospitalized patients with severe lung disease die from COVID-19 and a substantial number of survivors develop long-COVID. Our objective was to provide comprehensive insights into the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 and to identify liquid biomarkers for disease severity and therapy response. METHODS: We studied a total of 85 lungs (n = 31 COVID autopsy samples; n = 7 influenza A autopsy samples; n = 18 interstitial lung disease explants; n = 24 healthy controls) using the highest resolution Synchrotron radiation-based hierarchical phase-contrast tomography, scanning electron microscopy of microvascular corrosion casts, immunohistochemistry, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging, and analysis of mRNA expression and biological pathways. Plasma samples from all disease groups were used for liquid biomarker determination using ELISA. The anatomic/molecular data were analyzed as a function of patients' hospitalization time. FINDINGS: The observed patchy/mosaic appearance of COVID-19 in conventional lung imaging resulted from microvascular occlusion and secondary lobular ischemia. The length of hospitalization was associated with increased intussusceptive angiogenesis. This was associated with enhanced angiogenic, and fibrotic gene expression demonstrated by molecular profiling and metabolomic analysis. Increased plasma fibrosis markers correlated with their pulmonary tissue transcript levels and predicted disease severity. Plasma analysis confirmed distinct fibrosis biomarkers (TSP2, GDF15, IGFBP7, Pro-C3) that predicted the fatal trajectory in COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: Pulmonary severe COVID-19 is a consequence of secondary lobular microischemia and fibrotic remodelling, resulting in a distinctive form of fibrotic interstitial lung disease that contributes to long-COVID. FUNDING: This project was made possible by a number of funders. The full list can be found within the Declaration of interests / Acknowledgements section at the end of the manuscript.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Fibrosis , Biomarkers/analysis , Ischemia/pathology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
6.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1158951, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323313

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury (ARDS/ALI) still lack a recognized diagnostic test and pharmacologic treatments that target the underlying pathology. Methods: To explore the sensitive non-invasive biomarkers associated with pathological changes in the lung of direct ARDS/ALI, we performed an integrative proteomic analysis of lung and blood samples from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS mice and COVID-19-related ARDS patients. The common differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified based on combined proteomic analysis of serum and lung samples in direct ARDS mice model. The clinical value of the common DEPs was validated in lung and plasma proteomics in cases of COVID-19-related ARDS. Results: We identified 368 DEPs in serum and 504 in lung samples from LPS-induced ARDS mice. Gene ontology (GO) classification and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that these DEPs in lung tissues were primarily enriched in pathways, including IL-17 and B cell receptor signaling pathways, and the response to stimuli. In contrast, DEPs in the serum were mostly involved in metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Through network analysis of protein-protein interactions (PPI), we identified diverse clusters of DEPs in the lung and serum samples. We further identified 50 commonly upregulated and 10 commonly downregulated DEPs in the lung and serum samples. Internal validation with a parallel-reacted monitor (PRM) and external validation in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets further showed these confirmed DEPs. We then validated these proteins in the proteomics of patients with ARDS and identified six proteins (HP, LTA4H, S100A9, SAA1, SAA2, and SERPINA3) with good clinical diagnostic and prognostic value. Discussion: These proteins can be viewed as sensitive and non-invasive biomarkers associated with lung pathological changes in the blood and could potentially serve as targets for the early detection and treatment of direct ARDS especially in hyperinflammatory subphenotype.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Mice , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Proteomics , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Biomarkers/metabolism
7.
Tomography ; 9(3): 981-994, 2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322229

ABSTRACT

Elevated inflammatory markers are associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and some patients benefit from Interleukin (IL)-6 pathway inhibitors. Different chest computed tomography (CT) scoring systems have shown a prognostic value in COVID-19, but not specifically in anti-IL-6-treated patients at high risk of respiratory failure. We aimed to explore the relationship between baseline CT findings and inflammatory conditions and to evaluate the prognostic value of chest CT scores and laboratory findings in COVID-19 patients specifically treated with anti-IL-6. Baseline CT lung involvement was assessed in 51 hospitalized COVID-19 patients naive to glucocorticoids and other immunosuppressants using four CT scoring systems. CT data were correlated with systemic inflammation and 30-day prognosis after anti-IL-6 treatment. All the considered CT scores showed a negative correlation with pulmonary function and a positive one with C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, IL-8, and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) serum levels. All the performed scores were prognostic factors, but the disease extension assessed by the six-lung-zone CT score (S24) was the only independently associated with intensive care unit (ICU) admission (p = 0.04). In conclusion, CT involvement correlates with laboratory inflammation markers and is an independent prognostic factor in COVID-19 patients representing a further tool to implement prognostic stratification in hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Receptors, Interleukin-6 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cytokines , Inflammation , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Prognosis , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320117

ABSTRACT

The pulmonary endothelium is a highly regulated organ that performs a wide range of functions under physiological and pathological conditions. Since endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated to play a direct role in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome, its role in COVID-19 has also been extensively investigated. Indeed, apart from the COVID-19-associated coagulopathy biomarkers, new biomarkers were recognised early during the pandemic, including markers of endothelial cell activation or injury. We systematically searched the literature up to 10 March 2023 for studies examining the association between acute and long COVID-19 severity and outcomes and endothelial biomarkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Vascular Diseases/pathology , Lung/pathology , Biomarkers
9.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285770, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319825

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia, always a major malady, became the main public health and economic disaster of historical proportions with the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was based on a premise that pathology of lung metabolism in inflammation may have features invariant to the nature of the underlying cause. Amino acid uptake by the lungs was measured from plasma samples collected pre-terminally from a carotid artery and vena cava in mice with bleomycin-induced lung inflammation (N = 10) and compared to controls treated with saline instillation (N = 6). In the control group, the difference in concentrations between the arterial and venous blood of the 19 amino acids measured reached the level of statistical significance only for arginine (-10.7%, p = 0.0372) and phenylalanine (+5.5%, p = 0.0266). In the bleomycin group, 11 amino acids had significantly lower concentrations in the arterial blood. Arginine concentration was decreased by 21.1% (p<0.0001) and only that of citrulline was significantly increased (by 20.1%, p = 0.0002). Global Arginine Bioavailability Ratio was decreased in arterial blood by 19.5% (p = 0.0305) in the saline group and by 30.4% (p<0.0001) in the bleomycin group. Production of nitric oxide (NO) and citrulline from arginine by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is greatly increased in the immune system's response to lung injury. Deprived of arginine, the endothelial cells downstream may fail to provide enough NO to prevent the activation of thrombocytes. Thrombotic-related vascular dysfunction is a defining characteristic of pneumonia, including COVID-19. This experiment lends further support to arginine replacement as adjuvant therapy in pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Mice , Humans , Animals , Arginine/metabolism , Bleomycin/toxicity , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Citrulline/metabolism , Pandemics , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
10.
Am J Case Rep ; 24: e939365, 2023 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Electronic smoking devices were created, and their production industrialized, recently. Since their creation, their use has spread widely. This increase in users led to the appearance of a new lung condition. In 2019, the CDC established the criteria for the diagnosis of electronic cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) and the eponym EVALI is now widely recognized. The condition results from the inhalation of heated vapor, which damages the large and small airways and alveoli. CASE REPORT This report presents the case of a 43-year-old Brazilian man with acute impairment of lung function, pulmonary nodules on chest computed tomography (CT) and features of EVALI. He was hospitalized after 9 days of respiratory symptoms due to worsening dyspnea, and underwent a bronchoscopy on the same day. His condition evolved into severe hypercapnic respiratory failure that took 3 weeks to improve, and he underwent a surgical lung biopsy that showed an organizing pneumonia pattern. He was discharged after 50 days of hospitalization. Infectious diseases and other lung conditions were ruled out on clinical, laboratory, radiological, epidemiological, and histopathological grounds. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, we report the unusual presentation of EVALI on chest CT showing nodules instead of a ground-glass pattern, as stated in the CDC definitions of a confirmed case. We also report the progression to a critical clinical state and, after treatment, the evolution to complete recovery. We also draw attention to the difficulties in diagnosing and managing the disease, especially at a time when COVID-19 has emerged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Lung Injury , Vaping , Male , Humans , Adult , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/etiology , Brazil , Vaping/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Lung/pathology
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(5)2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315176

ABSTRACT

Organising pneumonia after a mild COVID-19 infection has been increasingly reported and poses a diagnostic challenge to physicians especially in immunocompromised patients. We report a patient with a background of lymphoma in remission on rituximab who presented with prolonged and persistent fever after recovering from a mild COVID-19 infection. The initial workup showed bilateral lower zone lung consolidation; however, the infective and autoimmune workup were unremarkable. Subsequently, a bronchoscopy with transbronchial lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of organising pneumonia. A tapering glucocorticoid regimen was commenced with prompt resolution of the patient's clinical symptoms, and subsequent resolution of biochemical markers and radiological lung changes 3 months later. This case highlights the importance of early recognition of the diagnosis of organising pneumonia in immunocompromised populations after a mild COVID-19 infection as it shows promising response to glucocorticoid therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organizing Pneumonia , Pneumonia , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Lung/pathology , Immunocompromised Host
13.
Am J Pathol ; 193(6): 690-701, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312845

ABSTRACT

Clinical evidence of vascular dysfunction and hypercoagulability as well as pulmonary vascular damage and microthrombosis are frequently reported in severe cases of human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Syrian golden hamsters recapitulate histopathologic pulmonary vascular lesions reported in patients with COVID-19. Herein, special staining techniques and transmission electron microscopy further define vascular pathologies in a Syrian golden hamster model of human COVID-19. The results show that regions of active pulmonary inflammation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are characterized by ultrastructural evidence of endothelial damage with platelet marginalization and both perivascular and subendothelial macrophage infiltration. SARS-CoV-2 antigen/RNA was not detectable within affected blood vessels. Taken together, these findings suggest that the prominent microscopic vascular lesions in SARS-CoV-2-inoculated hamsters likely occur due to endothelial damage followed by platelet and macrophage infiltration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Diseases , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , Vascular Diseases/pathology , Disease Models, Animal
14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 120: 110240, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313874

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lungs induced by pathogenic microorganisms, immune damage, physical and chemical factors, and other factors, and the latest outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia is also an acute lung injury (ALI) induced by viral infection. However, there are currently no effective treatments for inflammatory cytokine storms in patients with ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Protein kinase D (PKD) is a highly active kinase that has been shown to be associated with the production of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, small-molecule compounds that inhibit PKD may be potential drugs for the treatment of ALI/ARDS. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of the small-molecule inhibitor CRT0066101 to attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine production through in vitro cell experiments and a mouse pneumonia model. We found that CRT0066101 significantly reduced the protein and mRNA levels of LPS-induced cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß). CRT0066101 inhibited MyD88 and TLR4 expression and reduced NF-κB, ERK, and JNK phosphorylation. CRT0066101 also reduced NLRP3 activation, inhibited the assembly of the inflammasome complex, and attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration and lung tissue damage. Taken together, our data indicate that CRT0066101 exerts anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced inflammation through the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway, suggesting that CRT0066101 may have therapeutic value in acute lung injury and other MyD88-dependent inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Mice , Animals , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism
15.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 25(14): 2398-2412, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302565

ABSTRACT

The human has two lungs responsible for respiration and drug metabolism. Severe lung infection caused by bacteria, mycobacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites may lead to lungs injury. Smoking and tobacco consumption may also produce lungs injury. Inflammatory and pain mediators are secreted by alveolar macrophages. The inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, neutrophils, and fibroblasts are accumulated in the alveoli sac, which becomes infected. It may lead to hypoxia followed by severe pulmonary congestion and the death of the patient. There is an urgent need for the treatment of artificial respiration and ventilation. However, the situation may be the worst for patients suffering from lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and acute pneumonia caused by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Re-urgency has been happening in the case of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Therefore, it is needed to protect the lungs with the intake of natural phytomedicines. In the present review, several selected phyto components having the potential role in lung injury therapy have been discussed. Regular intake of natural vegetables and fruits bearing these constituents may save the lungs even in the dangerous attack of SARS-CoV-2 in lung cancer, pulmonary TB, and pneumatic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Lung Injury , Pneumonia , Humans , Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung Injury/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-1/metabolism , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 119: 110177, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300914

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Acute lung injury (ALI) poses a serious threat to human health globally, particularly with the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Excessive recruitment and infiltration of neutrophils is the major etiopathogenesis of ALI. Esculin, also known as 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, is a remarkable compound derived from traditional Chinese medicine Cortex fraxini. Accumulated evidence indicates that esculin has potent anti-inflammatory effects, but its pharmaceutical effect against ALI and potential mechanisms are still unclear. METHODS: This study evaluated the protective effect of esculin against ALI by histopathological observation and biochemical analysis of lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged ALI mice in vivo. The effects of esculin on N-formyl-met-leu-phe (fMLP)-induced neutrophil migration and chemotaxis were quantitatively assessed using a Transwell assay and an automated cell imaging system equipped with a Zigmond chamber, respectively. The drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) assay, in vitro protein binding assay and molecular docking were performed to identify the potential therapeutic target of esculin and the potential binding sites and pattern. RESULTS: Esculin significantly attenuated LPS-induced lung pathological injury, reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both BALF and lung, and suppressed the activation of NF-κB signaling. Esculin also significantly reduced the number of total cells and neutrophils as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the BALF. Esculin impaired neutrophil migration and chemotaxis as evidenced by the reduced migration distance and velocity. Furthermore, esculin remarkably inhibited Vav1 phosphorylation, suppressed Rac1 activation and the PAK1/LIMK1/cofilin signaling axis. Mechanistically, esculin could interact with ß2 integrin and then diminish its ligand affinity with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). CONCLUSIONS: Esculin inhibits ß2 integrin-dependent neutrophil migration and chemotaxis, blocks the cytoskeletal remodeling process required for neutrophil recruitment, thereby contributing to its protective effect against ALI. This study demonstrates the new therapeutic potential of esculin as a novel lead compound.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Mice , Humans , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Esculin/metabolism , Esculin/pharmacology , Esculin/therapeutic use , Neutrophil Infiltration , Molecular Docking Simulation , COVID-19/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Integrins/metabolism , Lim Kinases/metabolism
17.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300727

ABSTRACT

In this review, we investigated whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can directly cause myocarditis with severe myocardial damage induced by viral particles. A review of the major data published from 2020 to 2022 was performed by consulting the major databases alongside first-hand experiences that emerged from the cardiac biopsies and autopsy examinations of patients who died of SARS-CoV-2 infections. From this study, a significantly large amount of data suggests that the Dallas criteria were met in a residual percentage of patients, demonstrating that SARS-CoV-2 myocarditis was a rare clinical and pathological entity that occurred in a small percentage of subjects. All cases described here were highly selected and subjected to autopsies or endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs). The most important discovery, through the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 genome using the polymerase chain reaction, consisted in the presence of the viral genome in the lung tissue of most of the patients who died from COVID-19. However, the discovery of the SARS-CoV-2 viral genome was a rare event in cardiac tissue from autopsy findings of patients who died of myocarditis It is important to emphasize that myocardial inflammation alone, as promoted by macrophages and T cell infiltrations, can be observed in noninfectious deaths and COVID-19 cases, but the extent of each cause is varied, and in neither case have such findings been reported to support clinically relevant myocarditis. Therefore, in the different infected vs. non-infected samples examined, none of our findings provide a definitive histochemical assessment for the diagnosis of myocarditis in the majority of cases evaluated. We report evidence suggesting an extremely low frequency of viral myocarditis that has also been associated with unclear therapeutic implications. These two key factors strongly point towards the use of an endomyocardial biopsy to irrefutably reach a diagnosis of viral myocarditis in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Myocarditis/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Lung/pathology
18.
Pathol Res Pract ; 245: 154471, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299736

ABSTRACT

The impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on lung tissue in patients on respiratory support is of significant scientific interest in predicting mortality. This study aimed to analyze post-mortem histological changes in the lung tissue of COVID-19 patients on respiratory support using vital radiology semiotics. A total of 41 autopsies were performed on patients who died of SARS-CoV-2 and had confirmed COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and radiological evidence of lung tissue consolidation and ground glass opacity. The results showed that the duration of COVID-19 in patients on respiratory support was significantly associated with the development of all stages of diffuse alveolar damage, acute fibrous organizing pneumonia, pulmonary capillary congestion, fibrin thrombi, perivascular inflammation, alveolar hemorrhage, proliferating interstitial fibroblasts, and pulmonary embolism. The prediction model for lethal outcomes based on the duration of total respiratory support had a sensitivity of 68.3% and a specificity of 87.5%. In conclusion, for COVID-19 patients on long-term respiratory support with radiological signs of ground glass opacity and lung consolidation, post-mortem morphological features included various stages of diffuse alveolar lung damage, pulmonary capillary congestion, fibrin clots, and perivascular inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Fibrin
19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1073878, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306422

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a widespread metabolic condition with a high global morbidity and mortality rate that affects the whole body. Their primary consequences are mostly caused by the macrovascular and microvascular bed degradation brought on by metabolic, hemodynamic, and inflammatory variables. However, research in recent years has expanded the target organ in T2DM to include the lung. Inflammatory lung diseases also impose a severe financial burden on global healthcare. T2DM has long been recognized as a significant comorbidity that influences the course of various respiratory disorders and their disease progress. The pathogenesis of the glycemic metabolic problem and endothelial microangiopathy of the respiratory disorders have garnered more attention lately, indicating that the two ailments have a shared history. This review aims to outline the connection between T2DM related endothelial cell dysfunction and concomitant respiratory diseases, including Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Angiopathies , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Vascular Diseases , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , COVID-19/complications , Lung/pathology , Comorbidity , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology
20.
Respir Res ; 24(1): 112, 2023 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis is an emerging complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we speculate that patients with COVID-19 and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) may share aberrant expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) associated to the progression of lung fibrosis. OBJECTIVE: To identify miRNAs presenting similar alteration in COVID-19 and IPF, and describe their impact on fibrogenesis. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature published between 2010 and January 2022 (PROSPERO, CRD42022341016) was conducted using the key words (COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2) AND (microRNA OR miRNA) or (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis OR IPF) AND (microRNA OR miRNA) in Title/Abstract. RESULTS: Of the 1988 references considered, 70 original articles were appropriate for data extraction: 27 studies focused on miRNAs in COVID-19, and 43 on miRNAs in IPF. 34 miRNAs were overlapping in COVID-19 and IPF, 7 miRNAs presenting an upregulation (miR-19a-3p, miR-200c-3p, miR-21-5p, miR-145-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-23b and miR-424) and 9 miRNAs a downregulation (miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-141-3p, miR-16-5p, miR-142-5p, miR-486-5p, miR-708-3p and miR-150-5p). CONCLUSION: Several studies reported elevated levels of profibrotic miRNAs in COVID-19 context. In addition, the balance of antifibrotic miRNAs responsible of the modulation of fibrotic processes is impaired in COVID-19. This evidence suggests that the deregulation of fibrotic-related miRNAs participates in the development of fibrotic lesions in the lung of post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , MicroRNAs , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Lung/pathology
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