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1.
Radiother Oncol ; 166: 133-136, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895399

ABSTRACT

This is a paired prospective comparative cohort study with 58 patients, in order to analyze the clinical LD-WLI in patients with moderate or severe COVID19 pneumonia. The results of this study show that the Radiotherapy could be an option to improve the clinical response for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/radiotherapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Lung/radiation effects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 113(5): 946-959, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821289

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Studies dating back to a century ago have reported using low-dose radiation therapy for the treatment of viral and bacterial pneumonia. In the modern era, since the COVID-19 pandemic began, several groups worldwide have researched the applicability of whole lung irradiation (WLI) for the treatment of COVID-19. We aimed to bring together the results of these experimental studies. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis searching PubMed and Scopus databases for clinical trials incorporating WLI for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Required data were extracted from each study. Using the random-effects model, the overall pooled day 28 survival rate, survival hazard ratio, and intubation-free days within 15 days after WLI were calculated, and forest plots were produced. RESULTS: Ten studies were identified, and eventually, 5 were included for meta-analysis. The overall survival hazard ratio was calculated to be 0.85 (0.46-1.57). The pooled mean difference of intubation-free days within 15 days after WLI was 1.87, favoring the WLI group (95% confidence interval, -0.02 to 3.76). The overall day 28 survival rate of patients receiving WLI for the 9 studies with adequate follow-up data was 74% (95% confidence interval, 61-87). Except for 2 studies, the other 8 studies were assessed to have moderate to high risk of bias, and there were many differences among the designs of the studies, included patients, primary endpoints, outcome measurement methods, and reporting of the results. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a mild improvement in intubation-free days, WLI had no significant effect on patients' overall survival. Currently, we cannot recommend routine use of WLI for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Lung/radiation effects , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Pandemics
5.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667055

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread worldwide with over 260 million people infected and more than 5 million deaths, numbers that are escalating on a daily basis. Frontline health workers and scientists diligently fight to alleviate life-threatening symptoms and control the spread of the disease. There is an urgent need for better triage of patients, especially in third world countries, in order to decrease the pressure induced on healthcare facilities. In the struggle to treat life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia, scientists have debated the clinical use of ionizing radiation (IR). The historical literature dating back to the 1940s contains many reports of successful treatment of pneumonia with IR. In this work, we critically review the literature for the use of IR for both diagnostic and treatment purposes. We identify details including the computed tomography (CT) scanning considerations, the radiobiological basis of IR anti-inflammatory effects, the supportive evidence for low dose radiation therapy (LDRT), and the risks of radiation-induced cancer and cardiac disease associated with LDRT. In this paper, we address concerns regarding the effective management of COVID-19 patients and potential avenues that could provide empirical evidence for the fight against the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Lung/radiation effects , Pneumonia, Viral/radiotherapy , Radiation, Ionizing , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lung/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Radiation Dosage , Radiotherapy Dosage , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Radiat Oncol ; 17(1): 10, 2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low dose radiotherapy (LDRT) of whole lungs with photon beams is a novel method for treating COVID-19 pneumonia. This study aimed to estimate cancer risks induced by lung LDRT for different radiotherapy delivery techniques. METHOD: Four different radiotherapy techniques, including 3D-conformal with anterior and posterior fields (3D-CRT AP-PA), 3D-conformal with 8 coplanar fields (3D-CRT 8 fields), eight fields intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy using 2 full arcs (VMAT) were planned on the CT images of 32 COVID-19 patients with the prescribed dose of 1 Gy to the lungs. Organ average and maximum doses, and PTV dose distribution indexes were compared between different techniques. The radiation-induced cancer incidence and cancer-specific mortality, and cardiac heart disease risks were estimated for the assessed techniques. RESULTS: In IMRT and VMAT techniques, heart (mean and max), breast (mean, and max), and stomach (mean) doses and also maximum dose in the body were significantly lower than the 3D-CRT techniques. The calculated conformity indexes were similar in all the techniques. However, the homogeneity indexes were lower (i.e., better) in intensity-modulated techniques (P < 0.03) with no significant differences between IMRT and VMAT plans. Lung cancer incident risks for all the delivery techniques were similar (P > 0.4). Cancer incidence and mortality risks for organs located closer to lungs like breast and stomach were higher in 3D-CRT techniques than IMRT or VMAT techniques (excess solid tumor cancer incidence risks for a 30 years man: 1.94 ± 0.22% Vs. 1.68 ± 0.17%; and women: 6.66 ± 0.81% Vs. 4.60 ± 0.43%: cancer mortality risks for 30 years men: 1.63 ± 0.19% Vs. 1.45 ± 0.15%; and women: 3.63 ± 0.44% Vs. 2.94 ± 0.23%). CONCLUSION: All the radiotherapy techniques had low cancer risks. However, the overall estimated risks induced by IMRT and VMAT radiotherapy techniques were lower than the 3D-CRT techniques and can be used clinically in younger patients or patients having greater concerns about radiation induced cancers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/prevention & control , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted , Adult , Aged , Breast/radiation effects , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Heart/radiation effects , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Iran , Lung/pathology , Lung/radiation effects , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/etiology , Organs at Risk/radiation effects , Pneumonia, Viral/radiotherapy , Prognosis , Radiotherapy Dosage , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted/methods , Radiotherapy, Conformal/methods , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Radiother Oncol ; 166: 133-136, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537008

ABSTRACT

This is a paired prospective comparative cohort study with 58 patients, in order to analyze the clinical LD-WLI in patients with moderate or severe COVID19 pneumonia. The results of this study show that the Radiotherapy could be an option to improve the clinical response for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/radiotherapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Lung/radiation effects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 197(11): 1010-1020, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298545

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lung low-dose radiation therapy (LD-RT) for pneumonia in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inclusion criteria comprised patients with COVID-19-related moderate-severe pneumonia warranting hospitalization with supplemental O2 and not candidates for admission to the intensive care unit because of comorbidities or general status. All patients received single lung dose of 0.5 Gy. Respiratory and systemic inflammatory parameters were evaluated before irradiation, at 24 h and 1 week after LD-RT. Primary endpoint was increased in the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) or the pulse oximetry saturation (SpO2) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio of at least 20% at 24 h with respect to the preirradiation value. RESULTS: Between June and November 2020, 36 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and a mean age of 84 years were enrolled. Seventeen were women and 19 were men and all of them had comorbidities. All patients had bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest X­ray. All patients received dexamethasone treatment. Mean SpO2 pretreatment value was 94.28% and the SpO2/FiO2 ratio varied from 255 mm Hg to 283 mm Hg at 24 h and to 381 mm Hg at 1 week, respectively. In those who survived (23/36, 64%), a significant improvement was observed in the percentage of lung involvement in the CT scan at 1 week after LD-RT. No adverse effects related to radiation treatment have been reported. CONCLUSIONS: LD-RT appears to be a feasible and safe option in a population with COVID-19 bilateral interstitial pneumonia in the presence of significant comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/radiation effects , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/radiotherapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Partial Pressure , Prospective Studies , Radiotherapy Dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251780, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pandemic outbreaks necessitate effective responses to rapidly mitigate and control the spread of disease and eliminate the causative organism(s). While conventional chemical and biological solutions to these challenges are characteristically slow to develop and reach public availability; recent advances in device components operating at Super High Frequency (SHF) bands (3-30 GHz) of the electromagnetic spectrum enable novel approaches to such problems. METHODS: Based on experimentally documented evidence, a clinically relevant in situ radiation procedure to reduce viral loads in patients is devised and presented. Adapted to the currently available medical device technology to cause viral membrane fracture, this procedure selectively inactivates virus particles by forced oscillations arising from Structure Resonant Energy Transfer (SRET) thereby reducing infectivity and disease progression. RESULTS: Effective resonant frequencies for pleiomorphic Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is calculated to be in the 10-17 GHz range. Using the relation y = -3.308x + 42.9 with x and y representing log10 number of virus particles and the clinical throat swab Ct value respectively; in situ patient-specific exposure duration of ~15x minutes can be utilized to inactivate up to 100% of virus particles in the throat-lung lining, using an irradiation dose of 14.5 ± 1 W/m2; which is within the 200 W/m2 safety standard stipulated by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). CONCLUSIONS: The treatment is designed to make patients less contagious enhancing faster recoveries and enabling timely control of a spreading pandemic. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The article provides practically applicable parameters for effective clinical adaptation of this technique to the current pandemic at different levels of healthcare infrastructure and disease prevention besides enabling rapid future viral pandemics response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Radiation, Nonionizing , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lung/radiation effects , Lung/virology , Pharynx/radiation effects , Pharynx/virology , Viral Load/radiation effects
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224026

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, researchers around the world have been studying intensively how micro-organisms that are present inside living organisms could affect the main processes of life, namely health and pathological conditions of mind or body. They discovered a relationship between the whole microbial colonization and the initiation and development of different medical disorders. Besides already known probiotics, novel products such as postbiotics and paraprobiotics have been developed in recent years to create new non-viable micro-organisms or bacterial-free extracts, which can provide benefits to the host with additional bioactivity to probiotics, but without the risk of side effects. The best alternatives in the use of probiotics and postbiotics to maintain the health of the intestinal microbiota and to prevent the attachment of pathogens to children and adults are highlighted and discussed as controversies and challenges. Updated knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the balance between microbiota and immune system for the introspection on the gut-lung-brain axis could reveal the latest benefits and perspectives of applied photobiomics for health. Multiple interconditioning between photobiomodulation (PBM), probiotics, and the human microbiota, their effects on the human body, and their implications for the management of viral infectious diseases is essential. Coupled complex PBM and probiotic interventions can control the microbiome, improve the activity of the immune system, and save the lives of people with immune imbalances. There is an urgent need to seek and develop innovative treatments to successfully interact with the microbiota and the human immune system in the coronavirus crisis. In the near future, photobiomics and metabolomics should be applied innovatively in the SARS-CoV-2 crisis (to study and design new therapies for COVID-19 immediately), to discover how bacteria can help us through adequate energy biostimulation to combat this pandemic, so that we can find the key to the hidden code of communication between RNA viruses, bacteria, and our body.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Probiotics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Brain/immunology , Brain/radiation effects , COVID-19/radiotherapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/microbiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/radiotherapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/radiation effects , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/radiation effects , Metabolomics , Phototherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects
12.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 111(1): 233-239, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209500

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The respiratory disease COVID-19 reached global pandemic status in 2020. Excessive inflammation is believed to result in the most severe symptoms and death from this disease. Because treatment options for patients with severe COVID-19 related pulmonary symptoms remain limited, whole-lung low-dose radiation therapy is being evaluated as an anti-inflammatory modality. However, there is concern about the long-term risks associated with low-dose pulmonary irradiation. To help quantify the benefit-risk balance of low-dose radiation therapy for COVID-19, we estimated radiation-induced lifetime risks of both lung cancer and heart disease (major coronary events) for patients of different sexes, treated at ages 50 to 85, with and without other relevant risk factors (cigarette smoking and baseline heart disease risk). METHODS AND MATERIALS: These estimates were generated by combining state-of-the-art radiation risk models for lung cancer and for heart disease together with background lung cancer and heart disease risks and age/sex-dependent survival probabilities for the U.S. RESULTS: Estimated absolute radiation-induced risks were generally higher for lung cancer compared with major coronary events. The highest estimated lifetime radiation-induced lung cancer risks were approximately 6% for female smokers treated between ages 50 and 60. The highest estimated radiation-induced heart disease risks were approximately 3% for males or females with high heart disease risk factors and treated between ages 50 and 60. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated summed lifetime risk of lung cancer and major coronary events reached up to 9% in patients with high baseline risk factors. Predicted lung cancer and heart disease risks were lowest in older nonsmoking patients and patients with few cardiac risk factors. These long-term risk estimates, along with consideration of possible acute reactions, should be useful in assessing the benefit-risk balance for low-dose radiation therapy to treat severe COVID-19 pulmonary symptoms, and suggest that background risk factors, particularly smoking, should be taken into account in such assessments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Heart Diseases/etiology , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Lung/radiation effects , Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/etiology , Radiation Dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Radiotherapy Dosage , Risk Factors
13.
Radiat Res ; 195(5): 474-479, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136341

ABSTRACT

In this work, we considered the theoretical role of low-dose radiation therapy (approximately 0.5-1.0 Gy) in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome associated with COVID-19 infection. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to gauge the ability to deliver low-dose radiation to the thoracic mid-plane using an orthovoltage machine. In addition, the potential harm of a single dose of 0.75 Gy (whole-lung irradiation) was assessed based on the recommendations of the BEIR-VII committee of the U.S. National Research Council. Based on the results of this work, it was determined that an orthovoltage machine (minimum 300 kVp) can be used to deliver 0.75 Gy dose to the lungs while respecting cutaneous tolerance. Using data from the BEIR-VII Committee, it is evident that the apparent benefits of such radiation treatment for patients suffering from severe manifestations of the COVID-19 infectious syndrome outweigh the potential loss of life due to radiation-induced malignancy. Although the vaccination against COVID-19 has become a reality, the spread and mortality in severely ill patients remain unacceptably high. The risk of outbreaks in the future is unknown. We suggest herein that low-dose radiotherapy at the bedside should be rigorously considered as a therapeutic option since it appears to be feasible and safe in the short and long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Lung/radiation effects , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Monte Carlo Method , Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/mortality , Radiotherapy Dosage
14.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 110(5): 1283-1294, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129036

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been described in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recently, early clinical data reported the feasibility of low doses of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of ARDS in patients with severe COVID-19. However, the involved mechanisms remained unknown. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Here, we used airways-instilled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and influenza virus (H1N1) as murine models of pneumonia, and toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 stimulation in human lung macrophages. RESULTS: Low doses of RT (0.5-1 Gray) decreased LPS-induced pneumonia, and increased the percentage of nerve- and airway-associated macrophages producing interleukin (IL) 10. During H1N1 viral infection, we observed decreased lung tissue damage and immune cell infiltration in irradiated animals. Low doses of RT increased IL-10 production by infiltrating immune cells into the lung. Irradiation of TLR-3 ligand-stimulated human lung macrophages ex vivo increased IL-10 secretion and decreased interferon γ production in the culture supernatant. The percentage of human lung macrophages producing IL-6 was also decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight a mechanism by which low doses of RT regulate lung inflammation and skew lung macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory profile. These data provide a preclinical mechanistic support to clinical trials evaluating low doses of RT, such as COVID-19-induced ARDS.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/radiation effects , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Interleukin-10/biosynthesis , Macrophages/radiation effects , Pneumonia, Viral/radiotherapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/radiotherapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/radiation effects , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung/cytology , Lung/pathology , Lung/radiation effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Poly I-C , Radiotherapy Dosage , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Toll-Like Receptor 3 , Viral Load/radiation effects
15.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 110(5): 1274-1282, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116867

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The morbidity and mortality of patients requiring mechanical ventilation for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is considerable. We studied the use of whole-lung low-dose radiation therapy (LDRT) in this patient cohort. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit and requiring mechanical ventilation for COVID-19 pneumonia were included in this randomized double-blind study. Patients were randomized to 1 Gy whole-lung LDRT or sham irradiation (sham-RT). Treatment group allocation was concealed from patients and intensive care unit clinicians, who treated patients according to the current standard of care. Patients were followed for the primary endpoint of ventilator-free days at day 15 postintervention. Secondary endpoints included overall survival, as well as changes in oxygenation and inflammatory markers. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were randomized to either whole-lung LDRT or sham-RT between November and December 2020. Patients were generally elderly and comorbid, with a median age of 75 years in both arms. No difference in 15-day ventilator-free days was observed between groups (P = 1.00), with a median of 0 days (range, 0-9) in the LDRT arm and 0 days (range, 0-13) in the sham-RT arm. Overall survival at 28 days was identical at 63.6% (95% confidence interval, 40.7%-99.5%) in both arms (P = .69). Apart from a more pronounced reduction in lymphocyte counts after LDRT (P < .01), analyses of secondary endpoints revealed no significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-lung LDRT failed to improve clinical outcomes in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation for COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Confidence Intervals , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung/radiation effects , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption , Patient Positioning , Radiotherapy Dosage , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Ventilator Weaning
16.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 109(4): 867-879, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096007

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Phase 1 clinical trials have established low-dose, whole-lung radiation therapy (LD-RT) as safe for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related pneumonia. By focally dampening cytokine hyperactivation, LD-RT may improve disease outcomes through immunomodulation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia were treated with 1.5 Gy whole-lung LD-RT, followed for 28 days or until hospital discharge, and compared with age- and comorbidity-matched controls meeting identical disease severity criteria. Eligible patients were hospitalized, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) positive, had radiographic consolidations, and required supplemental oxygen but had not rapidly declined on admission or before drug therapy or LD-RT. Efficacy endpoints were time to clinical recovery, radiographic improvement, and biomarker response. RESULTS: Ten patients received whole-lung LD-RT between April 24 and May 24, 2020 and were compared with 10 control patients blindly matched by age and comorbidity. Six controls received COVID-19 drug therapies. Median time to clinical recovery was 12 days in the control cohort compared with 3 days in the LD-RT cohort (hazard ratio 2.9, P = .05). Median time to hospital discharge (20 vs 12 days, P = .19) and intubation rates (40% vs 10%, P = .12) in the control and LD-RT cohorts were compared. Median time from admission to recovery was 10 versus 13 days (P = .13). Hospital duration average was 19 versus 22.6 days (P = .53). Average hospital days on supplemental oxygen of any duration was 13.1 versus 14.7 days (P = .69). Average days with a documented fever was 1 versus 4.3 days (P = .12). Twenty-eight-day overall survival was 90% for both cohorts. The LD-RT cohort trended toward superior rates of improved radiographs (P = .12) and delirium (P < .01). Statistically significant reductions were observed in numerous hematologic, cardiac, hepatic, and inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: A prospective cohort of predominantly elderly hospitalized patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia were recovered to room air quicker than age- and comorbidity-matched controls, with trending or significant improvements in delirium, radiographs, and biomarkers, and no significant acute toxicity. Low-dose, whole-lung radiation for patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia appears safe and may be an effective immunomodulatory treatment. Larger prospective randomized trials are needed to define the efficacy of LD-RT for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/radiotherapy , Immunomodulation/radiation effects , Lung/radiation effects , Radiation Dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Radiotherapy Dosage , Safety , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
17.
Cytokine ; 137: 155312, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, as a newly-emerged viral infection has now spread all over the world after originating in Wuhan, China. Pneumonia is the hallmark of the disease, with dyspnea in half of the patients and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in up to one -third of the cases. Pulmonary edema, neutrophilic infiltration, and inflammatory cytokine release are the pathologic signs of this disease. The anti-inflammatory effect of the photobiomodulation (PBM) has been confirmed in many previous studies. Therefore, this review study was conducted to evaluate the direct effect of PBM on the acute lung inflammation or ARDS and also accelerating the regeneration of the damaged tissues. The indirect effects of PBM on modulation of the immune system, increasing the blood flow and oxygenation in other tissues were also considered. METHODOLOGY: The databases of PubMed, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar were searched to find the relevant studies. Keywords included the PBM and related terms, lung inflammation, and COVID-19 -related signs. Studies were categorized with respect to the target tissue, laser parameters, and their results. RESULTS: Seventeen related papers were included in this review. All of them were in animal models. They showed that the PBM could significantly decrease the pulmonary edema, neutrophil influx, and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), interleukin 6 (IL-6), intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), reactive oxygen species (ROS), isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2)). CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that the PBM could be helpful in reducing the lung inflammation and promoting the regeneration of the damaged tissue. PBM can increase the oxygenation indirectly in order to rehabilitate the affected organs. Thus, the infra-red lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are recommended in this regard.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Low-Level Light Therapy , Lung/radiation effects , Pneumonia/radiotherapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , PubMed , Pulmonary Edema/immunology , Pulmonary Edema/physiopathology , Pulmonary Edema/radiotherapy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/radiotherapy
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244267, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular comorbidity anticipates poor prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) and correlates with the systemic atherosclerotic transformation of the arterial vessels. The amount of aortic wall calcification (AWC) can be estimated on low-dose chest CT. We suggest quantification of AWC on the low-dose chest CT, which is initially performed for the diagnosis of COVID-19, to screen for patients at risk of severe COVID-19. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients (46 in center 1, 24 in center 2) with parallel low-dose chest CT and positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were included in our multi-center, multi-vendor study. The outcome was rated moderate (no hospitalization, hospitalization) and severe (ICU, tracheal intubation, death), the latter implying a requirement for intensive care treatment. The amount of AWC was quantified with the CT vendor's software. RESULTS: Of 70 included patients, 38 developed a moderate, and 32 a severe COVID-19. The average volume of AWC was significantly higher throughout the subgroup with severe COVID-19, when compared to moderate cases (771.7 mm3 (Q1 = 49.8 mm3, Q3 = 3065.5 mm3) vs. 0 mm3 (Q1 = 0 mm3, Q3 = 57.3 mm3)). Within multivariate regression analysis, including AWC, patient age and sex, as well as a cardiovascular comorbidity score, the volume of AWC was the only significant regressor for severe COVID-19 (p = 0.004). For AWC > 3000 mm3, the logistic regression predicts risk for a severe progression of 0.78. If there are no visually detectable AWC risk for severe progression is 0.13, only. CONCLUSION: AWC seems to be an independent biomarker for the prediction of severe progression and intensive care treatment of COVID-19 already at the time of patient admission to the hospital; verification in a larger multi-center, multi-vendor study is desired.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Radiation Dosage , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Aorta, Thoracic/pathology , Aorta, Thoracic/radiation effects , Aorta, Thoracic/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/radiation effects , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Thorax/pathology , Thorax/radiation effects , Thorax/virology
19.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 109(4): 859-866, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957139

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy (RT), commonly used in cancer management, has been considered as one of the potential treatments for COVID-19 pneumonia. Here, we present the results of the pilot trial evaluating low-dose whole-lung irradiation (LD-WLI) in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Ten patients with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia were treated with LD-WLI in a single fraction of 0.5 or 1.0 Gy along with the national protocol. The primary endpoint was an improvement in Spo2. The secondary endpoints were the number of days of hospital/intensive care unit stay, the number of intubations after RT, 28-day mortality, and changes in biomarkers. The response rate (RR) was defined as an increase in Spo2 upon RT with a rising or constant trend in the next 2 days, clinical recovery (CR) including patients who were discharged or acquired Spo2 ≥93% on room air, and 28-day mortality rate defined based on days of RT. RESULTS: The median age was 75 years (80% male). Five, 1, and 4 patients received single-dose 0.5 Gy, two-dose 0.5 Gy, and single-dose 1.0 Gy LD-WLI, respectively. The mean improvement in Spo2 at days 1 and 2 after RT was 2.4% (±4.8%) and 3.6% (±6.1%), respectively, with improvement in 9 patients after 1 day. Five, 1, and 4 patients were discharged, opted out of the trial, and died in the hospital, respectively. Two of 5 discharged patients died within 3 days at home. Among discharged patients, the Spo2 at discharge was 81% to 88% in 3 patients and 93% in the other 2 patients. Overall, the RR and CR were 63.6% and 55.5%, respectively. The RR, CR, and 28-day mortality of the single 0.5 Gy and 1.0 Gy WLI groups were 71.4% versus 50% (P = .57), 60% versus 50% (P = .64), and 50% versus 75% (P = .57), respectively. CONCLUSION: LD-WLI with a single fraction of 0.5 Gy or 1 Gy is feasible. A randomized trial with patients who do not receive radiation is required to assess the efficacy of LD-WLI for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Lung/radiation effects , Radiation Dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Radiotherapy Dosage , Treatment Outcome
20.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 97(2): 120-125, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, low dose radiotherapy delivered to the whole lung has been proposed as treatment for the pneumonia due to COVID-19. Although there is biological plausibility for its use, the evidence supporting its effectiveness is scarce, and the risks associated with it may be significant. Thus, based on a virtual case simulation, we estimated the risks of radiation-induced cancer (RIC) and cardiac disease. METHODS: Lifetime attributable risks (LAR) of RIC were calculated for the lung, liver, esophagus, and breast of female patients. The cardiovascular risk of exposure-induced death (REID) due to ischemic heart disease was also calculated. The doses received by the organs involved in the treatment were obtained from a simulation of conformal radiotherapy (RT) treatment, delivering a dose of 0.5 Gy-1.5 Gy to the lungs. We considered a LAR and REID <1% as acceptable, 1-2% cautionary, and >2% unacceptable. RESULTS: The lung was at the highest risk for RIC (absolute LAR below 5200 cases/100,000 and 2250 cases/100,000 for women and men, respectively). For women, the breast had the second-highest LAR, especially for young women. The liver and esophagus had LARs below 700/100,000 for both sexes, with a higher incidence of esophageal cancer in women and liver cancer in men. Regarding the LAR cutoff, we observed an unacceptable or cautionary LAR for lung cancer in all women and men <60 years with an RT dose >1 Gy. LAR for lung cancer with an RT dose of 1 Gy was cautionary for women >60 years of age and men <40 years of age. No LAR estimation was unacceptable for the RT dose ≤0.7 Gy in all groups irrespective of sex or age at exposure. Only 0.5 Gy had an acceptable REID. CONCLUSIONS: A RT dose ≤0.5 Gy provides an acceptable LAR estimate (≤1%) for RIC and REID, irrespective of sex and age. The current ongoing trials should initially use doses ≤0.5 Gy to maintain the risks at an acceptable level and include only patients who fail or do not have any other treatment option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Lung/radiation effects , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/etiology , Radiation Dosage , Female , Humans , Organs at Risk/radiation effects , Radiotherapy Dosage , Radiotherapy, Conformal/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , User-Computer Interface
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