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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(11): e1010915, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098780

ABSTRACT

The clinical presentation of MIS-C overlaps with other infectious/non-infectious diseases such as acute COVID-19, Kawasaki disease, acute dengue, enteric fever, and systemic lupus erythematosus. We examined the ex-vivo cellular parameters with the aim of distinguishing MIS-C from other syndromes with overlapping clinical presentations. MIS-C children differed from children with non-MIS-C conditions by having increased numbers of naïve CD8+ T cells, naïve, immature and atypical memory B cells and diminished numbers of transitional memory, stem cell memory, central and effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, classical, activated memory B and plasma cells and monocyte (intermediate and non-classical) and dendritic cell (plasmacytoid and myeloid) subsets. All of the above alterations were significantly reversed at 6-9 months post-recovery in MIS-C. Thus, MIS-C is characterized by a distinct cellular signature that distinguishes it from other syndromes with overlapping clinical presentations. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov clinicaltrial.gov. No: NCT04844242.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Child , Humans , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
2.
PLoS Genet ; 18(11): e1010253, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098658

ABSTRACT

Genome wide association studies show there is a genetic component to severe COVID-19. We find evidence that the genome-wide genetic association signal with severe COVID-19 is correlated with that of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), having formally tested this using genetic correlation analysis by LD score regression. To identify the shared associated loci and gain insight into the shared genetic effects, using summary level data we performed meta-analyses, a local genetic correlation analysis and fine-mapping using stepwise regression and functional annotation. This identified multiple loci shared between the two traits, some of which exert opposing effects. The locus with most evidence of shared association is TYK2, a gene critical to the type I interferon pathway, where the local genetic correlation is negative. Another shared locus is CLEC1A, where the direction of effects is aligned, that encodes a lectin involved in cell signaling, and the anti-fungal immune response. Our analyses suggest that several loci with reciprocal effects between the two traits have a role in the defense response pathway, adding to the evidence that SLE risk alleles are protective against infection.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Humans , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , COVID-19/genetics , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
3.
Lupus Sci Med ; 9(1)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088871

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We conducted an international survey of patients with SLE to assess their access, preference and trust in various health information sources pre-COVID-19 and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Patients with SLE were recruited from 18 observational cohorts, and patients self-reporting SLE were recruited through five advocacy organisations. Respondents completed an online survey from June 2020 to December 2021 regarding the sources of health information they accessed in the 12 months preceding (pre-11 March 2020) and during (post-11 March 2020) the pandemic. Multivariable logistic regressions assessed factors associated with accessing news and social media post-11 March 2020, and self-reporting negative impacts from health information accessed through these sources. RESULTS: Surveys were completed by 2111 respondents; 92.8% were female, 76.6% had postsecondary education, mean (SD) age was 48.8 (14.0) years. Lupus specialists and family physicians were the most preferred sources pre-11 March 2020 and post-11 March 2020, yet were accessed less frequently (specialists: 78.5% pre vs 70.2% post, difference -8.3%, 95% CI -10.2% to -6.5%; family physicians: 57.1% pre vs 50.0% post, difference -7.1%, 95% CI -9.2% to -5.0%), while news (53.2% pre vs 62.1% post, difference 8.9%, 95% CI 6.7% to 11.0%) and social media (38.2% pre vs 40.6% post, difference 2.4%, 95% CI 0.7% to 4.2%) were accessed more frequently post-11 March 2020 vs pre-11 March 2020. 17.2% of respondents reported negative impacts from information accessed through news/social media. Those outside Canada, older respondents or with postsecondary education were more likely to access news media. Those in Asia, Latin America or younger respondents were more likely to access social media. Those in Asia, older respondents, males or with postsecondary education in Canada, Asia or the USA were less likely to be negatively impacted. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians, the most preferred and trusted sources, were accessed less frequently, while news and social media, less trusted sources, were accessed more frequently post-11 March 2020 vs pre-11 March 2020. Increasing accessibility to physicians, in person and virtually, may help reduce the consequences of accessing misinformation/disinformation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Social Media , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Mass Media
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17955, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087312

ABSTRACT

Progress has been made in COVID-19 vaccine development, with encouraging safety and efficacy data. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD). Patients with AIIRD (n = 101) were included in this study. All patients received 2 doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. Serum anti-S1/RBD protein IgG was detected 2-16 weeks after the second vaccination. Seropositivity was defined as IgG ≥ 1.00 bound antibody unit S/CO. Immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was assessed by seropositivity rate and the levels of serum IgG antibody against anti-S1/RBD protein, compared with the general population (n = 46). There was no difference by statistical significance in the seropositivity rate between patients with AIIRD (82.2%) and SLE (86.1%) and the control group (93.5%), p > 0.05. The level of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG antibodies in patients with AIIRD (median [IQR], 8.8 [2.2-17.3]) and SLE (median [IQR], 9.6 [2.4-20.4]) was comparable to that in the control group (median [IQR], 7.2 [3.1-14.2]), p > 0.05. Patients treated with glucocorticoids(GCs) (median dose, [IQR]: 2.5 mg/day [IQR 2.5-5.0]) or hydroxychloroquine(HCQ) or GCs + HCQ without other immunomodulatory medications, had an appropriate immunogenic response(88.1%) with high levels of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG(median [IQR], 12.1 [6.5-20.4]). Neither of patients treated with rituximab had positive serum antibodies, which was statistically significant, compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Compared with the control group, methotrexate(MTX) and iguratimod(IGU) was significantly reduced the level of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG antibodies. Inactivated COVID-19 vaccine had appropriate immunogenicity in patients with AIIRD. Immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was severely impaired by rituximab, and also suppressed by MTX and IGU, while low doses of GC and HCQ had negligible effect.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatic Fever , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
5.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 32(6): 572-582, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077899

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is highlighting the most recent evidence on the clinical efficacy and toxicity of antimalarials in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). RECENT FINDINGS: New data confirm the effects of antimalarials in preventing SLE activity, damage and infections and in decreasing mortality. An important reduction in use of health resources is related to continued antimalarial use. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may prevent preeclampsia in pregnant women with SLE. HCQ ocular toxicity is infrequent and could be associated with blood levels. Gastrointestinal and skin toxicity are underrecognized and could influence adherence. Prolongation of QT interval is extremely unusual with HCQ. Doses of HCQ of 200 mg/day seem to offer a good efficacy/toxicity balance. HCQ protection against herpes zoster and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection has been shown. On the contrary, HCQ prescription by doctors and adherence by patients are both under recommended standards. The recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has resulted in a significant shortage of HCQ in many countries with possible consequences in the correct treatment of lupus patients. SUMMARY: Recent evidence reinforces the central role of HCQ in SLE therapy. The reduction in activity, damage accrual and mortality is consistent across studies, countries and ethnical groups. On the contrary, and despite the well established beneficial effects of prolonged regular HCQ therapy, many SLE patients do never take this drug or it is eventually stopped in the setting of severe flares, pregnancy or presumed toxicity. Every effort must be made to assure the correct prescription of HCQ and not to withdraw the drug unless unequivocal signs of toxicity are present.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 980079, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065514

ABSTRACT

Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) currently employs agents with relatively unselective immunosuppressive properties. However, two target-specific biological drugs have been approved: belimumab (anti-B-cell-activating factor/BAFF) and anifrolumab (anti-interferon alpha receptor-1/IFNAR1). Here, we performed a comparative risk-benefit assessment for both drugs based on the role of BAFF and IFNAR1 in host defense and the pathogenesis of SLE and by considering the available data on safety and efficacy. Due to differences in target expression sites, anti-IFNAR1, but not anti-BAFF, might elicit organ-specific effects, consistent with clinical efficacy data. The IFNAR1 is specifically involved in innate and adaptive antiviral immunity in most cells of the body. Consistent with this observation, the available safety data obtained from patients negatively selected for LN and neuropsychiatric SLE, primary immunodeficiencies, splenectomy and chronic HIV, HBV, HCV infections suggest an increased risk for some viral infections such as varicella zoster and perhaps influenza. In contrast, BAFF is mainly involved in adaptive immune responses in lymphoid tissues, thus anti-BAFF therapy modulates SLE activity and prevents SLE flares without interfering with local innate host defense mechanisms and should only marginally affect immune memory to previous pathogen exposures consistent with the available safety data from SLE patients without chronic HIV, HBV or HCV infections. When using belimumab and anifrolumab, careful patient stratification and specific precautions may minimize risks and maximize beneficial treatment effects for patients with SLE.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , HIV Infections , Hepatitis C , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Humans , Risk Assessment
7.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 36: 3946320221131981, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053630

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may present with some systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) manifestations intermingled with Kawasaki disease features. These emerging presentations were dubbed under the umbrella term 'multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)'. A one and half-year-old girl, admitted to Mansoura University Children's Hospital (MUCH) with fever, bad general condition, vomiting, widespread maculopapular, vasculitic rash, hands and feet oedema, oral ulceration, arthralgia and lymphadenopathy. Moreover, bicytopenia, positive antinuclear, anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies and low C3 qualified her as a case of juvenile SLE. Despite the child received the initial therapy of immunosuppressive medication, her general condition deteriorated with fever persistence and rash exacerbation. At that time, the skin of her hands and feet started to peel. Thus, an expanded study for other alternatives was obligatory; SARS-CoV-2 infection testing revealed positive IgG serology, and retesting for lupus autoantibodies turned negative. HRCT chest showed bilateral basal consolidation with ground-glass appearance. Furthermore, Echo exhibited coronary artery dilation with thrombus inside. This evolution raised the concern for COVID-related MIS-C syndrome. This report provides a model of COVID-19 heterogeneity with protean immune-related manifestations. This case has a unique presentation that necessities its description, in order to provide a nidus for future studies in this new entity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Antibodies, Viral , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , DNA , Exanthema/etiology , Female , Fever , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
8.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 18(10): 552, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050408
9.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 24(1): 211, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease that can lead to damage of multiple organs and, along with certain treatments, increase the risk of developing cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and infections. Preventive services are particularly important in patients with SLE to mitigate the aforementioned risks. We aimed to evaluate the trends of preventive services utilization in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, compared with non-SLE population. METHODS: All ≥19-year-old patients in the Lupus Midwest Network (LUMEN) registry, a population-based cohort, with SLE on January 1, 2015, were included and matched (1:1) by sex, age, race, and county to non-SLE comparators. Among both groups, we compared the rates of screenings for breast and cervical cancer, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis as well as immunizations. RESULTS: We included 440 SLE patients and 430 non-SLE comparators. The probability of breast cancer screening among women with SLE was similar to comparators (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09, 95% CI 0.85-1.39), while cervical cancer screening was lower (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.96). Hypertension screening was higher among patients with SLE (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.62); however, hyperlipidemia screening was similar to comparators (HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.96-1.41). Diabetes and osteoporosis screenings were more likely to be performed for SLE patients than for comparators (HR 2.46, 95% CI 2.11-2.87; and HR 3.19, 95% CI 2.31-4.41; respectively). Influenza and pneumococcal immunizations were higher among SLE patients (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.12-1.54; and HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.38-3.09; respectively), while zoster vaccination was similar (HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.81-1.69). CONCLUSIONS: The trends of utilization of preventive services by SLE patients vary according to screening or vaccine compared with the general population. Considering these differences, we demonstrate an opportunity for improvement, particularly in cervical cancer, hyperlipidemia, and osteoporosis screenings and vaccinations.


Subject(s)
Hyperlipidemias , Hypertension , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Osteoporosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adult , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Young Adult
11.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(12): 2261-2266, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027476

ABSTRACT

Emerging data evaluated the possible link between the Coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) vaccine and acute flares of rheumatic autoimmune diseases. However, the association between the COVID-19 vaccine and the development of de-novo rheumatic autoimmune diseases remained unclear. We report the first case series of three male patients who developed new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus following receiving Pfizer BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. The clinical characteristics share some similarities with drug-induced lupus. More patients with SLE following COVID-19 may be diagnosed in the future. Additional studies will provide more significant insights into the possible immunogenic influence of the COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Male , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(8)2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019953

ABSTRACT

Haemophagocytic lymphocytic histiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, life-threatening condition caused by abnormal activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer cells and macrophages resulting in hypercytokinaemia and immune-mediated injury of multiple organ systems. Secondary HLH occurs in the setting of a malignant, infectious or autoimmune stimulus. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is the term used to describe HLH that develops secondary to rheumatological diseases such as lupus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis, among others. Commonly observed and documented symptoms include fever, organomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Given the potential for multiorgan failure in HLH/MAS, early identification, diagnosis and initiation of treatment is essential. We present a case of secondary HLH/MAS with acute inflammatory gastroenteritis in a middle-aged woman with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , Gastroenteritis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Arthritis, Juvenile/complications , Female , Gastroenteritis/complications , Gastroenteritis/diagnosis , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/complications , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Middle Aged
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14772, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016839

ABSTRACT

Limited data exists on SARS-CoV-2 sustained-response to vaccine in patients with rheumatic diseases. This study aims to evaluate neutralizing antibodies (nAB) induced by SARS-CoV-2 vaccine after 3 to 6 months from administration in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients, as a surrogate of sustained-immunological response. This cross-sectional study compared nAB titre of 39 SLE patients and 37 Healthy individuals with no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, who had all received a complete regimen of a mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine within the last 3 to 6 months. We included four lines of SLE treatment including Not-treated, Hydroxychloroquine, immunosuppressive drugs and biological therapy. Glucocorticoids were allowed in all groups. Healthy and Not-treated individuals showed the highest levels of nAB. Treated patients presented lower nAB titres compared to Healthy: a 73% decrease for First-Line patients, 56% for Second-Line treatment and 72% for Third-Line. A multivariate analysis pointed to Glucocorticoids as the most associated factor with declining nAB levels (75% decrease) in treated SLE. Furthermore, a significant reduction in nAB titres was observed for Rituximab-users compared to Healthy subjects (89% decrease). Medium-term response of SLE patients to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines is negatively impacted in Glucocorticoids and Rituximab users. These findings might help to inform recommendations in vaccination protocols for SLE patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
14.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(5): 1517-1531, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014259

ABSTRACT

The immune response plays a crucial role in preventing diseases, such as infections. There are two types of immune responses, specific and innate immunity, each of which consists of two components: cellular immunity and humoral immunity. Dysfunction in any immune system component increases the risk of developing certain diseases. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease in the human body, develops an immune response against its own components. In these patients, due to underlying immune system disorders and receipt of immunosuppressive drugs, the susceptibility to infections is higher than in the general population and is the single largest cause of mortality in this group. COVID-19 infection, which first appeared in late 2019, has caused several concerns in patients with SLE. However, there is no strong proof of additional risk of developing COVID-19 in patients with SLE, and in some cases, studies have shown less severity of the disease in these individuals. This review paper discusses the immune disorders in SLE and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Innate , Immunosuppressive Agents
15.
Vaccine ; 40(41): 5959-5964, 2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the rate of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and post-vaccination disease flares in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Patients who fulfilled ≥ 4 of the ACR criteria for SLE were identified and their SARS-CoV-2 vaccination status was traced. Flares of SLE at 6-week post-vaccination were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical characteristics of patients with and without vaccination, and those who did or did not experience post-vaccination flares were compared by statistical analyses. RESULTS: 914 adult patients with SLE were studied (92.5 % women, age 48.6 ± 14.0 years; SLE duration 14.5 ± 8.6 years). Two doses of the SARS-Cov-2 vaccines (61.5 % BioNTech; 38.5 % CoronaVac) were received by 449 (49.1 %) patients. The vaccination rate in SLE was significantly lower than that of the adult general population (77.8 %; p < 0.001) at the time of data analysis. Patients who were hesitant for vaccination were more likely to be hypertensive, have a history of neuromuscular manifestations, and a significantly higher organ damage score (1.10 ± 1.45 vs 0.74 ± 1.15; p < 0.001). However, none of these factors were significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy on multivariate analysis. Among 449 vaccinated patients, 37(8.2 %) experienced SLE flares: mild/moderate in 34; severe in 3. In an equal number of unvaccinated SLE controls randomly matched for the post-vaccination observation period, 28(6.2 %) had SLE flares: mild/moderate in 17; severe in 11 (odds ratio [OR] for flare in vaccinated patients 1.40[0.81-2.43]; p = 0.23, adjusted for age, sex, active serology, SLE duration and prednisolone use). In vaccinated patients, logistic regression revealed that active lupus serology before vaccination (OR 2.63[1.05-6.62]; p = 0.04) and a history of arthritis (OR 2.71[1.05-7.00]; p = 0.04) or discoid skin lesion (OR 4.73[1.90-11.8]; p = 0.001) were associated with SLE flares following vaccination, adjusted for confounders. CONCLUSION: Hesitancy for COVID-19 vaccination is common in SLE patients. Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is not significantly associated with increased SLE flares. Patients with active SLE serology or a history of arthritis/discoid lesion are more likely to flare after vaccination.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Prednisolone , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 935700, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005869

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Urine-soluble CD163 (usCD163) is released from alternatively activated macrophages involved in the resolution of inflammation in glomeruli and plays an important role in glomerulonephritis. This study explored the role of usCD163 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Materials and Methods: usCD163 concentrations were measured cross-sectionally in 261 SLE patients in Taiwan. Clinical and laboratory data were collected, and SLE disease activity scores were calculated to assess the correlation with usCD163. Results: SLE patients with high usCD163 levels tended to be younger, with a higher hospital admission rate, higher prednisolone dose, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, higher urine protein creatinine ratio (UPCR), more pyuria and hematuria, higher levels of inflammatory markers, higher rates of anemia, neutropenia, and lymphopenia, lower complement 3 (C3) levels, higher anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA Ab) levels, and higher disease activity scores (p < 0.05). usCD163 levels were significantly higher in patients with active lupus nephritis (LN) than in those with extrarenal or inactive SLE and correlated with UPCR, disease activity, and anti-dsDNA Ab levels. SLE patients with high usCD163 levels tended to have a higher chronic kidney disease stage. Discussion and conclusion: The usCD163 level correlates with the severity of LN and disease activity in renal SLE.


Subject(s)
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Lupus Nephritis , Antibodies, Antinuclear , Antigens, CD , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic , Biomarkers/urine , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Lupus Nephritis/diagnosis , Receptors, Cell Surface
18.
Lupus Sci Med ; 9(1)2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: SLE is associated with increased cardiovascular risk (CVR). High serum concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apolipoprotein B-rich particles constitute the characteristic dyslipidaemia of SLE. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to study the relationship between genetic variants involved in polygenic hypertriglyceridaemia, subclinical atherosclerosis and lipoprotein abnormalities. 73 women with SLE and 73 control women age-matched with the case group were recruited (age range 30-75 years). Serum analysis, subclinical atherosclerosis screening studies for the detection of plaque, and genetic analysis of the APOE, ZPR1, APOA5 and GCKR genes were performed. RESULTS: Triglyceride concentrations and the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidaemia and carotid atherosclerosis were higher in women with SLE than in the control group. Multivariate logistic regression showed that CC homozygosity for the GCKR rs1260326 gene (OR=0.111, 95% CI 0.015 to 0.804, p=0.030) and an increase of 1 mmol/L in triglyceride concentrations were associated with a greater risk of carotid plaque in women with SLE (OR=7.576, 95% CI 2.415 to 23.767, p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: GCKR CC homozygosity (rs1260326) and serum triglyceride concentrations are independently associated with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in women with SLE. Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis is also more prevalent in these women compared with the control group. The study of GCKR rs1260326 gene variants may contribute to more precise assessment of CVR and modulation of the intensity of lipid-lowering treatment in patients with SLE.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Carotid Artery Diseases , Dyslipidemias , Hypertriglyceridemia , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Adult , Aged , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Carotid Artery Diseases/epidemiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/genetics , Control Groups , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyslipidemias/complications , Female , Humans , Hypertriglyceridemia/complications , Hypertriglyceridemia/genetics , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , Middle Aged , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/complications , Risk Factors , Triglycerides
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(33): e30071, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001505

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare manifestation of childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that can be life-threatening. Several reports have linked previous or concurrent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infections with a high prevalence of autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 13-year-old female who presented with DAH due to SLE 2 months after a laboratory-confirmed severe COVID-19 infection. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with DAH due to SLE 2 months after a laboratory-confirmed severe COVID-19 infection. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and supportive measures. In addition, she received 6 sessions of plasma exchange and maintenance methylprednisolone therapy (2 mg/kg/day). The patient then improved and was discharged on prednisolone, hydroxychloroquine, and azathioprine. LESSONS: We suggest plasmapheresis be considered a treatment for SLE-associated DAH in the context of active disease when conventional treatment has failed to induce a rapid response. In addition, further studies are needed to assess the role of COVID-19 as an autoimmune disease trigger, particularly for SLE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Female , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/therapy , Humans , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Alveoli
20.
Cells ; 11(17)2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997527

ABSTRACT

The severity of the coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly linked to a dysregulated immune response. This fuels the fear of severe disease in patients with autoimmune disorders continuously using immunosuppressive/immunomodulating medications. One complication of COVID-19 is thromboembolism caused by intravascular aggregates of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) occluding the affected vessels. Like COVID-19, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by, amongst others, an increased risk of thromboembolism. An imbalance between NET formation and clearance is suggested to play a prominent role in exacerbating autoimmunity and disease severity. Serologic evidence of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 has a minor impact on the SLE course in a Swedish cohort reportedly. Herein, we assessed NET formation in patients from this cohort by neutrophil elastase (NE) activity and the presence of cell-free DNA, MPO-DNA, and NE-DNA complexes and correlated the findings to the clinical parameters. The presence of NE-DNA complexes and NE activity differed significantly in pre-pandemic versus pandemic serum samples. The latter correlated significantly with the hemoglobin concentration, blood cell counts, and complement protein 3 and 4 levels in the pre-pandemic but only with the leukocyte count and neutrophil levels in the pandemic serum samples. Taken together, our data suggest a change, especially in the NE activity independent of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Thromboembolism , DNA/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/complications
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