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1.
Lupus ; 31(8): 974-984, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861917

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has an increased risk of coagulopathy with high frequency of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Recent reports of thrombosis associated with adenovirus-based vaccines raised concern that SARS-CoV-2 immunization in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) patients may trigger clotting complications. Our objectives were to assess immunogenicity, safety, and aPL production in PAPS patients, after vaccinating with Sinovac-CoronaVac, an inactivated virus vaccine against COVID-19. METHODS: This prospective controlled phase-4 study of PAPS patients and a control group (CG) consisted of a two-dose Sinovac-CoronaVac (D0/D28) and blood collection before vaccination (D0), at D28 and 6 weeks after second dose (D69) for immunogenicity/aPL levels. Outcomes were seroconversion (SC) rates of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG and/or neutralizing antibodies (NAb) at D28/D69 in naïve participants. Safety and aPL production were also assessed. RESULTS: We included 44 PAPS patients (31 naïve) and 132 CG (108 naïve) with comparable age (p=0.982) and sex (p>0.999). At D69, both groups had high and comparable SC (83.9% vs. 93.5%, p=0.092), as well as NAb positivity (77.4% vs. 78.7%, p=0.440), and NAb-activity (64.3% vs. 60.9%, p=0.689). Thrombotic events up to 6 months or other moderate/severe side effects were not observed. PAPS patients remained with stable aPL levels throughout the study at D0 vs. D28 vs. D69: anticardiolipin (aCL) IgG (p=0.058) and IgM (p=0.091); anti-beta-2 glycoprotein I (aß2GPI) IgG (p=0.513) and IgM (p=0.468). CONCLUSION: We provided novel evidence that Sinovac-CoronaVac has high immunogenicity and safety profile in PAPS. Furthermore, Sinovac-CoronaVac did not trigger thrombosis nor induced changes in aPL production.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Thrombosis , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Lupus ; 31(8): 1007-1011, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820059

ABSTRACT

A dysregulated immune response plays a critical role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. Environmental factors such as viruses, including coronavirus 2 (COVID-19), have been described to play a role in SLE presentation and exacerbation. These viruses trigger a host's humoral and cellular immunities typically essential in elimination of the viral infection. We present a case of a Hispanic male who developed new-onset lupus nephritis class II after a COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Lupus Nephritis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Lupus Nephritis/complications , Male
3.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10: 23247096211060581, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799135

ABSTRACT

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) may be either as a primary or in association with an underlying systemic autoimmune etiology (36.2%), particularly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Thrombocytopenia is infrequently observed in APS patients, with an occurrence of 22% to 42% with the frequency of thrombocytopenia, higher in APS and SLE combination than in primary APS. There have been some controversial reports regarding the treatment of APS syndrome with thrombocytopenia with TPO agonists. We like to report a case with APS syndrome with severe thrombocytopenia treated with TPO-RA and developed severe thrombocytosis and thrombosis. Our case represented the first case of TPO-RA in treating APS syndrome developed severe thrombocytosis and our case also concurred that use of TPO-RA agents should be strongly discouraged in APS until larger studies clarify the safety of TPO-RA agents in APS.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombocytosis , Thrombosis , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/drug therapy , Benzoates , Humans , Hydrazines , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , Pyrazoles , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Thrombocytosis/chemically induced , Thrombocytosis/complications , Thrombosis/chemically induced
4.
Br J Nurs ; 31(7): 348-355, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786362

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus is a complex multi-system disease affecting various systems of the body. The aetiology remains unclear; however, it is thought that immune system dysregulation, environmental factors and viral susceptibility can trigger the disease. Mortality remains high due to cardiovascular disease, infection and lupus nephritis. Clinical assessment should comprise an extensive history, detailed physical examination and relevant laboratory tests. Management begins with an in-depth understanding of disease-specific complications and associated comorbidities. Treatments should be based on a shared decision-making process between the patient and the clinician. Review by a specialist nurse is vital for ongoing support and education. Current treatments can increase the risk of COVID-19 infection and disease severity, so caution is needed in the current climate. New treatments are emerging and offer hope to those with refractory disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Comorbidity , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/therapy , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Lupus Sci Med ; 9(1)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784879

ABSTRACT

Cytokine autoantibodies, particularly those directed to type I interferon (T1IFN), have been reported to portend an increased risk of severe COVID-19. Since SLE is one of the conditions historically associated with T1IFN autoantibodies, we sought to determine the prevalence of cytokine autoantibodies in our local cohort of 173 patients with SLE prepandemic and intrapandemic, of which nine had confirmed exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Autoantibodies to 16 different cytokines, including T1IFN, were measured by an addressable laser bead immunoassay. None of the 9 patients with confirmed exposure to SARS-CoV-2 had autoantibodies to T1IFN and none had severe COVID-19 symptoms, necessitating hospitalisation. Hence, we could not confirm that TIIFN autoantibodies increase the risk for severe COVID-19. In addition, the cytokine autoantibody pattern did not differ between those with and without evidence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Autoantibodies , Cytokines , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Int Med Res ; 50(4): 3000605221090363, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779533

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been used during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because of its reported anti-viral activity. This study examined the association of chronic HCQ use with the incidence and complications of COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included adults with rheumatoid arthritis and/or systemic lupus erythematosus who visited rheumatology clinics in three tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2019 and December 2020. Patients were categorized into two groups based on HCQ use. Data were obtained from the electronic health record and by interviews with patients. The primary study objective was the incidence of COVID-19 and its complications from March 2020 to February 2021. RESULTS: Almost 11% of the study cohort was positive for COVID-19, and the incidence of COVID-19 was similar between HCQ users (11.11%) and nonusers (10.86%). Disease complication rates were similar in the study arms, and they mainly included fever, dry cough, fatigue, and breathing difficulty. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed no significant association between chronic HCQ use and the incidence of COVID-19, and disease complications were similar in the study arms.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Adult , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
7.
Lupus ; 31(6): 684-696, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775183

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the study were to review the articles to identify (a) the epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); (b) the clinical characteristics of SLE patients with COVID-19; (c) the treatment of COVID-19 in SLE patients; and (d) the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on SLE patients. PubMed was systematically reviewed for literature published from December 2019 to June 2021. Our search was limited to human studies, with language restriction of English. Studies were included if they reported COVID-19 in SLE patients. Our systematic review included 52 studies. The prevalence of COVID-19 infection ranged from 0.0% to 18.1% in SLE patients, and the hospitalisation rates ranged from 0.24% to 10.6%. COVID-19 infection is likely to mimic SLE flare. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was ineffective in prevention of COVID-19, and SLE patients with COVID-19 faced difficulty in healthcare access, had financial constraints and suffered from psychological distress during the pandemic. The pandemic had a significant effect on mental and physical health. Adequate healthcare access, along with containment policies, social distancing measures and psychological nursing was required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Pandemics
8.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(3): e812-e815, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758948

ABSTRACT

The understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) immune dysregulation is evolving. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with alternations in both innate and adaptive immunity, probably caused by a complex interplay of genetics and environmental exposure with various triggers. A rare hematological complication of SLE as well as recently reported in an adult with COVID-19 is thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. We report a pediatric case with features suggestive of the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children with coronary artery ectasia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, and new-onset SLE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/complications , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
9.
Clin Rheumatol ; 41(5): 1577-1582, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709352

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that is caused by COVID-19 virus, which was initially identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Vaccination is one of the most effective public health interventions, and soon after the Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT162b2) vaccine became available late in 2020, it began to be actively used to fight against COVID-19. Since then, cases of vaccine-associated immune-mediated diseases (IMDs) have been reported. There have been few cases of IMD flare-ups or onset after COVID-19 vaccine administration, and emerging IMDs may be identified over next few years after high use of this vaccine. To this day, few cases of newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) following COVID-19 vaccine exposure were reported. Herein, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with SLE, acute pancreatitis, and vasculitic skin rash on the extremities 1 week after the first dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Key Point • COVID-19 Vaccine induced Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Exanthema/etiology , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Pancreatitis/etiology
10.
Lupus Sci Med ; 9(1)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702310

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether pandemic-related issues were associated with physical functioning, community mobility and cognition among individuals with SLE. METHODS: Participants were recruited (6 October 2020-11 November 2021) for this cross-sectional study from a population-based cohort of individuals with validated SLE in metropolitan Atlanta, as part of an ongoing ancillary study. Pandemic-related issues (concern about the pandemic (very vs somewhat/not at all concerned); changes in physical activity and sleep (less vs more/same); difficulty obtaining food and medications and accessing routine care (any vs none)) were self-reported. Self-reported physical functioning and episodic and working memory performance were reported as t-scores (such that a score of 50=population mean and a 10-point difference=1 SD) and community mobility scores ranged from 0 to 120, with higher scores representing better functioning for all domains. Differences in scores were assessed via t-tests and age-adjusted, sex-adjusted and race-adjusted linear regression. RESULTS: Among 245 participants (mean age, 46 years; 95% female, 77% black), physical functioning t-scores (mean=44) were consistently lower (by 3-5 points) for those who reported concern about the pandemic, less physical activity and sleep, difficulty obtaining food and medications, and accessing routine care. Similarly, community mobility scores (mean=48) were lower (by 10-20 points) for these individuals. There were no substantial differences in episodic memory and working memory t-scores (mean=50 and 47, respectively) by pandemic-related issues. CONCLUSION: We found that physical functioning and community mobility, but not cognition, were lower among those who reported more concern about the pandemic or greater disruptions to health routines. Future studies should explore interventions among these vulnerable individuals with SLE, who already disproportionately suffer from functional impairment, to maintain functioning and prevent adverse outcomes during times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Pediatrics ; 149(1)2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595609

ABSTRACT

A 9-year-old girl presented to her primary care pediatrician via telemedicine during the initial months of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic because of 4 days of warmth perceived by her mother, decreased energy, and a new rash on her upper extremities. After 10 additional days of documented fever >38°C, worsening fatigue, and 1 day of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, she was allowed to schedule an in-person visit with her pediatrician after testing negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. She appeared ill on arrival to clinic, and her pediatrician recommended evaluation in an emergency department. Her initial laboratory testing revealed nonspecific elevation in several inflammatory markers and leukopenia, and she responded well to intravenous hydration. Over the next 2 weeks, her fever persisted, constitutional symptoms worsened, and she developed progressively painful cervical lymphadenopathy and pancytopenia. She was evaluated in clinic by several specialists and eventually was urged to present to the emergency department again, at which time she was admitted to the PICU. After consulting additional specialists and waiting for laboratory results, the team reached a definitive diagnosis and initiated therapy; however, she experienced rapid clinical decline shortly thereafter. The specialists who assisted with identification of the underlying etiology of her symptoms were able to work together to manage the subsequent complications.


Subject(s)
Exanthema , Fever , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Telemedicine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Disease Progression , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lymphadenopathy/diagnosis , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Pancytopenia/diagnosis , Symptom Assessment , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
12.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 52: 151946, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Factors associated with chronic heart failure (CHF) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have received little attention. Recent data on the use of hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection have cast doubt on its cardiac safety. The factors associated with CHF, including therapy with antimalarials, were analyzed in a large multicenter SLE cohort. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including all patients with SLE (ACR-1997 criteria) included in the Spanish Society of Rheumatology Lupus Register (RELESSER), based on historically gathered data. Patients with CHF prior to diagnosis of SLE were excluded. A multivariable analysis exploring factors associated with CHF was conducted. RESULTS: The study population comprised 117 patients with SLE (ACR-97 criteria) and CHF and 3,506 SLE controls. Ninety percent were women. Patients with CHF were older and presented greater SLE severity, organ damage, and mortality than those without CHF. The multivariable model revealed the factors associated with CHF to be ischemic heart disease (7.96 [4.01-15.48], p < 0.0001), cardiac arrhythmia (7.38 [4.00-13.42], p < 0.0001), pulmonary hypertension (3.71 [1.84-7.25], p < 0.0002), valvulopathy (6.33 [3.41-11.62], p < 0.0001), non-cardiovascular damage (1.29 [1.16-1.44], p < 0.000) and calcium/vitamin D treatment (5.29 [2.07-16.86], p = 0.0015). Female sex (0.46 [0.25-0.88], p = 0.0147) and antimalarials (0.28 [0.17-0.45], p < 0.000) proved to be protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SLE and CHF experience more severe SLE. Treatment with antimalarials appears to confer a cardioprotective effect.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Rheumatology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 76: 289-292, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525692

ABSTRACT

To describe the case of a young female patient, affected by Systemic Lupus Erythematous, hospitalized for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection pneumonia and presenting a treatment-resistant acute upper limb ischemia. Two days after hospital admission, the patient suffered sudden right upper limb pain associated with mild functional impairment. At physical examination, radial and ulnar pulses were absent, and no flow signal was detected at duplex ultrasound scan. Therefore, an acute limb ischemia diagnoses was posed. Despite several surgical and endovascular revascularization attempts, the patient underwent an above the elbow amputation in 10th postoperative day from first surgical embolectomy, and she died for respiratory failure 25 days after hospitalization. Our case of acute upper limb ischemia seems to confirm that clinical manifestation and fate of thrombotic disorder in COVID-19 patients could be precipitated by concomitant autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Acute Disease , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Embolectomy , Endovascular Procedures , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
15.
J Autoimmun ; 125: 102730, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458772

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the severity and outcome of COVID-19 among individuals with lupus as compared to controls. The secondary objective was to identify the risk association of sex, race, presence of nephritis, and use of various immunomodulators with COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective data of individuals with lupus with and without COVID-19 between January 2020 to May 2021 was retrieved from the TriNetX. A one-to-one matched COVID-19 positive control was selected using propensity score(PS) matching. We assessed several outcomes, including all-cause mortality, hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, severe COVID, acute kidney injury (AKI), Haemodialysis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), ischemic stroke, venous thromboembolism (VTE) and sepsis were assessed. RESULTS: We identified 2140 SLE patients with COVID-19, 29,853 SLE without COVID-19 and 732,291controls. Mortality within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis was comparable among SLE and controls [RR-1.26; 95%CI-0.85,1.8]. SLE with COVID-19 had a higher risk of hospitalisation [RR-1.28; 95% CI 1.14-1.44], ICU admission [RR-1.35; 95% CI 1.01-1.83], mechanical ventilation [RR- 1.58 95% CI 1.07-2.33], stroke [RR-2.18; 95% CI 1.32,3.60], VTE [RR-2.22; 95% CI 1.57-03.12] and sepsis [RR-1.37; 95% CI 1.06-1.78].Individuals with SLE who contracted COVID-19 had higher mortality, hospitalisation, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, AKI, VTE and sepsis (p < 0.001) compared to SLE without COVID-19. Males with SLE had a higher risk of AKI [RR-2.05; 95% CI 1.27-3.31] than females. Lupus nephritis was associated with higher risk of hospitalisation [RR-1.36; 95% CI 1.05-1.76], AKI [RR-2.32; 95% CI 1.50-3.59] and sepsis [RR-2.07; 95% CI-1.12-3.83]. CONCLUSION: The mortality of individuals with SLE due to COVID-19 is comparable to the general population but with higher risks of hospitalisation, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, stroke, VTE and sepsis. The presence of nephritis increases the risk of AKI, thus probably increasing hospitalisation and sepsis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/pathology , Lupus Nephritis/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 4102-4104, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455125

ABSTRACT

After the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccines using inactivated viruses have attracted worldwide attention for the prevention of infectious diseases. Here, we report a patient who suffered from Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) for six years and developed ocular symptoms within 72 hours after being vaccinated for COVID-19. The patient presented bilateral conjunctival congestion, eyelid edema with pruritus, and suffered from severe headaches. Recovery occurred within 10 days after the onset of symptoms after treatment with anti-infection drugs. The early identification and extensive assessment of side effects help ensuring effective vaccine safety monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
17.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36(2): e130-e132, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434758
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 724047, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405412

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic on individuals with arthritis has been highlighted whereas data on other rheumatic diseases, e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), are scarce. Similarly to SLE, severe SARS-CoV-2 infection includes risks for thromboembolism, an unbalanced type I interferon response, and complement activation. Herein, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in longitudinal samples collected prior to vaccination were analyzed and compared with SLE progression and antinuclear antibody (ANA) levels. Methods: One hundred patients (83 women) with established SLE and a regular visit to the rheumatologist (March 2020 to January 2021) were included. All subjects donated blood and had done likewise prior to the pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 antibody isotypes (IgG, IgA, IgM) to the cell receptor-binding S1-spike outer envelope protein were detected by ELISA, and their neutralizing capacity was investigated. IgG-ANA were measured by multiplex technology. Results: During the pandemic, 4% had PCR-confirmed infection but 36% showed SARS-CoV-2 antibodies of ≥1 isotype; IgA was the most common (30%), followed by IgM (9%) and IgG (8%). The antibodies had low neutralizing capacity and were detected also in prepandemic samples. Plasma albumin (p = 0.04) and anti-dsDNA (p = 0.003) levels were lower in patients with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Blood group, BMI, smoking habits, complement proteins, daily glucocorticoid dose, use of hydroxychloroquine, or self-reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms (except fever, >38.5°C) did not associate with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Conclusion: Our data from early 2021 indicate that a large proportion of Swedish SLE patients had serological signs of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 but apparently with a minor impact on the SLE course. Use of steroids and hydroxychloroquine showed no distinct effects, and self-reported COVID-19-related symptoms correlated poorly with all antibody isotypes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , Antibodies, Antinuclear/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e932751, 2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Manifestations of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, are highly variable among healthy populations. In connective tissue disease patients, the spectrum of clinical manifestations is even broader. In mild COVID-19 patients, diffuse lymphadenopathy (DL) has not been described as a late manifestation, and only severe COVID-19 has been associated with lupus flare-ups. Herein, we report 3 cases of connective tissue disease patients that presented with DL after diagnosis and complete resolution of mild COVID-19 disease. CASE REPORT Case 1. A 28-year-old man with inactive lupus, mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), and a history of lung and cutaneous involvement. He presented with fever, polyarthralgia, and multiple lymphadenopathies 3 weeks after COVID-19 disease resolution. After evaluation, immunosuppressive treatment was initiated, with rapid response. Case 2. A 25-year-old woman with inactive lupus with a history of articular, hematologic, and cutaneous involvement. Four weeks after resolution of COVID-19 disease, she presented with malaise and cervical lymphadenopathies. After laboratory testing and imaging, she was treated for lupus flare-up, with rapid response. Case 3. A 68-year-old woman with inactive lupus with a history of articular and cutaneous involvement. Four weeks after COVID-19 resolution, she presented with malaise and cervical and axillary lymphadenopathies. After extensive evaluation, immunosuppressive treatment resulted in a rapid response. CONCLUSIONS After 3 to 4 weeks of mild, outpatient-treated COVID-19 and complete resolution of symptoms, 3 patients with connective tissue disease presented diffuse lymphadenopathy associated with inflammatory and constitutional symptoms. Infectious and neoplastic causes were thoroughly ruled out. All patients responded to reintroduction of or an increase in immunosuppressive therapy. We recommend considering the diffuse lymphadenopathy as a possible post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) manifestation in these patients, mainly when they are in the inactive phase.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Complex , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Mixed Connective Tissue Disease , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Male , Mixed Connective Tissue Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Flare Up
20.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(11): 1925-1931, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391850

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were launched in December 2020. Vaccination of patients with rheumatic diseases is recommended, as they are considered at higher risk of severe COVID-19 than the general population. Patients with rheumatic disease have largely been excluded from vaccine phase 3 trials. This study explores the safety and reactogenicity of BNT162b2 among patients with rheumatic diseases. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), median age 58.8 years, 285 subjects in total, were vaccinated twice with the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech). Questionnaires on reactogenicity matching the original phase 3 study were answered seven days after completed vaccination. The majority of SLE and RA patients experienced either local (78.0%) or systemic reactions (80.1%). Only 1.8% experienced a grade-4 reaction. Compared to the original study, we found more frequent fatigue [Odds ratio (OR) 2.2 (1.7-2.8)], headache [OR 1.7 (1.3-2.2)], muscle pain [OR 1.8 (1.4-2.3)], and joint pain [OR 2.3 (1.7-3.0)] in patients. In contrast, the use of antipyretics was less frequent [OR 0.5 (0.3-0.6)]. Patients with SLE and RA experience reactogenicity to the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. Reactogenicity was more frequent in patients, however, not more severe compared with healthy controls.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
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