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1.
Cancer Sci ; 113(4): 1531-1534, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779205

ABSTRACT

According to the current international guidelines, high-risk patients diagnosed with pathological T1 (pT1) colorectal cancer (CRC) who underwent complete local resection but may have risk of developing lymph node metastasis (LNM) are recommended additional intestinal resection with lymph node dissection. However, around 90% of the patients without LNM are exposed to the risk of being overtreated due to the insufficient pathological criteria for risk stratification of LNM. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a noninvasive biomarker for molecular residual disease and relapse detection after treatments including surgical and endoscopic resection of solid tumors. The CIRCULATE-Japan project includes a large-scale patient-screening registry of the GALAXY study to track ctDNA status of patients with stage II to IV or recurrent CRC that can be completely resected. Based on the CIRCULATE-Japan platform, we launched DENEB, a new prospective study, within the GALAXY study for patients with pT1 CRC who underwent complete local resection and were scheduled for additional intestinal resection with lymph node dissection based on the standard pathologic risk stratification criteria for LNM. The aim of this study is to explore the ability of predicting LNM using ctDNA analysis compared with the standard pathological criteria. The ctDNA assay will build new evidence to establish a noninvasive personalized diagnosis in patients, which will facilitate tailored/optimal treatment strategies for CRC patients.


Subject(s)
Circulating Tumor DNA , Colorectal Neoplasms , Circulating Tumor DNA/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Humans , Liquid Biopsy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
In Vivo ; 36(2): 1041-1046, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: COVID-19 started to spread as a pandemic in December 2019 and COVID-19 vaccination has been initiated worldwide. The efficacy of vaccination has been scientifically proven, but it might cause axillary lymph node swelling. To diagnose patients with axillary lymph node swelling caused by COVID-19 vaccination, we herein reviewed existing literature on this symptom. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 70-year-old woman with a breast tumour. She had undergone cecum cancer surgery and regular computed tomography (CT). During breast tumour follow-up, she received scheduled CT that indicated severe axillary lymph node swelling mimicking breast cancer metastasis. We performed aspiration biopsy cytology of that lymph node, and determined this was not cancer metastasis but an effect of the COVID-19 vaccine. We confirmed this diagnosis at one month after computed tomography showed that the lymph node swelling had improved. CONCLUSION: Axillary lymph node swelling can occur after COVID-19 vaccination. Therefore, it is important to consider the effect of the COVID-19 vaccination on axillary lymph node swelling when diagnosing breast tumours.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Aged , Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Japan , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Vaccination
4.
Clin Imaging ; 85: 78-82, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708841

ABSTRACT

Metastatic melanoma of the breast is rare, and demonstrates nonspecific imaging findings which may overlap with both benign and malignant pathology.1-3 Immunohistochemical stains are important to confirm the diagnosis, particularly combining S100, a sensitive marker for melanoma, with more specific tumor markers such as Melan-A and HMB-45, and lack of cytokeratin staining.4-7 We present a case of a 64-year-old female who presented for diagnostic imaging of a palpable abnormality in her right breast, with medical history notable for previously excised cutaneous melanoma, recent COVID-19 vaccination, and significant family history of breast cancer. Diagnostic mammogram of the right breast demonstrated a circumscribed mass in the lower inner quadrant corresponding to the area of palpable concern, as well as an additional non-palpable circumscribed mass in the lower inner quadrant. Targeted right breast ultrasound demonstrated corresponding circumscribed cystic versus solid masses as well as a morphologically abnormal right axillary lymph node. Pathologic results after tissue sampling of the two right breast masses and right axillary lymph node all yielded metastatic melanoma.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Melanoma/pathology , Middle Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Skin Neoplasms/pathology
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(2)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686885

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Several authors have reported cervical and axillary lymphadenopathies as known side effects following anti-COVID-19 vaccine administration. Few data are available about atypical locations of post-anti-COVID-19 vaccine lymphadenopathy. In this investigation, we evaluated the incidence and prevalence of postvaccine lymphadenopathy ultrasound (US) features in atypical sites. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we retrospectively selected 64 patients on whom US was performed between January and October 2021 due to COVID-19 vaccine-related lymphadenopathy. We investigated lymph node anatomical sites, presence, number, size, shape, cortical profile, hilum outline, superb microvascular imaging (SMI), and elastosonography. Results: A total of 170 nodes were assessed. Atypical location was demonstrated in 5/64 patients (7.8%). In all these cases, atypical nodal involvement was associated with lymphadenopathy in a typical site (axillary, supraclavicular) ipsilateral to the vaccine injection site. Two patients presented lymphadenopathy in the infraclavicular station (3.1%), one in the pectoralis major muscle (1.6%), one in the left arm (1.6%), and one in the nuchal site (1.6%). All lymphadenopathies were oval-shaped, with a median size of 0.9 ± 0.2 cm. US features included a symmetric cortex with hilum evidence (4/6, 60%), vascular signal at SMI in both the hilar region and periphery of lymph node (5/6, 83.3%), and a US elastography pattern resembling that of adjacent tissues (5/6, 83.3%). The median age of patients with lymphadenopathies in an atypical location was 23 years. The main type of vaccine associated with lymph node appearance in atypical sites was Moderna's mRNA-1273 (60% of patients, 4/6 lymph nodes accounting for 66.7% among atypical locations). Conclusion: Post-COVID-19 vaccine administration lymphadenopathies in an atypical location represent an intense immune response to antigenic stimuli and they may show alarming US traits superimposed on malignant pathologies, which may complicate the patient's clinical and diagnostic pathway. Despite no distinctive US features between reactive post-COVID-19 vaccination and malignant lymph nodes being available, careful examination of atypical lymph node locations associated with accurate knowledge of patients' clinical background and delay of US exam to four to six weeks after vaccine injection should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/epidemiology , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 763098, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581339

ABSTRACT

Although initial immunophenotypical studies on peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage samples have provided a glimpse into the immunopathology of COVID-19, analyses of pulmonary draining lymph nodes are currently scarce. 22 lethal COVID-19 cases and 28 controls were enrolled in this study. Pulmonary draining lymph nodes (mediastinal, tracheal, peribronchial) were collected at autopsy. Control lymph nodes were selected from a range of histomorphological sequelae [unremarkable histology, infectious mononucleosis, follicular hyperplasia, non-SARS related HLH, extrafollicular plasmablast activation, non-SARS related diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), pneumonia]. Samples were mounted on a tissue microarray and underwent immunohistochemical staining for a selection of immunological markers and in-situ hybridization for Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and SARS-CoV-2. Gene expression profiling was performed using the HTG EdgeSeq Immune Response Panel. Characteristic patterns of a dysregulated immune response were detected in COVID-19: 1. An accumulation of extrafollicular plasmablasts with a relative paucity or depletion of germinal centers. 2. Evidence of T-cell dysregulation demonstrated by immunohistochemical paucity of FOXP3+, Tbet+ and LEF1+ positive T-cells and a downregulation of key genes responsible for T-cell crosstalk, maturation and migration as well as a reactivation of herpes viruses in 6 COVID-19 lymph nodes (EBV, HSV). 3. Macrophage activation by a M2-polarized, CD163+ phenotype and increased incidence of hemophagocytic activity. 4. Microvascular dysfunction, evidenced by an upregulation of hemostatic (CD36, PROCR, VWF) and proangiogenic (FLT1, TEK) genes and an increase of fibrin microthrombi and CD105+ microvessels. Taken together, these findings imply widespread dysregulation of both innate and adoptive pathways with concordant microvascular dysfunction in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Lung , Macrophage Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , /pathology , /virology
7.
J Nucl Med Technol ; 50(1): 73-74, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555926

ABSTRACT

Abnormally increased 18F-FDG avidity of axillary lymph nodes has become a frequent diagnostic dilemma on PET/CT in the current climate of global vaccinations directed against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. This avidity is due to the inflammatory response evoked by vaccines and the nonspecific nature of 18F-FDG uptake, which is increased in both malignant and inflammatory processes. Similarly, 18F-fluciclovine, an amino acid analog indicated for the assessment of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer, may also demonstrate nonspecific inflammatory uptake. We report a case of 18F-fluciclovine PET/CT obtained for concern about prostate cancer. In this case, isolated avid lymph nodes were seen in the left axilla. A screening questionnaire revealed that the patient had recently received the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine in his left shoulder, and hence, the uptake was determined to be reactive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Axilla/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Male , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542428

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious lung condition characterized by severe hypoxemia leading to limitations of oxygen needed for lung function. In this study, we investigated the effect of anandamide (AEA), an endogenous cannabinoid, on Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-mediated ARDS in female mice. Single-cell RNA sequencing data showed that the lung epithelial cells from AEA-treated mice showed increased levels of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and tight junction proteins. MiSeq sequencing data on 16S RNA and LEfSe analysis demonstrated that SEB caused significant alterations in the microbiota, with increases in pathogenic bacteria in both the lungs and the gut, while treatment with AEA reversed this effect and induced beneficial bacteria. AEA treatment suppressed inflammation both in the lungs as well as gut-associated mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). AEA triggered several bacterial species that produced increased levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyrate. Furthermore, administration of butyrate alone could attenuate SEB-mediated ARDS. Taken together, our data indicate that AEA treatment attenuates SEB-mediated ARDS by suppressing inflammation and preventing dysbiosis, both in the lungs and the gut, through the induction of AMPs, tight junction proteins, and SCFAs that stabilize the gut-lung microbial axis driving immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Arachidonic Acids/therapeutic use , Endocannabinoids/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Lung/pathology , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/microbiology , Animals , Arachidonic Acids/pharmacology , Butyrates/metabolism , Cecum/pathology , Cell Separation , Colon/drug effects , Colon/pathology , Discriminant Analysis , Dysbiosis/complications , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Endocannabinoids/pharmacology , Enterotoxins , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects , Lymph Nodes/drug effects , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects
9.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526806

ABSTRACT

Aging affects all tissues and organs. Aging of the immune system results in the severe disruption of its functions, leading to an increased susceptibility to infections, an increase in autoimmune disorders and cancer incidence, and a decreased response to vaccines. Lymph nodes are precisely organized structures of the peripheral lymphoid organs and are the key sites coordinating innate and long-term adaptive immune responses to external antigens and vaccines. They are also involved in immune tolerance. The aging of lymph nodes results in decreased cell transport to and within the nodes, a disturbance in the structure and organization of nodal zones, incorrect location of individual immune cell types and impaired intercellular interactions, as well as changes in the production of adequate amounts of chemokines and cytokines necessary for immune cell proliferation, survival and function, impaired naïve T- and B-cell homeostasis, and a diminished long-term humoral response. Understanding the causes of these stromal and lymphoid microenvironment changes in the lymph nodes that cause the aging-related dysfunction of the immune system can help to improve long-term immune responses and the effectiveness of vaccines in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aging/pathology , Immunosenescence , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/physiopathology , Animals , Cellular Microenvironment , Humans , Models, Biological , Neutrophils/pathology
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 727320, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497068

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that has caused a worldwide pandemic. The majority of medullary thyroid cancers present as a thyroid nodule. At the time of diagnosis, cervical lymph nodes and distant metastases are frequently detected. Case Report: Here, we present a case of a 46-year-old man with coronavirus disease (COVID) pneumonia, who had persistently high serum procalcitonin levels despite normal C-reactive protein levels. The attending infectologist happened to be a colleague who spent some time, as part of her internal medicine rotation, in the Endocrine Ward and recalled that medullary thyroid cancer might be the cause. This led to the timely workup and treatment of the medullary cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/blood , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnosis , Endocrinology/methods , Procalcitonin/blood , Thyroid Neoplasms/blood , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , C-Reactive Protein/biosynthesis , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/complications , Humans , Incidental Findings , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Neoplasms/complications , Thyroid Nodule
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19458, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447326

ABSTRACT

Efficacious therapeutics for Ebola virus disease are in great demand. Ebola virus infections mediated by mucosal exposure, and aerosolization in particular, present a novel challenge due to nontypical massive early infection of respiratory lymphoid tissues. We performed a randomized and blinded study to compare outcomes from vehicle-treated and remdesivir-treated rhesus monkeys in a lethal model of infection resulting from aerosolized Ebola virus exposure. Remdesivir treatment initiated 4 days after exposure was associated with a significant survival benefit, significant reduction in serum viral titer, and improvements in clinical pathology biomarker levels and lung histology compared to vehicle treatment. These observations indicate that remdesivir may have value in countering aerosol-induced Ebola virus disease.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Administration, Intravenous , Aerosols , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Liver/drug effects , Liver/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymph Nodes/drug effects , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Random Allocation , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Viral Load/drug effects , Viremia/drug therapy
13.
Melanoma Res ; 31(5): 490-493, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371755

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination has been rapidly implemented among patients with cancer. We present the case of a patient with high-risk resected cutaneous melanoma, who was a candidate for adjuvant treatment, with postsurgery 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) scan showing positive axillary lymph nodes after COVID-19 vaccination. This report presents a 50-year-old man with a history of stage IIA cutaneous melanoma. During follow-up, the patient experienced subcutaneous and lymph-node disease progression, documented with 18FDG PET/CT scan. The patient underwent laparoscopic left para-aortic lymphadenectomy and excision of subcutaneous lesion. Histologic examination showed presence of melanoma metastases in 2 lymph nodes out of total 17 excised and neoplastic emboli to the subcutaneous tissue. In view of starting adjuvant nivolumab, the patient underwent CT scan restaging, with evidence of suspect centimetric periaortic and paracaval lymph nodes, which were deemed worthy of 18FDG PET investigation. The 18FDG PET/CT was negative for abdominal hypercaptation, but showed left axillary pathologic lymph nodes. The medical history of the patient revealed that he had received intramuscular Moderna COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in the left deltoid, one week before 18FDG PET examination. Since the patient's clinical examination was negative and suspecting postvaccination false-positive adenopathy, bilateral axillary ultrasound was performed, excluding the presence of pathologic lymph nodes. The patient has started adjuvant treatment with nivolumab, which is currently ongoing. This case demonstrates unexpected findings in response to COVID-19 vaccination in a patient with melanoma. In this specific case, the detection of 18FDG PET hypercaptation could significantly change the patient's management. With growing evidence about the pattern and occurrence of adenopathies after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, recommendations for scheduling and interpretation of 18FDG PET/CT scans among cancer patients will be implemented, in order to reduce equivocal findings and improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Melanoma/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disease Progression , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
14.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 49(12): E467-E470, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371324

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic has spurred the rapid development of vaccines, with vaccination programmes already underway in many countries. Regional lymphadenopathy is one of the documented side effects of vaccination. We document the fine needle aspiration cytological findings of an enlarged supraclavicular lymph node in a 34-year-old Asian female following the first dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, which appears to be the first such report in a premorbidly well patient with no known history of malignancy. The cytological findings featured a reactive pattern in keeping with follicular hyperplasia, with prominent germinal centre elements including lymphohistiocytic aggregates and tingible-body macrophages. Despite an increased proportion of larger lymphocytes, the overall pattern was in keeping with a reactive pattern, bearing in mind the temporal and geographic relation to the vaccination injection. In instances of localised lymphadenopathy, particularly in supraclavicular or axillary locations, pathologists should be cognizant of the possibility of post-vaccination reactive lymphadenopathy, and seek clinical and radiological hints favouring a benign process, whilst recognising potential morphological overlaps with lymphoproliferative disorders. Awareness of this diagnostic pitfall is especially important as COVID-19 vaccination coverage is ramped up worldwide, leading to an expected increase in incidence of post-vaccination reactive lymphadenopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Adult , Axilla/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytological Techniques , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects
15.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367929

ABSTRACT

The post-acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection was investigated in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). During the acute phase of infection, SARS-CoV-2 was shed via the nose and throat, and viral RNA was occasionally detected in feces. This phase coincided with a transient change in systemic immune activation. Even after the alleged resolution of the infection, computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT revealed pulmonary lesions and activated tracheobronchial lymph nodes in all animals. Post-mortem histological examination of the lung tissue revealed mostly marginal or resolving minimal lesions that were indicative of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Evidence for SARS-CoV-2-induced histopathology was also found in extrapulmonary tissue samples, such as conjunctiva, cervical, and mesenteric lymph nodes. However, 5-6 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 exposure, upon necropsy, viral RNA was still detectable in a wide range of tissue samples in 50% of the macaques and included amongst others the heart, the respiratory tract and surrounding lymph nodes, salivary gland, and conjunctiva. Subgenomic messenger RNA was detected in the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, indicative of ongoing virus replication during the post-acute phase. These results could be relevant for understanding the long-term consequences of COVID-19 in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/virology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/physiopathology , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , RNA, Messenger/analysis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Replication
16.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(3): 584-586, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320565

ABSTRACT

Reports of patients with axillary adenopathy identified on breast imaging after coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination are rising. We propose a pragmatic management approach based on clinical presentation, vaccination delivery, and imaging findings. In the settings of screening mammography, screening MRI, and diagnostic imaging workup of breast symptoms, with no imaging findings beyond unilateral axillary adenopathy ipsilateral to recent (within the past 6 weeks) vaccination, we report the adenopathy as benign with no further imaging indicated if no nodes are palpable 6 weeks after the last dose. For patients with palpable axillary adenopathy in the setting of ipsilateral recent vaccination, clinical follow-up of the axilla is recommended. In all these scenarios, axillary ultrasound is recommended if clinical concern persists 6 weeks after vaccination. In patients with a recent breast cancer diagnosis in the pre- or peritreatment setting, prompt recommended imaging is encouraged as well as vaccination (in the thigh or contralateral arm). Our recommendations align with the ACR BI-RADS Atlas and aim to reduce patient anxiety, provider burden, and costs of unnecessary evaluation of enlarged nodes in the setting of recent vaccinations and, also, to avoid further delays in vaccinations and breast cancer screening during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Axilla/diagnostic imaging , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mammography , Ultrasonography , Vaccination
17.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20557, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319809

ABSTRACT

AIMS: With ongoing intensive vaccination programme against COVID-19, numerous cases of adverse reactions occur, some of which represent rare events. Enlargement of the injection site’s draining lymph nodes is increasingly reported, but is not yet widely recognised as being possibly associated with recent vaccination. As patients at risk of a severe course of COVID-19, indicated by their medical history such as a previous diagnosis of malignancy, receive priority vaccination, newly palpable lymph nodes raise concerns of disease progression. In this case series, we report on five patients who presented with enlarged lymph nodes after COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: Sonography guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) was performed in five patients presenting with PET-positive and/or enlarged lymph nodes after COVID-19 vaccination with either the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine. RESULTS: COVID-19 vaccination had been carried out in all cases, with an interval of between 3 and 33 days prior to FNA. Three of five patients had a history of neoplasms. The vaccine was administered into the deltoid muscle, with subsequent enlargement of either the cervical, supra-, infra- or retroclavicular, or axillary lymph nodes, in four out of five cases ipsilaterally. In all cases, cytology and additional analyses showed a reactive lymphadenopathy without any sign of malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of newly enlarged lymph nodes after recent COVID-19 vaccination should be considered reactive in the first instance, occurring owing to stimulation of the immune system. A clinical follow-up according to the patient’s risk profile without further diagnostic measures is justified. In the case of preexisting unilateral cancer, vaccination should be given contralaterally whenever possible. Persistently enlarged lymph nodes should be re-evaluated (2 to) 6 weeks after the second dose, with additional diagnostic tests tailored to the clinical context. Fine needle aspiration is a well established, safe, rapid and cost-effective method to investigate an underlying malignancy, especially metastasis. Recording vaccination history, including date of injection, site and vaccine type, as well as communicating this information to treating physicians of different specialties is paramount for properly handling COVID-19 vaccine-associated lymphadenopathy.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254872, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is only partly understood, and the level of evidence available in terms of pathophysiology, epidemiology, therapy, and long-term outcome remains limited. During the early phase of the pandemic, it was necessary to effectively investigate all aspects of this new disease. Autopsy can be a valuable procedure to investigate the internal organs with special techniques to obtain information on the disease, especially the distribution and type of organ involvement. METHODS: During the first wave of COVID-19 in Germany, autopsies of 19 deceased patients were performed. Besides gross examination, the organs were analyzed with standard histology and polymerase-chain-reaction for SARS-CoV-2. Polymerase chain reaction positive localizations were further analyzed with immunohistochemistry and RNA-in situ hybridization for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Eighteen of 19 patients were found to have died due to COVID-19. Clinically relevant histological changes were only observed in the lungs. Diffuse alveolar damage in considerably different degrees was noted in 18 cases. Other organs, including the central nervous system, did not show specific micromorphological alterations. In terms of SARS-CoV-2 detection, the focus remains on the upper airways and lungs. This is true for both the number of positive samples and the viral load. A highly significant inverse correlation between the stage of diffuse alveolar damage and viral load was found on a case and a sample basis. Mediastinal lymph nodes and fat were also affected by the virus at high frequencies. By contrast, other organs rarely exhibited a viral infection. Moderate to strong correlations between the methods for detecting SARS-CoV-2 were observed for the lungs and for other organs. CONCLUSIONS: The lung is the most affected organ in gross examination, histology and polymerase chain reaction. SARS-CoV-2 detection in other organs did not reveal relevant or specific histological changes. Moreover, we did not find CNS involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , Lung/virology , Lymph Nodes/virology , Viral Load , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Central Nervous System/pathology , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 154: 167-174, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316471

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the lives of people around the world. Fortunately, sufficient vaccines are now available. Local reactions with ipsilateral lymphadenopathy are among the most common side effects. We investigated the impact of lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination on the value of ultrasound in tumour patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma were included who underwent lymph node excision and received COVID-19 vaccination within 6 weeks before surgery. The consistency of the preoperative ultrasound findings with the histopathologic findings was investigated. RESULTS: Eight patients were included (two Merkel cell carcinoma and six melanoma patients) who underwent lymph node excision between 16th April 2021 and 19th May 2021 and had previously received COVID-19 vaccination. In three of the eight patients (one Merkel cell carcinoma and two melanoma patients), lymph node metastases were erroneously diagnosed preoperatively during tumour follow-up with physical examination, ultrasound, and or fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). In these three patients, the suspected lymph node metastases were located in the left axilla after COVID-19 vaccination in the left upper arm, which resulted in selective lymph node removal in two patients and complete lymphadenectomy in one patient. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine-associated lymphadenopathy is expected to be observed much more frequently in the near future because of increasing vaccination rates. This cause of lymphadenopathy, which may in ultrasound as well as in FDG PET/CT resemble lymph node metastases, must be considered, especially in oncologic patients undergoing tumour follow-up. In addition, COVID-19 vaccination should be given as far away as possible from an underlying primary on the contralateral side to avoid oncologic misdiagnosis followed by malpractice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell/secondary , Lymph Nodes/drug effects , Lymphadenopathy/chemically induced , Melanoma/secondary , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Female , Germany , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography
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