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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 1833-1845, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777585

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic that continues to cause numerous deaths to date. Four vaccines have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as of July 2021 to prevent the transmission of COVID-19: Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca, and Janssen. These vaccines have shown great efficacy and safety profile. One side effect that has been widely reported is post-COVID-19 vaccination lymphadenopathy. Due to the mimicry of the lymphadenopathy for metastases in some oncologic patients, there have been reports of patients who underwent biopsies that showed pathologic confirmation of benign reactive lymphadenopathy secondary to the COVID-19 vaccine. Therefore, understanding the incidence of lymphadenopathy post-COVID-19 vaccinations will help guide radiologists and oncologists in their management of patients, both present oncologic patients, and patients with concerns over their newly presenting lymphadenopathy. A systematic literature search was performed using several databases to identify relevant studies that reported lymphadenopathy post-COVID-19 vaccination. Our results revealed that several cases have been detected in patients undergoing follow-up fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography-computerized tomography scans where lymph nodes ipsilateral to the vaccine injection site show increased uptake of FDG. Thus, knowledge of the incidence of lymphadenopathy may help avoid unnecessary biopsies, interventions, and changes in management for patients, especially oncologic patients who are at risk for malignancies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/adverse effects , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination/adverse effects
2.
Eur J Cancer ; 159: 38-51, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719648

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Over 1 billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines have been already administered across the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Union at the time of writing. Furthermore, 1.82 million booster doses have been administered in the US since 13th August, and similar booster programmes are currently planned or under consideration in the UK and the EU beginning in the autumn of 2021. Early reports showed an association between vaccine administration and the development of ipsilateral axillary and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy, which could interfere with the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of breast cancer patients. In this paper, we review the available evidence on vaccine-related lymphadenopathy, and we discuss the clinical implications of the same on breast cancer diagnosis and management. METHODS: A literature search was performed - PubMed, Ovid Medline, Scopus, CINHAL, Springer Nature, ScienceDirect, Academic Search Premier and the Directory of Open Access Journals were searched for articles reporting on regional palpable or image-detected lymphadenopathy following COVID-19 vaccination. Separately, we compiled a series of case studies from the University Hospitals of Derby and Burton, United Kingdom and the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, United States of America, to illustrate the impact that regional lymphadenopathy post-COVID-19 vaccination can have on the diagnosis and management of patients being seen in diagnostic and therapeutic breast clinics. RESULTS: From the literature search, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 2057 patients, 737 with lymphadenopathy). The incidence of lymphadenopathy ranged between 14.5% and 53% and persisted for >6 weeks in 29% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians managing breast cancer patients should be aware that the COVID-19 vaccination may result in regional lymphadenopathy in a significant number of patients, which can result in unnecessary investigations, treatment and increased patient anxiety. An accurate COVID-19 vaccination history should be collected from all patients where regional lymphadenopathy is a clinical and/or an imaging finding and then combined with clinical judgement when managing individual cases.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Mammography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Vaccination/adverse effects , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Female , Humans , Incidence , Lymphadenopathy/chemically induced , Lymphadenopathy/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(2)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686885

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Several authors have reported cervical and axillary lymphadenopathies as known side effects following anti-COVID-19 vaccine administration. Few data are available about atypical locations of post-anti-COVID-19 vaccine lymphadenopathy. In this investigation, we evaluated the incidence and prevalence of postvaccine lymphadenopathy ultrasound (US) features in atypical sites. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we retrospectively selected 64 patients on whom US was performed between January and October 2021 due to COVID-19 vaccine-related lymphadenopathy. We investigated lymph node anatomical sites, presence, number, size, shape, cortical profile, hilum outline, superb microvascular imaging (SMI), and elastosonography. Results: A total of 170 nodes were assessed. Atypical location was demonstrated in 5/64 patients (7.8%). In all these cases, atypical nodal involvement was associated with lymphadenopathy in a typical site (axillary, supraclavicular) ipsilateral to the vaccine injection site. Two patients presented lymphadenopathy in the infraclavicular station (3.1%), one in the pectoralis major muscle (1.6%), one in the left arm (1.6%), and one in the nuchal site (1.6%). All lymphadenopathies were oval-shaped, with a median size of 0.9 ± 0.2 cm. US features included a symmetric cortex with hilum evidence (4/6, 60%), vascular signal at SMI in both the hilar region and periphery of lymph node (5/6, 83.3%), and a US elastography pattern resembling that of adjacent tissues (5/6, 83.3%). The median age of patients with lymphadenopathies in an atypical location was 23 years. The main type of vaccine associated with lymph node appearance in atypical sites was Moderna's mRNA-1273 (60% of patients, 4/6 lymph nodes accounting for 66.7% among atypical locations). Conclusion: Post-COVID-19 vaccine administration lymphadenopathies in an atypical location represent an intense immune response to antigenic stimuli and they may show alarming US traits superimposed on malignant pathologies, which may complicate the patient's clinical and diagnostic pathway. Despite no distinctive US features between reactive post-COVID-19 vaccination and malignant lymph nodes being available, careful examination of atypical lymph node locations associated with accurate knowledge of patients' clinical background and delay of US exam to four to six weeks after vaccine injection should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/epidemiology , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(5): 1206-1216, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. COVID-19 vaccination may trigger reactive lymphadenopathy, confounding imaging interpretation. There has been limited systematic analysis of PET findings after COVID-19 vaccination. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of abnormal FDG and 11C-choline uptake on PET performed after COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS. This retrospective study included 67 patients (43 men and 24 women; mean [± SD] age, 75.6 ± 9.2 years) who underwent PET examination between December 14, 2020, and March 10, 2021, after COVID-19 vaccination and who had undergone prevaccination PET examination without visible axillary node uptake. A total of 52 patients received the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech; hereafter referred to as the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine), and 15 received the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccine (Moderna; hereafter referred to as the Moderna vaccine). Sixty-six of the patients underwent PET/CT, and one underwent PET/MRI. Fifty-four PET examinations used FDG, and 13 used 11C-choline. PET was performed a median of 13 and 10 days after vaccination for patients who had received one (n = 44) and two (n = 23) vaccine doses, respectively. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently reviewed images and were blinded to injection laterality and the number of days since vaccination. Lymph node or deltoid SUVmax greater than the blood pool SUVmax was considered positive. Interreader agreement was assessed, and the measurements made by the more experienced physician were used for subsequent analysis. RESULTS. Positive axillary lymph node uptake was observed in 10.4% (7/67) of patients (7.4% [4/54] of FDG examinations and 23.1% [3/13] of 11C-choline examinations); of the patients with positive axillary lymph nodes, four had received the Pfizer vaccine, and three had received the Moderna vaccine. Injection laterality was documented for five of seven patients with positive axillary lymph nodes and was ipsilateral to the positive node in all five patients. PET was performed within 24 days of vaccination for all patients with a positive node. One patient showed extraaxillary lymph node uptake (ipsilateral supraclavicular uptake on FDG PET). Ipsilateral deltoid uptake was present in 14.5% (8/55) of patients with documented injection laterality, including 42.9% (3/7) of patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Interreader agreement for SUV measurements (expressed as intraclass correlation coefficients) ranged from 0.600 to 0.988. CONCLUSION. Increased axillary lymph node or ipsilateral deltoid uptake is occasionally observed on FDG or 11C-choline PET performed after COVID-19 vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine. CLINICAL IMPACT. Interpreting physicians should recognize characteristics of abnormal uptake on PET after COVID-19 vaccination to guide optimal follow-up management and reduce unnecessary biopsies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Deltoid Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Aged , Axilla/diagnostic imaging , Carbon Radioisotopes/pharmacokinetics , Choline/pharmacokinetics , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Male , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(6): e633-e638, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Reactive axillary lymph nodes (ALN) may occur post-COVID-19 vaccination. This may be confused with malignant nodal metastases on oncological imaging. We aimed to determine the reactive ALN incidence and duration on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography (18F-FDG PET-CT), and its relationship with gender, age and vaccine type. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed. Two-hundred and four eligible patients had 18F-FDG PET-CT between 01 January 2021 and 31 March 2021, post-vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech or Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine. Image analysis was performed on dedicated workstations. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-six per cent of patients had reactive ALN until 10 weeks post-vaccination; reducing in frequency and intensity with time. Women were more likely to have reactive ALN compared with men. The frequency and intensity were higher in patients aged <65 years compared with those aged ≥65 years. However, no difference was found between both vaccine types in our study cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians' awareness of COVID-19 vaccine-related reactive ALN on 18F-FDG PET-CT is important to avoid inappropriate upstaging of cancers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Incidence , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/epidemiology , Male , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Positron-Emission Tomography , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546481

ABSTRACT

A 21-year-old woman arrived at the emergency department with dyspnoea, arterial hypotension and abdominal pain after 5 days with a influenza-like syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 was detected by reverse transcription PCR in a nasopharyngeal swab specimen. CT of the chest and abdomen with contrast demonstrated a minimal amount of free intraperitoneal fluid, gallbladder with wall oedema, multiple para-aortic lymph node and interlobular septal thickening with ground glass opacities on the lungs. No pleural effusion or thromboembolism. Early broad-spectrum antibiotics, high-flow nasal cannula and norepinephrine were started. She was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and pulse corticosteroid therapy with methylprednisolone. The patient was discharged home with complete resolution of her symptoms and returned to her previous health status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Lymphadenopathy , Adult , Female , Humans , Lung , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
Acad Radiol ; 29(4): 501-507, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516986

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women who received a COVID-19 vaccination may display subclinical unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy on screening mammography, which can appear suspicious for malignancy, leading to additional diagnostic evaluation. PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of subclinical unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy (sLAD) on screening mammogram in women who received either the first or second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech (Pfizer) or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines compared to women who have not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this IRB-approved, HIPAA complaint study from 12/14/2020 to 4/14/2021, 1027 patients presented for screening mammography and met study inclusion criteria. Patients with history of baseline lymphadenopathy or prior cancer diagnosis were excluded. RESULTS: Of the 1027 women, 43 were recalled for unilateral sLAD. 34 women received a COVID-19 vaccination ipsilateral to the sLAD (Pfizer n=19, 44.2%; Moderna n=15, 34.9%), 9 did not (20.9%). Incidence of unilateral axillary sLAD was significantly higher (p-value<0.01) in those who received a COVID-19 vaccination within approximately 7 weeks preceding screening mammogram. 13.2% of patients who received the Pfizer vaccine and 9.5% of patients who received the Moderna vaccine developed sLAD. Moderna's vaccine elicited a more robust reaction in the elderly (Moderna 63.7 years vs. Pfizer 59.7 years). For both vaccines, sLAD resolved on average 46.5 days after the last COVID-19 vaccine (p=0.44). CONCLUSION: Women who have received either mRNA COVID-19 vaccines may benefit from scheduling their screening mammogram before vaccination or consider delaying screening mammography 8 weeks. While Pfizer may have an overall more robust immune response, Moderna may elicit a stronger immune response in elderly women. SUMMARY: Women who received a COVID-19 vaccination before screening mammography were significantly more likely to present with subclinical axillary lymphadenopathy than women who did not receive the vaccine. KEY RESULTS: 13.2% of women who received a Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine exhibited subclinical axillary lymphadenopathy compared to 9.5% of those who received the Moderna vaccine. Only 1.2 % of those who did not receive a vaccine presented with subclinical unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. The average time of resolution of the lymphadenopathy on diagnostic mammogram was 46.5 days overall, with Pfizer-BioNTech taking 50.7 days and Moderna 41.5 days.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/chemically induced , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/epidemiology , Mammography , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Clin Nucl Med ; 46(12): 1011-1012, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501244

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: A 50-year-old woman with stage IV sigmoid adenocarcinoma presented for restaging FDG PET/CT status post neoadjuvant chemotherapy/immunotherapy and diverting sigmoid colostomy. FDG PET/CT demonstrated FDG uptake in the known sigmoid mass and in abdominopelvic lymph node metastases. Bilateral, asymmetric, hypermetabolic axillary lymphadenopathy was also observed, an atypical pattern of spread for colon cancer. Further investigation revealed the patient had received both doses of COVID-19 vaccine in the 2 months prior to presentation. The authors discuss immunogenic nodal hypermetabolism following vaccination against COVID-19 and incorporating vaccination history to aid in PET/CT interpretation, especially in malignancies involving the axillae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis , Middle Aged , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(12): 1938-1945, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497013

ABSTRACT

Breast radiologists are increasingly seeing patients with axillary adenopathy related to COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccination can cause levels I-III axillary as well as cervical lymphadenopathy. Appropriate management of vaccine-related adenopathy may vary depending on clinical context. In patients with current or past history of malignancy, vaccine-related adenopathy can be indistinguishable from nodal metastasis. This article presents imaging findings of oncology patients with adenopathy seen in the axilla or neck on cross-sectional imaging (breast MRI, CT, or PET-CT) after COVID-19 vaccination. Management approach and rationale is discussed, along with consideration on strategies to minimize false positives in vaccinated cancer patients. Time interval between vaccination and adenopathy seen on breast MRI, CT, or PET-CT is also reported.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Vaccines , Axilla , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Eur Radiol ; 32(5): 3199-3206, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469687

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted in order to investigate COVID-19 vaccine influence on unilateral axillary lymph nodes, comparing nodal basal features with their characteristics after the first and second vaccination dose. METHODS: Ninety-one volunteer employees from our center who participated in the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccination campaign were prospectively recruited. A total of three axillary ultrasound evaluations of the ipsilateral vaccinated arm were performed: before vaccination, the week after the first dose and the week after the second dose. The following findings were recorded: the total number of visible nodes, the maximum measurements of the diameter and cortex, Bedi's classification, and color Doppler evaluation. The collected data were compared using paired-sample Student's t-test for quantitative continuous variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for ordinal variables. Additional analyses were performed after classifying patients according to the previous history of COVID-19 disease. Differences among both groups were evaluated with the Mann-Whitney U test. Variables with a p value < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Comparative analyses between the three US examinations showed a statistically significant augmentation of total visible nodes, maximum diameter, cortical thickness, grade of Bedi's classification, and Doppler signal (p < 0.001). Analyses between patients with and without previous COVID-19 infection showed a higher lymph node response in naïve patients compared to those who were previously infected. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, both doses of COVID-19 vaccine induced an increase of all axillary lymph node parameters with statistically significant differences, especially in coronavirus-naïve patients. KEY POINTS: • Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine induces a high incidence of ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. • US scan identified an increase of all lymph nodes parameters, especially in coronavirus-naïve patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 49(4): 1338-1344, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469685

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The incidence of COVID-19 vaccine-associated hypermetabolic lymphadenopathy (VAHL) is high following the administration of the first and second BNT162b2 vaccine doses. The impact of this finding on [18F]FDG PET-CT interpretation and its correlation with the induced humoral immunity have been reported. Assuming the amnestic immune response is different following the third vaccine dose, we aimed to explore the incidence of VAHL over time after the third BNT162b2 dose administration, and its relevance to [18F]FDG PET-CT interpretation in oncologic patients. METHODS: A total of 179 consecutive oncologic patients that underwent [18F]FDG PET-CT after a third BNT162b2 vaccine dose were included. The presence of VAHL was assessed. On VAHL-positive scans, the SUVmax, number, location, and size of the "hot" nodes were recorded. The median time interval between vaccination and imaging was 8 (IQR, 5-14) days. RESULTS: The incidences of all-grade VAHL and grade 3-4 VAHL were 47.5% and 8.9%, respectively. VAHL was identified on 82.5% of studies performed within the first 5 days from vaccination. Grade 3-4 VAHL was observed on 28.1% of studies performed within the first 5 days from vaccination, but was not detected on studies performed more than 5 days from vaccination. Separation between VAHL and malignant lymphadenopathy was not possible in only 2 of the 179 study patients. On a multivariable logistic regression, independent predictors of grade 3-4 VAHL were short time interval between vaccination and imaging (Pv < 0.01), younger age (Pv < 0.01), and lower BMI (Pv = 0.03). CONCLUSION: VAHL is commonly identified on [18F]FDG PET-CT performed within the first 5 days from the third BNT162b2 vaccine dose administration. High-grade VAHL is unlikely to be observed on a scan performed 6 days or longer from vaccination, and is even less likely in older and obese patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , SARS-CoV-2
17.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(5): 1206-1216, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. COVID-19 vaccination may trigger reactive lymphadenopathy, confounding imaging interpretation. There has been limited systematic analysis of PET findings after COVID-19 vaccination. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of abnormal FDG and 11C-choline uptake on PET performed after COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS. This retrospective study included 67 patients (43 men and 24 women; mean [± SD] age, 75.6 ± 9.2 years) who underwent PET examination between December 14, 2020, and March 10, 2021, after COVID-19 vaccination and who had undergone prevaccination PET examination without visible axillary node uptake. A total of 52 patients received the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech; hereafter referred to as the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine), and 15 received the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccine (Moderna; hereafter referred to as the Moderna vaccine). Sixty-six of the patients underwent PET/CT, and one underwent PET/MRI. Fifty-four PET examinations used FDG, and 13 used 11C-choline. PET was performed a median of 13 and 10 days after vaccination for patients who had received one (n = 44) and two (n = 23) vaccine doses, respectively. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently reviewed images and were blinded to injection laterality and the number of days since vaccination. Lymph node or deltoid SUVmax greater than the blood pool SUVmax was considered positive. Interreader agreement was assessed, and the measurements made by the more experienced physician were used for subsequent analysis. RESULTS. Positive axillary lymph node uptake was observed in 10.4% (7/67) of patients (7.4% [4/54] of FDG examinations and 23.1% [3/13] of 11C-choline examinations); of the patients with positive axillary lymph nodes, four had received the Pfizer vaccine, and three had received the Moderna vaccine. Injection laterality was documented for five of seven patients with positive axillary lymph nodes and was ipsilateral to the positive node in all five patients. PET was performed within 24 days of vaccination for all patients with a positive node. One patient showed extraaxillary lymph node uptake (ipsilateral supraclavicular uptake on FDG PET). Ipsilateral deltoid uptake was present in 14.5% (8/55) of patients with documented injection laterality, including 42.9% (3/7) of patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Interreader agreement for SUV measurements (expressed as intraclass correlation coefficients) ranged from 0.600 to 0.988. CONCLUSION. Increased axillary lymph node or ipsilateral deltoid uptake is occasionally observed on FDG or 11C-choline PET performed after COVID-19 vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine. CLINICAL IMPACT. Interpreting physicians should recognize characteristics of abnormal uptake on PET after COVID-19 vaccination to guide optimal follow-up management and reduce unnecessary biopsies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Deltoid Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Aged , Axilla/diagnostic imaging , Carbon Radioisotopes/pharmacokinetics , Choline/pharmacokinetics , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Male , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(4): 857-858, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352775

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to report on 23 women with evidence of axillary adenopathy at breast imaging after recent COVID-19 vaccination. A total of 13% of patients had symptoms (axillary lump), 43% were undergoing screening, and 43% were undergoing diagnostic imaging for other reasons. BI-RADS category 2 was assigned in one case, BI-RADS 3 in 21 (ultrasound in 4-24 weeks), and BI-RADS 4 in one. Radiologist familiarity and evidence-based guidelines are needed to avoid follow-up imaging and biopsies for reactive adenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Mammography/methods , Ultrasonography, Mammary/methods , Adult , Axilla , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidental Findings , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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