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2.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 502021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786592

ABSTRACT

Lymphadenopathy associated with COVID-19 vaccination can be a clinical conundrum for clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 1833-1845, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777585

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic that continues to cause numerous deaths to date. Four vaccines have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as of July 2021 to prevent the transmission of COVID-19: Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca, and Janssen. These vaccines have shown great efficacy and safety profile. One side effect that has been widely reported is post-COVID-19 vaccination lymphadenopathy. Due to the mimicry of the lymphadenopathy for metastases in some oncologic patients, there have been reports of patients who underwent biopsies that showed pathologic confirmation of benign reactive lymphadenopathy secondary to the COVID-19 vaccine. Therefore, understanding the incidence of lymphadenopathy post-COVID-19 vaccinations will help guide radiologists and oncologists in their management of patients, both present oncologic patients, and patients with concerns over their newly presenting lymphadenopathy. A systematic literature search was performed using several databases to identify relevant studies that reported lymphadenopathy post-COVID-19 vaccination. Our results revealed that several cases have been detected in patients undergoing follow-up fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography-computerized tomography scans where lymph nodes ipsilateral to the vaccine injection site show increased uptake of FDG. Thus, knowledge of the incidence of lymphadenopathy may help avoid unnecessary biopsies, interventions, and changes in management for patients, especially oncologic patients who are at risk for malignancies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/adverse effects , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 31: 100546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734316

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: ; COVID-19 vaccines are commonly administered intramuscularly to the arm. Axillary lymphadenopathy has been reported as an adverse event after COVID-19 vaccination. In patients with breast cancers who received COVID-19 vaccination, presence of ipsilateral (or contralateral) lymphadenopathy poses diagnostic dilemma. This systematic review aims to evaluate the incidence and clinical characteristics of vaccine associated axillary lymphadenopathy. METHODS: ; The systematic review was conducted with accordance to the PRISMA statement. The search terms used were "Vaccine" OR "Vaccination" AND "Lymphadenopathy" OR "Lymph node" AND "Covid-19″. RESULTS: ; 31 studies or reports were identified using the predefined keywords from the systematic review protocol. After excluding irrelevant papers (such as guidelines, reviews, opinions and commentaries), 10 studies or reports were included in the review.Pooled incidence of clinically detectable lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination was 91/22,532 (0.4%). Mean size of the vaccine associated axillary lymphadenopathy was 18.2 mm (Range 16 - 21 mm). Mean duration from vaccination to occurrence of axillary lymphadenopathy was 6.9 days (Range 2 - 18 days). In a study on 119 patients, enlarged axillary lymphadenopathy resolves in 4 to 5 weeks. CONCLUSION: ; Vaccine associated axillary lymphadenopathy is not uncommon. Management of it is based on multidisciplinary decision with patient demographics, vaccination history and radiological finding being taken into account. Additional imaging and biopsy may lead to unnecessary healthcare burden. Proper arrangement of vaccination and imaging regarding timing and laterality should be advocated to avoid confusion and patient anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/epidemiology , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(2)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686885

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Several authors have reported cervical and axillary lymphadenopathies as known side effects following anti-COVID-19 vaccine administration. Few data are available about atypical locations of post-anti-COVID-19 vaccine lymphadenopathy. In this investigation, we evaluated the incidence and prevalence of postvaccine lymphadenopathy ultrasound (US) features in atypical sites. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we retrospectively selected 64 patients on whom US was performed between January and October 2021 due to COVID-19 vaccine-related lymphadenopathy. We investigated lymph node anatomical sites, presence, number, size, shape, cortical profile, hilum outline, superb microvascular imaging (SMI), and elastosonography. Results: A total of 170 nodes were assessed. Atypical location was demonstrated in 5/64 patients (7.8%). In all these cases, atypical nodal involvement was associated with lymphadenopathy in a typical site (axillary, supraclavicular) ipsilateral to the vaccine injection site. Two patients presented lymphadenopathy in the infraclavicular station (3.1%), one in the pectoralis major muscle (1.6%), one in the left arm (1.6%), and one in the nuchal site (1.6%). All lymphadenopathies were oval-shaped, with a median size of 0.9 ± 0.2 cm. US features included a symmetric cortex with hilum evidence (4/6, 60%), vascular signal at SMI in both the hilar region and periphery of lymph node (5/6, 83.3%), and a US elastography pattern resembling that of adjacent tissues (5/6, 83.3%). The median age of patients with lymphadenopathies in an atypical location was 23 years. The main type of vaccine associated with lymph node appearance in atypical sites was Moderna's mRNA-1273 (60% of patients, 4/6 lymph nodes accounting for 66.7% among atypical locations). Conclusion: Post-COVID-19 vaccine administration lymphadenopathies in an atypical location represent an intense immune response to antigenic stimuli and they may show alarming US traits superimposed on malignant pathologies, which may complicate the patient's clinical and diagnostic pathway. Despite no distinctive US features between reactive post-COVID-19 vaccination and malignant lymph nodes being available, careful examination of atypical lymph node locations associated with accurate knowledge of patients' clinical background and delay of US exam to four to six weeks after vaccine injection should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/epidemiology , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
J Thorac Oncol ; 17(1): 154-159, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596474

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Axillary lymphadenopathy from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is an emerging phenomenon during unprecedented mass vaccinations, which can be incidentally found on computed tomography (CT) scans. This study investigated the incidence, predisposing factors, and imaging characteristics of vaccine-related axillary lymphadenopathy in patients with thoracic malignancy who underwent CT scans before and after COVID-19 vaccinations. METHODS: The study included patients with thoracic malignancies who received two doses of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccinations and had prevaccine and postvaccine chest CT scans. Postvaccine chest CT scan results were reviewed for increase in size of lymph nodes in the axilla and subpectoral areas, comparing with the prevaccine scan results. The cases with lymphadenopathy were further reviewed independently by two radiologists referring to clinical information to find whether lymphadenopathy was attributed to the vaccinations. RESULTS: Vaccine-related axillary lymphadenopathy was noted in 21 of 232 patients (9.0%). The median short-axis diameter of the largest node was 7 mm (range: 5-14 mm). The median number of increased nodes was 4 (range: 1-10). The median time to the postvaccine scan revealing lymphadenopathy was 1.7 weeks (range: -2.9 to 6.6) from the second dose. Vaccine-related lymphadenopathy was noted more often in women than in men (18 of 144, 12.5% versus 3 of 88, 3.4%, respectively; p = 0.019) and with mRNA-1273 vaccines than BNT162b2 vaccines (6 of 28, 21% versus 15 of 204, 7.4%, respectively; p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of lymphadenopathy was 9%, with a median onset time of 1.7 weeks after the second vaccine dose. Female sex and vaccine type (mRNA-1273 vaccine) were associated with higher frequency of lymphadenopathy, providing initial observations to inform further investigations in larger cohorts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Lymphadenopathy , Thoracic Neoplasms , Causality , Female , Humans , Incidence , Lymphadenopathy/epidemiology , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
9.
Pediatrics ; 149(1)2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595609

ABSTRACT

A 9-year-old girl presented to her primary care pediatrician via telemedicine during the initial months of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic because of 4 days of warmth perceived by her mother, decreased energy, and a new rash on her upper extremities. After 10 additional days of documented fever >38°C, worsening fatigue, and 1 day of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, she was allowed to schedule an in-person visit with her pediatrician after testing negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. She appeared ill on arrival to clinic, and her pediatrician recommended evaluation in an emergency department. Her initial laboratory testing revealed nonspecific elevation in several inflammatory markers and leukopenia, and she responded well to intravenous hydration. Over the next 2 weeks, her fever persisted, constitutional symptoms worsened, and she developed progressively painful cervical lymphadenopathy and pancytopenia. She was evaluated in clinic by several specialists and eventually was urged to present to the emergency department again, at which time she was admitted to the PICU. After consulting additional specialists and waiting for laboratory results, the team reached a definitive diagnosis and initiated therapy; however, she experienced rapid clinical decline shortly thereafter. The specialists who assisted with identification of the underlying etiology of her symptoms were able to work together to manage the subsequent complications.


Subject(s)
Exanthema , Fever , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Telemedicine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Disease Progression , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lymphadenopathy/diagnosis , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Pancytopenia/diagnosis , Symptom Assessment , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
12.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(5): 1206-1216, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. COVID-19 vaccination may trigger reactive lymphadenopathy, confounding imaging interpretation. There has been limited systematic analysis of PET findings after COVID-19 vaccination. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of abnormal FDG and 11C-choline uptake on PET performed after COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS. This retrospective study included 67 patients (43 men and 24 women; mean [± SD] age, 75.6 ± 9.2 years) who underwent PET examination between December 14, 2020, and March 10, 2021, after COVID-19 vaccination and who had undergone prevaccination PET examination without visible axillary node uptake. A total of 52 patients received the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech; hereafter referred to as the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine), and 15 received the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccine (Moderna; hereafter referred to as the Moderna vaccine). Sixty-six of the patients underwent PET/CT, and one underwent PET/MRI. Fifty-four PET examinations used FDG, and 13 used 11C-choline. PET was performed a median of 13 and 10 days after vaccination for patients who had received one (n = 44) and two (n = 23) vaccine doses, respectively. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently reviewed images and were blinded to injection laterality and the number of days since vaccination. Lymph node or deltoid SUVmax greater than the blood pool SUVmax was considered positive. Interreader agreement was assessed, and the measurements made by the more experienced physician were used for subsequent analysis. RESULTS. Positive axillary lymph node uptake was observed in 10.4% (7/67) of patients (7.4% [4/54] of FDG examinations and 23.1% [3/13] of 11C-choline examinations); of the patients with positive axillary lymph nodes, four had received the Pfizer vaccine, and three had received the Moderna vaccine. Injection laterality was documented for five of seven patients with positive axillary lymph nodes and was ipsilateral to the positive node in all five patients. PET was performed within 24 days of vaccination for all patients with a positive node. One patient showed extraaxillary lymph node uptake (ipsilateral supraclavicular uptake on FDG PET). Ipsilateral deltoid uptake was present in 14.5% (8/55) of patients with documented injection laterality, including 42.9% (3/7) of patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Interreader agreement for SUV measurements (expressed as intraclass correlation coefficients) ranged from 0.600 to 0.988. CONCLUSION. Increased axillary lymph node or ipsilateral deltoid uptake is occasionally observed on FDG or 11C-choline PET performed after COVID-19 vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine. CLINICAL IMPACT. Interpreting physicians should recognize characteristics of abnormal uptake on PET after COVID-19 vaccination to guide optimal follow-up management and reduce unnecessary biopsies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Deltoid Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Aged , Axilla/diagnostic imaging , Carbon Radioisotopes/pharmacokinetics , Choline/pharmacokinetics , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Male , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546481

ABSTRACT

A 21-year-old woman arrived at the emergency department with dyspnoea, arterial hypotension and abdominal pain after 5 days with a influenza-like syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 was detected by reverse transcription PCR in a nasopharyngeal swab specimen. CT of the chest and abdomen with contrast demonstrated a minimal amount of free intraperitoneal fluid, gallbladder with wall oedema, multiple para-aortic lymph node and interlobular septal thickening with ground glass opacities on the lungs. No pleural effusion or thromboembolism. Early broad-spectrum antibiotics, high-flow nasal cannula and norepinephrine were started. She was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and pulse corticosteroid therapy with methylprednisolone. The patient was discharged home with complete resolution of her symptoms and returned to her previous health status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Lymphadenopathy , Adult , Female , Humans , Lung , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Eur Radiol ; 32(5): 3199-3206, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469687

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted in order to investigate COVID-19 vaccine influence on unilateral axillary lymph nodes, comparing nodal basal features with their characteristics after the first and second vaccination dose. METHODS: Ninety-one volunteer employees from our center who participated in the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccination campaign were prospectively recruited. A total of three axillary ultrasound evaluations of the ipsilateral vaccinated arm were performed: before vaccination, the week after the first dose and the week after the second dose. The following findings were recorded: the total number of visible nodes, the maximum measurements of the diameter and cortex, Bedi's classification, and color Doppler evaluation. The collected data were compared using paired-sample Student's t-test for quantitative continuous variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for ordinal variables. Additional analyses were performed after classifying patients according to the previous history of COVID-19 disease. Differences among both groups were evaluated with the Mann-Whitney U test. Variables with a p value < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Comparative analyses between the three US examinations showed a statistically significant augmentation of total visible nodes, maximum diameter, cortical thickness, grade of Bedi's classification, and Doppler signal (p < 0.001). Analyses between patients with and without previous COVID-19 infection showed a higher lymph node response in naïve patients compared to those who were previously infected. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, both doses of COVID-19 vaccine induced an increase of all axillary lymph node parameters with statistically significant differences, especially in coronavirus-naïve patients. KEY POINTS: • Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine induces a high incidence of ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. • US scan identified an increase of all lymph nodes parameters, especially in coronavirus-naïve patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 49(4): 1338-1344, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469685

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The incidence of COVID-19 vaccine-associated hypermetabolic lymphadenopathy (VAHL) is high following the administration of the first and second BNT162b2 vaccine doses. The impact of this finding on [18F]FDG PET-CT interpretation and its correlation with the induced humoral immunity have been reported. Assuming the amnestic immune response is different following the third vaccine dose, we aimed to explore the incidence of VAHL over time after the third BNT162b2 dose administration, and its relevance to [18F]FDG PET-CT interpretation in oncologic patients. METHODS: A total of 179 consecutive oncologic patients that underwent [18F]FDG PET-CT after a third BNT162b2 vaccine dose were included. The presence of VAHL was assessed. On VAHL-positive scans, the SUVmax, number, location, and size of the "hot" nodes were recorded. The median time interval between vaccination and imaging was 8 (IQR, 5-14) days. RESULTS: The incidences of all-grade VAHL and grade 3-4 VAHL were 47.5% and 8.9%, respectively. VAHL was identified on 82.5% of studies performed within the first 5 days from vaccination. Grade 3-4 VAHL was observed on 28.1% of studies performed within the first 5 days from vaccination, but was not detected on studies performed more than 5 days from vaccination. Separation between VAHL and malignant lymphadenopathy was not possible in only 2 of the 179 study patients. On a multivariable logistic regression, independent predictors of grade 3-4 VAHL were short time interval between vaccination and imaging (Pv < 0.01), younger age (Pv < 0.01), and lower BMI (Pv = 0.03). CONCLUSION: VAHL is commonly identified on [18F]FDG PET-CT performed within the first 5 days from the third BNT162b2 vaccine dose administration. High-grade VAHL is unlikely to be observed on a scan performed 6 days or longer from vaccination, and is even less likely in older and obese patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 740, 2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We present a yet to be described association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old physician with history of SARS-CoV-2 infection presented to the emergency department with 2 weeks of fever, chills, and right sided cervical lymphadenopathy. He was treated empirically for presumed folliculitis with worsening of symptoms leading to repeat presentation to the emergency department. Extensive workup was unrevealing of an infectious cause and needle biopsy of the lesion was unrevealing. An excisional lymph node biopsy revealed follicular hyperplasia with necrotic foci showing abundance of histiocytes at the edge of necrosis with CD8 predominance of T-cells. Final diagnosis was deemed to be Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. Antibiotic therapy was discontinued, and the patient's symptoms resolved with steroid therapy and expectant management. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a patient developing Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinicians should be aware of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease as a possibility when approaching patients with hyper-inflammatory states who present with cervical lymphadenopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis , Lymphadenopathy , Adult , Diagnosis, Differential , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/complications , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphadenopathy/diagnosis , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2
20.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(5): 1206-1216, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. COVID-19 vaccination may trigger reactive lymphadenopathy, confounding imaging interpretation. There has been limited systematic analysis of PET findings after COVID-19 vaccination. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of abnormal FDG and 11C-choline uptake on PET performed after COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS. This retrospective study included 67 patients (43 men and 24 women; mean [± SD] age, 75.6 ± 9.2 years) who underwent PET examination between December 14, 2020, and March 10, 2021, after COVID-19 vaccination and who had undergone prevaccination PET examination without visible axillary node uptake. A total of 52 patients received the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech; hereafter referred to as the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine), and 15 received the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccine (Moderna; hereafter referred to as the Moderna vaccine). Sixty-six of the patients underwent PET/CT, and one underwent PET/MRI. Fifty-four PET examinations used FDG, and 13 used 11C-choline. PET was performed a median of 13 and 10 days after vaccination for patients who had received one (n = 44) and two (n = 23) vaccine doses, respectively. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently reviewed images and were blinded to injection laterality and the number of days since vaccination. Lymph node or deltoid SUVmax greater than the blood pool SUVmax was considered positive. Interreader agreement was assessed, and the measurements made by the more experienced physician were used for subsequent analysis. RESULTS. Positive axillary lymph node uptake was observed in 10.4% (7/67) of patients (7.4% [4/54] of FDG examinations and 23.1% [3/13] of 11C-choline examinations); of the patients with positive axillary lymph nodes, four had received the Pfizer vaccine, and three had received the Moderna vaccine. Injection laterality was documented for five of seven patients with positive axillary lymph nodes and was ipsilateral to the positive node in all five patients. PET was performed within 24 days of vaccination for all patients with a positive node. One patient showed extraaxillary lymph node uptake (ipsilateral supraclavicular uptake on FDG PET). Ipsilateral deltoid uptake was present in 14.5% (8/55) of patients with documented injection laterality, including 42.9% (3/7) of patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Interreader agreement for SUV measurements (expressed as intraclass correlation coefficients) ranged from 0.600 to 0.988. CONCLUSION. Increased axillary lymph node or ipsilateral deltoid uptake is occasionally observed on FDG or 11C-choline PET performed after COVID-19 vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine. CLINICAL IMPACT. Interpreting physicians should recognize characteristics of abnormal uptake on PET after COVID-19 vaccination to guide optimal follow-up management and reduce unnecessary biopsies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Deltoid Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Aged , Axilla/diagnostic imaging , Carbon Radioisotopes/pharmacokinetics , Choline/pharmacokinetics , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Male , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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