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1.
Nature ; 618(7963): 144-150, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318679

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is lethal in 88% of patients1, yet harbours mutation-derived T cell neoantigens that are suitable for vaccines 2,3. Here in a phase I trial of adjuvant autogene cevumeran, an individualized neoantigen vaccine based on uridine mRNA-lipoplex nanoparticles, we synthesized mRNA neoantigen vaccines in real time from surgically resected PDAC tumours. After surgery, we sequentially administered atezolizumab (an anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy), autogene cevumeran (a maximum of 20 neoantigens per patient) and a modified version of a four-drug chemotherapy regimen (mFOLFIRINOX, comprising folinic acid, fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin). The end points included vaccine-induced neoantigen-specific T cells by high-threshold assays, 18-month recurrence-free survival and oncologic feasibility. We treated 16 patients with atezolizumab and autogene cevumeran, then 15 patients with mFOLFIRINOX. Autogene cevumeran was administered within 3 days of benchmarked times, was tolerable and induced de novo high-magnitude neoantigen-specific T cells in 8 out of 16 patients, with half targeting more than one vaccine neoantigen. Using a new mathematical strategy to track T cell clones (CloneTrack) and functional assays, we found that vaccine-expanded T cells comprised up to 10% of all blood T cells, re-expanded with a vaccine booster and included long-lived polyfunctional neoantigen-specific effector CD8+ T cells. At 18-month median follow-up, patients with vaccine-expanded T cells (responders) had a longer median recurrence-free survival (not reached) compared with patients without vaccine-expanded T cells (non-responders; 13.4 months, P = 0.003). Differences in the immune fitness of the patients did not confound this correlation, as responders and non-responders mounted equivalent immunity to a concurrent unrelated mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, adjuvant atezolizumab, autogene cevumeran and mFOLFIRINOX induces substantial T cell activity that may correlate with delayed PDAC recurrence.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Neoplasm , Cancer Vaccines , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal , Lymphocyte Activation , Pancreatic Neoplasms , T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/genetics , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/immunology , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/therapy , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunotherapy , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/genetics , Pancreatic Neoplasms/immunology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/therapy , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
2.
Sci Immunol ; 6(59)2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300367

ABSTRACT

Multiple Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a delayed and severe complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection that strikes previously healthy children. As MIS-C combines clinical features of Kawasaki disease and Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS), we aimed to compare the immunological profile of pediatric patients with these different conditions. We analyzed blood cytokine expression, and the T cell repertoire and phenotype in 36 MIS-C cases, which were compared to 16 KD, 58 TSS, and 42 COVID-19 cases. We observed an increase of serum inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α, IFNγ, CD25s, MCP1, IL-1RA) in MIS-C, TSS and KD, contrasting with low expression of HLA-DR in monocytes. We detected a specific expansion of activated T cells expressing the Vß21.3 T cell receptor ß chain variable region in both CD4 and CD8 subsets in 75% of MIS-C patients and not in any patient with TSS, KD, or acute COVID-19; this correlated with the cytokine storm detected. The T cell repertoire returned to baseline within weeks after MIS-C resolution. Vß21.3+ T cells from MIS-C patients expressed high levels of HLA-DR, CD38 and CX3CR1 but had weak responses to SARS-CoV-2 peptides in vitro. Consistently, the T cell expansion was not associated with specific classical HLA alleles. Thus, our data suggested that MIS-C is characterized by a polyclonal Vß21.3 T cell expansion not directed against SARS-CoV-2 antigenic peptides, which is not seen in KD, TSS and acute COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/blood , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
Transpl Immunol ; 77: 101798, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258090

ABSTRACT

Organ transplantation has provided another chance of survival for end-stage organ failure patients. Yet, transplant rejection is still a main challenging factor. Immunosuppressive drugs have been used to avoid rejection and suppress the immune response against allografts. Thus, immunosuppressants increase the risk of infection in immunocompromised organ transplant recipients. The infection risk reflects the relationship between the nature and severity of immunosuppression and infectious diseases. Furthermore, immunosuppressants show an immunological impact on the genetics of innate and adaptive immune responses. This effect usually reactivates the post-transplant infection in the donor and recipient tissues since T-cell activation has a substantial role in allograft rejection. Meanwhile, different infections have been found to activate the T-cells into CD4+ helper T-cell subset and CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte that affect the infection and the allograft. Therefore, the best management and preventive strategies of immunosuppression, antimicrobial prophylaxis, and intensive medical care are required for successful organ transplantation. This review addresses the activation of immune responses against different infections in immunocompromised individuals after organ transplantation.


Subject(s)
Organ Transplantation , Humans , Transplantation, Homologous , Graft Rejection , Immunosuppressive Agents , Lymphocyte Activation
4.
J Immunol Methods ; 515: 113443, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249328

ABSTRACT

Antigen (ag)-specific T cell analysis is an important step for investigation of cellular immunity in many settings, such as infectious diseases, cancer and vaccines. Multiparameter flow cytometry has advantages in studying both the rarity and heterogeneity of these cells. In the cellular immunologist's toolbox, the expression of activation-induced markers (AIM) following antigen exposure has made possible the study and sorting of ag-specific T cells without using human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-multimers. In parallel, assessing the cytokine profile of responding T cells would support a more comprehensive description of the ongoing immune response by providing information related to cell function, such as polarization and effector activity. Here, a method and flow cytometry panel were optimized to combine the detection of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in a TCR-dependent manner with the evaluation of cytokine production by intracellular staining, without affecting the positivity of activation markers. In particular, the expression of CD134 (OX40) and CD69 have been tested in conjunction with intracellular (ic) CD137 (4-1BB) to detect SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-specific activated T cells. In our setting, CD134 provided minimal contribution to detect the pool of AIM+ T cells, whereas a key role was described for ic-CD69 which was co-expressed with ic-CD137 in both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Moreover, the analysis of TCR-triggered cytokine-producing T cells (IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2 were assessed) further confirmed the capacity of ic-CD69 to identify functionally responsive antigen-specific T cells which were often largely negative or weakly positive for CD134 expression. In parallel, the use of CD45RA, CCR7 and CXCR5 allowed us to describe the T cell matuarion curve and detect T follicular helper (Tfh) CD4+ cells, including the antigen specific activated subsets. In conclusion, we optimized a method and flow cytometry panel combining assessment of activation induced markers and intracellular cytokines that will be useful for measuring TCR stimulation-dependent activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Humans , Cytokines/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , COVID-19/diagnosis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Antigens , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2182527, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286513

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccines have proved to be effective in the pandemic response but can cause adverse events such as delayed hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs). Delayed-reading intradermal tests (IDT) to vaccines are limited by false-positive results and may reflect a cell-mediated rather than IgE-mediated immune response. Lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), which has been utilized in the diagnosis of drug allergy, may be helpful in suspected COVID-19 vaccine and/or its excipient-related DHRs. To investigate the use of LTT in two suspected cases of COVID-19 vaccine-induced DHRs, two patients with suspected DHRs to COVID-19 vaccination were tested by delayed-reading IDT and LTT against vaccines and their excipients. A 47-year-old man developed acute mixed-pattern hepatitis after the second dose of ChAdOx1 vaccine. LTT performed at 2 months post-vaccination revealed reactivity to the ChAdOx1 vaccine, polysorbate 80 and mildly to PEG 2050 but not BNT162b2 vaccine. Delayed-reading IDT returned negative to both vaccines and excipients. He tolerated BNT162b2 vaccination with no adverse events. A 36-year-old woman presented with subacute morbilliform eruption and hepatitis after the first dose of BNT162b2 vaccine. LTT performed 3 months later revealed reactivity to the BNT162b2 but not PEG 2050. Repeat LTT following subsequent natural Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection revealed reactivity to ChAdOx1 and NVX-CoV2373 vaccines but not polysorbate 80. Delayed-reading IDT remained negative. She proceeded with NVX-CoV2373 vaccination with no symptom recurrence. LTT may be a useful tool in suspected COVID-19 vaccine-related DHRs. Further evaluation with a larger patient cohort is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Excipients , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/chemically induced , Lymphocyte Activation , Polysorbates , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
6.
Eur J Haematol ; 110(4): 396-406, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The immune dysregulation during SARS-CoV-2 has the potential to worsen immune homeostasis after recovery. Patients with hematological malignancies with COVID-19 have changes both in the innate and adaptive immune responses. Little is known about the severity of immune dysfunction following recovery from COVID-19 in hematological patients. METHODS: Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by FACS Canto II in 55 patients, including 42 with hematological malignancies 4-6 weeks after COVID-19. RESULTS: Hematological COVID-19 convalescents had deep reduction in CD3+ T cells, including helper T cells (CD3 + CD4+), naïve helper T cells (CD3 + CD4 + CD45RA+), and memory CD4+ T cells among with extremely low levels of Treg cells and decreased expression of both TCRα/ß and TCRγ/δ. Severe immune dysregulation in hematological convalescents was expressed by increased activation of T lymphocytes, both as elevated levels of activated T cells (CD3 + HLA-DR+) and activated cytotoxic T cells (CD3 + CD8 + HLA-DR+). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed a profound impairment of the adaptive immune response in hematological convalescents which might be a result of persistent activation of T cells. Convalescents with lymphoid malignancies showed more pronounced depletion of key T lymphocytes subpopulations in creating an effective adaptive response and immune memory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2 , Lymphocyte Activation , HLA-DR Antigens/analysis , Adaptive Immunity
7.
J Immunol ; 208(3): 685-696, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257803

ABSTRACT

Immune response dysregulation plays a key role in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis. In this study, we evaluated immune and endothelial blood cell profiles of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to determine critical differences between those with mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19 using spectral flow cytometry. We examined a suite of immune phenotypes, including monocytes, T cells, NK cells, B cells, endothelial cells, and neutrophils, alongside surface and intracellular markers of activation. Our results showed progressive lymphopenia and depletion of T cell subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) in patients with severe disease and a significant increase in the CD56+CD14+Ki67+IFN-γ+ monocyte population in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 that has not been previously described. Enhanced circulating endothelial cells (CD45-CD31+CD34+CD146+), circulating endothelial progenitors (CD45-CD31+CD34+/-CD146-), and neutrophils (CD11b+CD66b+) were coevaluated for COVID-19 severity. Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated the synergism among age, obesity, and hypertension with upregulated CD56+ monocytes, endothelial cells, and decreased T cells that lead to severe outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Circulating monocytes and endothelial cells may represent important cellular markers for monitoring postacute sequelae and impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection during convalescence and for their role in immune host defense in high-risk adults after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , CD56 Antigen/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Endothelial Cells/chemistry , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/chemistry , Neutrophils/immunology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/immunology , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1049070, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198889

ABSTRACT

Despite the development of vaccines, which protect healthy people from severe and life-threatening Covid-19, the immunological responses of people with secondary immunodeficiencies to these vaccines remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in a cohort of people living with HIV (PLWH) receiving anti-retroviral therapy. While antibody responses in PLWH increased progressively after each vaccination, they were significantly reduced compared to the HIV-negative control group. This was particularly noteworthy for the Delta and Omicron variants. In contrast, CD4+ Th cell responses exhibited a vaccination-dependent increase, which was comparable in both groups. Interestingly, CD4+ T cell activation negatively correlated with the CD4 to CD8 ratio, indicating that low CD4+ T cell numbers do not necessarily interfere with cellular immune responses. Our data demonstrate that despite the lower CD4+ T cell counts SARS-CoV-2 vaccination results in potent cellular immune responses in PLWH. However, the reduced humoral response also provides strong evidence to consider PLWH as vulnerable group and suggests subsequent vaccinations being required to enhance their protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Lymphocyte Activation
9.
Clin Immunol ; 246: 109209, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158591

ABSTRACT

Children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) develop less severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than adults. The mechanisms for the age-specific differences and the implications for infection-induced immunity are beginning to be uncovered. We show by longitudinal multimodal analysis that SARS-CoV-2 leaves a small footprint in the circulating T cell compartment in children with mild/asymptomatic COVID-19 compared to adult household contacts with the same disease severity who had more evidence of systemic T cell interferon activation, cytotoxicity and exhaustion. Children harbored diverse polyclonal SARS-CoV-2-specific naïve T cells whereas adults harbored clonally expanded SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells. A novel population of naïve interferon-activated T cells is expanded in acute COVID-19 and is recruited into the memory compartment during convalescence in adults but not children. This was associated with the development of robust CD4+ memory T cell responses in adults but not children. These data suggest that rapid clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in children may compromise their cellular immunity and ability to resist reinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Immunity, Cellular , Lymphocyte Activation , Antibodies, Viral
10.
J Intern Med ; 292(5): 816-828, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: T-cell activation is associated with an adverse outcome in COVID-19, but whether T-cell activation and exhaustion relate to persistent respiratory dysfunction and death is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether T-cell activation and exhaustion persist and are associated with prolonged respiratory dysfunction and death after hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: Plasma and serum from two Norwegian cohorts of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (n = 414) were analyzed for soluble (s) markers of T-cell activation (sCD25) and exhaustion (sTim-3) during hospitalization and follow-up. RESULTS: Both markers were strongly associated with acute respiratory failure, but only sTim-3 was independently associated with 60-day mortality. Levels of sTim-3 remained elevated 3 and 12 months after hospitalization and were associated with pulmonary radiological pathology after 3 months. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest prolonged T-cell exhaustion is an important immunological sequela, potentially related to long-term outcomes after severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes
11.
J Exp Med ; 219(2)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984990

ABSTRACT

In rare instances, pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a novel immunodysregulation syndrome termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We compared MIS-C immunopathology with severe COVID-19 in adults. MIS-C does not result in pneumocyte damage but is associated with vascular endotheliitis and gastrointestinal epithelial injury. In MIS-C, the cytokine release syndrome is characterized by IFNγ and not type I interferon. Persistence of patrolling monocytes differentiates MIS-C from severe COVID-19, which is dominated by HLA-DRlo classical monocytes. IFNγ levels correlate with granzyme B production in CD16+ NK cells and TIM3 expression on CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Single-cell TCR profiling reveals a skewed TCRß repertoire enriched for TRBV11-2 and a superantigenic signature in TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Using NicheNet, we confirm IFNγ as a central cytokine in the communication between TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells, CD16+ NK cells, and patrolling monocytes. Normalization of IFNγ, loss of TIM3, quiescence of CD16+ NK cells, and contraction of patrolling monocytes upon clinical resolution highlight their potential role in MIS-C immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Blood Vessels/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Child , Cohort Studies , Complement Activation , Cytokines/metabolism , Enterocytes/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Inflammation/pathology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interleukin-15/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Superantigens/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 889813, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974656

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by the human pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has resulted in widespread morbidity and mortality. CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and neutralizing antibodies all contribute to control SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, heterogeneity is a major factor in disease severity and in immune innate and adaptive responses to SARS-CoV-2. We performed a deep analysis by flow cytometry of lymphocyte populations of 125 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected patients on the day of hospital admission. Five clusters of patients were identified using hierarchical classification on the basis of their immunophenotypic profile, with different mortality outcomes. Some characteristics were observed in all the clusters of patients, such as lymphopenia and an elevated level of effector CD8+CCR7- T cells. However, low levels of T cell activation are associated to a better disease outcome; on the other hand, profound CD8+ T-cell lymphopenia, a high level of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation and a high level of CD8+ T-cell senescence are associated with a higher mortality outcome. Furthermore, a cluster of patient was characterized by high B-cell responses with an extremely high level of plasmablasts. Our study points out the prognostic value of lymphocyte parameters such as T-cell activation and senescence and strengthen the interest in treating the patients early in course of the disease with targeted immunomodulatory therapies based on the type of adaptive response of each patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphocyte Subsets , Lymphopenia , B-Lymphocytes , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphopenia/virology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 947549, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969022

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV2 infection in pregnancy and exposed newborns is poorly known. We performed a longitudinal analysis of immune system and determined soluble cytokine levels in pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV2 and in their newborns. Women with confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection and their exposed uninfected newborns were recruited from Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), cord cells and plasma were collected at birth and 6 months later. Immunophenotyping of natural killer (NK), monocytes and CD4/CD8 T-cells were studied in cryopreserved PBMCs and cord cells by multiparametric flow cytometry. Up to 4 soluble pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines were assessed in plasma/cord plasma by ELISA assay. SARS-CoV2-infected mothers and their newborns were compared to matched healthy non-SARS-CoV2-infected mothers and their newborns. The TNFα and IL-10 levels of infected mothers were higher at baseline than those of healthy controls. Infected mothers showed increased NK cells activation and reduced expression of maturation markers that reverted after 6 months. They also had high levels of Central Memory and low Effector Memory CD4-T cell subsets. Additionally, the increased CD4- and CD8-T cell activation (CD154 and CD38) and exhaustion (TIM3/TIGIT) levels at baseline compared to controls remained elevated after 6 months. Regarding Treg cells, the levels were lower at infected mothers at baseline but reverted after 6 months. No newborn was infected at birth. The lower levels of monocytes, NK and CD4-T cells observed at SARS-CoV2-exposed newborns compared to unexposed controls significantly increased 6 months later. In conclusion, SARS-CoV2 infection during pregnancy shows differences in immunological components that could lead newborns to future clinical implications after birth. However, SARS-CoV2 exposed 6-months-old newborns showed no immune misbalance, whereas the infected mothers maintain increased activation and exhaustion levels in T-cells after 6 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immune System Diseases , Pregnancy Complications , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines , Female , Humans , Immune System Diseases/etiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Lymphocyte Activation , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/virology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(12)2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896884

ABSTRACT

NK degranulation plays an important role in the cytotoxic activity of innate immunity in the clearance of intracellular infections and is an important factor in the outcome of the disease. This work has studied NK degranulation and innate immunological profiles and functionalities in COVID-19 patients and its association with the severity of the disease. A prospective observational study with 99 COVID-19 patients was conducted. Patients were grouped according to hospital requirements and severity. Innate immune cell subpopulations and functionalities were analyzed. The profile and functionality of innate immune cells differ between healthy controls and severe patients; CD56dim NK cells increased and MAIT cells and NK degranulation rates decreased in the COVID-19 subjects. Higher degranulation rates were observed in the non-severe patients and in the healthy controls compared to the severe patients. Benign forms of the disease had a higher granzymeA/granzymeB ratio than complex forms. In a multivariate analysis, the degranulation capacity resulted in a protective factor against severe forms of the disease (OR: 0.86), whereas the permanent expression of NKG2D in NKT cells was an independent risk factor (OR: 3.81; AUC: 0.84). In conclusion, a prompt and efficient degranulation functionality in the early stages of infection could be used as a tool to identify patients who will have a better evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Natural Killer T-Cells , Cell Degranulation , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocyte Activation
16.
Nat Immunol ; 23(5): 649-651, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873527
17.
Nat Immunol ; 23(5): 645, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860384
18.
Crit Rev Immunol ; 41(5): 19-35, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847005

ABSTRACT

Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells were first identified as specific for bacterial, mycobacterial, and fungal organisms, which detect microbially-derived biosynthetic ligands presented by MHC-related protein 1 (MR1). More recently two unexpected, additional roles have been identified for these ancient and abundant cells: a TCR-depen-dent role in tissue repair and a TCR-independent role in antiviral host defence. Data from several classes of viral disease shows their capability for activation by the cytokines interleukin (IL)-12, IL-15, IL-18, and type I interferon. MAIT cells are abundant at mucosal surfaces, particularly in the lung, and it seems likely a primary reason for their striking evolutionary conservation is an important role in early innate defence against respiratory infections, including both bacteria and viruses. Here we review evidence for their TCR-independent activation, observational human data for their activation in influenza A virus, and in vivo murine evidence of their protection against severe influenza A infection, mediated at least partially via IFN-gamma. We then survey evidence emerging from other respiratory viral infections including recent evidence for an important adjuvant role in adenovirus infection, specifically chimpanzee adenoviruses used in recent coronavirus vaccines, and data for strong associations between MAIT cell responses and adverse outcomes from coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) disease. We speculate on potential translational implications of these findings, either using corticosteroids or inhibitory ligands to suppress deleterious MAIT cell responses, or the potential utility of stimulatory MR1 ligands to boost MAIT cell frequencies to enhance innate viral defences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Animals , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Mice
19.
J Infect Dis ; 226(4): 753-754, 2022 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816124
20.
J Infect Dis ; 226(4): 751-752, 2022 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816123
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