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1.
J Int Med Res ; 48(8): 300060520949039, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We analyzed the electronic medical records of 405 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in the Third Hospital of Wuhan. RESULTS: The patients' median age was 56 years, 54.1% were female, 11.4% had a history of smoking, and 10.6% had a history of drinking. All cases of COVID-19 were community-acquired. Fever (76.8%) and cough (53.3%) were the most common clinical manifestations, and circulatory system diseases were the most common comorbidities. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 61.2% of the patients, and 2.9% of the patients were asymptomatic. Computed tomography showed ground-glass opacities in most patients (72.6%) and consolidation in 30.9%. Lymphopenia (72.3%) and hypoproteinemia (71.6%) were observed in most patients. About 20% of patients had abnormal liver function. Patients with severe disease had significantly more prominent laboratory abnormalities, including an abnormal lymphocyte count and abnormal C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, D-dimer, and albumin levels. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 causes a variety of severe respiratory illnesses similar to those caused by SARS-CoV-1. Older age, chronic comorbidities, and laboratory abnormalities are associated with disease severity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/physiology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , China , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/pathology , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
2.
JCI Insight ; 5(13)2020 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDFatal cases of COVID-19 are increasing globally. We retrospectively investigated the potential of immunologic parameters as early predictors of COVID-19.METHODSA total of 1018 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in our 2-center retrospective study. Clinical feature, laboratory test, immunological test, radiological findings, and outcomes data were collected. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and survival curves were plotted to evaluate their clinical utility.RESULTSThe counts of all T lymphocyte subsets were markedly lower in nonsurvivors than in survivors, especially CD8+ T cells. Among all tested cytokines, IL-6 was elevated most significantly, with an upward trend of more than 10-fold. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, IL-6 levels of more than 20 pg/mL and CD8+ T cell counts of less than 165 cells/µL were found to be associated with in-hospital mortality after adjusting for confounding factors. Groups with IL-6 levels of more than 20 pg/mL and CD8+ T cell counts of less than 165 cells/µL had a higher percentage of older and male patients as well as a higher proportion of patients with comorbidities, ventilation, intensive care unit admission, shock, and death. Furthermore, the receiver operating curve of the model combining IL-6 (>20 pg/mL) and CD8+ T cell counts (<165 cells/µL) displayed a more favorable discrimination than that of the CURB-65 score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed a good fit of the model, with no statistical significance.CONCLUSIONIL-6 (>20 pg/mL) and CD8+ T cell counts (<165 cells/µL) are 2 reliable prognostic indicators that accurately stratify patients into risk categories and predict COVID-19 mortality.FundingThis work was supported by funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 81772477 and 81201848).


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Hospital Mortality , Interleukin-6/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Aged , Area Under Curve , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-8/immunology , Logistic Models , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Receptors, Interleukin-2/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
3.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 361, 2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory disease. No therapeutics have yet been proven effective for treating severe COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion may be effective and safe for the treatment of severe COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with severe COVID-19 were randomly divided into 2 groups: the standard treatment group and the standard treatment plus hUC-MSC infusion group. The incidence of progression from severe to critical illness, 28-day mortality, clinical symptom improvement, time to clinical symptom improvement, hematologic indicators including C-reactive protein, lymphocyte number, and interleukin 6, and imaging changes were observed and compared between the two groups. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The incidence of progression from severe to critical illness and the 28-day mortality rate were 0 in the hUC-MSC treatment group, while 4 patients in the control group deteriorated to critical condition and received invasive ventilation; 3 of them died, and the 28-day mortality rate was 10.34%. In the hUC-MSC treatment group, the time to clinical improvement was shorter than that in the control group. Clinical symptoms of weakness and fatigue, shortness of breath, and low oxygen saturation obviously improved beginning on the third day of stem cell infusion and reached a significant difference on day 7. CRP and IL-6 levels were significantly lower from day 3 of infusion, the time for the lymphocyte count to return to the normal range was significantly faster, and lung inflammation absorption was significantly shorter on CT imaging in the hUC-MSC group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous transplantation of hUC-MSCs is a safe and effective method that can be considered a salvage and priority treatment option for severe COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registration; ChiCTR2000031494; Registered on 2 April 2020; http:// www.medresman.org.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Umbilical Cord/cytology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , China , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Survival Rate , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transplantation, Homologous , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The inflammatory pathology observed in severe COVID-19 disease caused by the 2019 novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by elevated serum levels of C reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines, including interferon gamma, interleukin 8 (IL-8), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Initial reports from the outbreak in Italy, China and the USA have provided anecdotal evidence of improved outcomes with the administration of anti-IL-6 agents, and large-scale trials evaluating these therapies are ongoing. STUDY DESCRIPTION: In this retrospective case series, clinical outcomes and correlates of response to treatment with the IL-6 receptor antagonist sarilumab are described for 15 patients with COVID-19 from a single institution in Southern Italy. Among 10 patients whose symptoms improved after sarilumab treatment, rapid decreases in CRP levels corresponded with clinical improvement. Lower levels of IL-6 at baseline as well as lower neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio as compared with patients whose COVID-19 did not improve with treatment were associated with sarilumab-responsive disease. CONCLUSIONS: This observation may reflect a possible clinical benefit regarding early intervention with IL-6-modulatory therapies for COVID-19 and that CRP could be a potential biomarker of response to treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Biomarkers, Pharmacological/blood , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Italy , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e175, 2020 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-711979

ABSTRACT

Our study aimed to systematically analyse the risk factors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with severe disease. An electronic search in eight databases to identify studies describing severe or critically ill COVID-19 patients from 1 January 2020 to 3 April 2020. In the end, we meta-analysed 40 studies involving 5872 COVID-19 patients. The average age was higher in severe COVID-19 patients (weighted mean difference; WMD = 10.69, 95%CI 7.83-13.54). Patients with severe disease showed significantly lower platelet count (WMD = -18.63, 95%CI -30.86 to -6.40) and lymphocyte count (WMD = -0.35, 95%CI -0.41 to -0.30) but higher C-reactive protein (CRP; WMD = 42.7, 95%CI 31.12-54.28), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; WMD = 137.4, 95%CI 105.5-169.3), white blood cell count(WBC), procalcitonin(PCT), D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatinine(Cr). Similarly, patients who died showed significantly higher WBC, D-dimer, ALT, AST and Cr but similar platelet count and LDH as patients who survived. These results indicate that older age, low platelet count, lymphopenia, elevated levels of LDH, ALT, AST, PCT, Cr and D-dimer are associated with severity of COVID-19 and thus could be used as early identification or even prediction of disease progression.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Age Factors , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Creatinine/blood , Critical Illness , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Procalcitonin/blood , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia/blood
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13689, 2020 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-711912

ABSTRACT

To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Beijing. To analyze the application of corticosteroids in patients with severe pneumonia. We collected information on demographic characteristics, exposure history, clinical characteristics, corticosteroids use, and outcomes of the 65 confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Fifth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital from Jan 20 to Feb 23, 2020. The final follow-up date observed was April 15th, 2020. The number of patients with mild, general, severe, and critical type were 10 (15.38%), 32 (49.23%), 8 (12.31%), and 15 (23.08%), respectively. The median incubation period was 6 days. Notable outliers were 1 patient at 16 days and 1 patient at 21 days. In lymphocyte subgroup analysis, decreases in total, T, CD4, and CD8 lymphocytes were more common as the disease worsened (All P < 0.05). Methylprednisolone (mPSL) was applied to 31 (47.69%) patients with pneumonia, including 10 (31.25%) general, 8 (100%) severe, and 13 (86.67%) critical patients, respectively. Corticosteroids inhibited Interleukin-6(IL-6) production (P = 0.0215) but did not affect T lymphocyte (P = 0.0796). There was no significant difference between patients using lower dose (≤ 2 mg/kg day) and higher dose (> 2 mg/kg day) mPSL in inhibiting IL-6 production (P = 0.5856). Thirty of 31 patients (96.77%) had stopped mPSL due to improvement of pneumonia. Virus RNA clearance time lengthened with disease progression (P = 0.0001). In general type, there was no significant difference in virus clearance time between patients with (15, 12-19 days) and without (14.5, 11-18 days) (P = 0.7372) mPSL use. Lymphocyte, especially T lymphocyte, in severe and critical patients showed a dramatic decrease. Application of lower dose corticosteroids (≤ 2 mg/kg day) could inhibit IL-6 production (a representative of cytokines) as effectively as a higher dose. Proper use corticosteroids in general type patients did not delay virus clearance.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Beijing/epidemiology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Humans , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/pharmacology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 404, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705170

ABSTRACT

Background: The ABO blood group system has been associated with multiple infectious diseases, including hepatitis B, dengue haemorrhagic fever and so on. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new respiratory infectious disease and the relationship between COVID-19 and ABO blood group system needs to be explored urgently. Methods: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from 1 January 2020 to 5 March 2020. A total of 105 COVID-19 cases and 103 controls were included. The blood group frequency was tested with the chi-square statistic, and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between cases and controls. In addition, according to gender, the studied population was divided into two subgroups, and we assessed the association between cases and controls by gender. Finally, considering lymphopenia as a feature of COVID-19, the relationship between the ABO blood group and the lymphocyte count was determined in case samples. Results: The frequencies of blood types A, B, AB, and O were 42.8, 26.7, 8.57, and 21.9%, respectively, in the case group. Association analysis between the ABO blood group and COVID-19 indicated that there was a statistically significant difference for blood type A (P = 0.04, OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.02-1.73) but not for blood types B, AB or O (P = 0.48, OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.66-1.23; P = 0.61, OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.53-1.46; and P = 0.23, OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.58-1.15, respectively). An analysis stratified by gender revealed that the association was highly significant between blood type A in the female subgroup (P = 0.02, OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.08-2.27) but not in the male subgroup (P = 0.51, OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.78-1.67). The average level of lymphocyte count was the lowest with blood type A in patients, however, compared with other blood types, there was still no significant statistical difference. Conclusions: Our findings provide epidemiological evidence that females with blood type A are susceptible to COVID-19. However, these research results need to be validated in future studies.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Lymphopenia/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Case-Control Studies , Disease Susceptibility/blood , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 584, 2020 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major health event that endangers people health throughout China and the world. Understanding the factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity could support the early identification of patients with high risk for disease progression, inform prevention and control activities, and potentially reduce mortality. This study aims to describe the characteristics of patients with COVID-19 and factors associated with severe or critically ill presentation in Jiangsu province, China. METHODS: Multicentre retrospective cohort study of all individuals with confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections diagnosed at 24 COVID-19-designated hospitals in Jiangsu province between the 10th January and 15th March 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were collected at hospital admission and data on disease severity were collected during follow-up. Patients were categorised as asymptomatic/mild/moderate, and severe/critically ill according to the worst level of COVID-19 recorded during hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 625 patients, 64 (10.2%) were severe/critically ill and 561 (89.8%) were asymptomatic/mild/moderate. All patients were discharged and no patients died. Patients with severe/critically ill COVID-19 were more likely to be older, to be single onset (i.e. not belong to a cluster of cases in a family/community, etc.), to have a medical history of hypertension and diabetes; had higher temperature, faster respiratory rates, lower peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2), and higher computer tomography (CT) image quadrant scores and pulmonary opacity percentage; had increased C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and D-dimer on admission; and had lower white blood cells, lymphocyte, and platelet counts and albumin on admission than asymptomatic/mild/moderate cases. Multivariable regression showed that odds of being a severe/critically ill case were associated with age (year) (OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.03-1.09), lymphocyte count (109/L) (OR 0.25, 95%CI 0.08-0.74), and pulmonary opacity in CT (per 5%) on admission (OR 1.31, 95%CI 1.15-1.51). CONCLUSIONS: Severe or critically ill patients with COVID-19 is about one-tenths of patients in Jiangsu. Age, lymphocyte count, and pulmonary opacity in CT on admission were associated with risk of severe or critically ill COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aging , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Lymphocyte Count , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(14): 7826-7833, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693444

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is seriously threatening the health of people all over China and the world. This study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients admitted at different time periods. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 132 discharged cases and 10 deaths of laboratory or clinically confirmed cases were retrospectively collected from The First People's Hospital of Jingzhou, Hubei. All cases were divided into two groups according to different admission times (group 1 from 2020-1-23 to 2020-2-3 and group 2 from 2020-2-4 to 2020-2-15). Individual data, clinical data, laboratory indices and prognosis were collected for the two groups, and statistical analysis was performed using the t-test or chi-square test to assess differences between the groups. RESULTS: Among the 142 cases, there were 67 in the first group and 75 in the second group. According to the individual data and clinical manifestations of the two groups, the hospital stay in the first group was significantly longer than that of the second group (26 [9-39] compared with 20 [6-30], p=0.000). There were more clinical symptoms upon admission in group 1 than in group 2; although 66.2% of all patients had fever, the proportion of patients with fever on admission in the first group was significantly higher than that in the second group (79.1% compared with 54.7%, p=0.002). The proportion of patients with chills in the first group was higher than that in the second group (16.4% compared with 5.3%, p=0.032), and the proportion of patients with dyspnea was also higher than that in the second group (17.9% compared with 4%, p=0.007). Four of the 67 patients in the first group had symptoms of ocular discomfort, but none in the second group had this symptom (6.0% compared with 0, p=0.032). Based on laboratory examination, the inflammatory index of patients in the first group was higher than that in the second group, and the proportion of patients with a C-reactive protein (CRP) increase was also significantly higher (60% compared with 38.7%, p=0.020). The main difference in routine blood tests involved white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and the lymphocyte percentage. The proportion of patients with reduced white blood cell counts in the first group was higher than that in the second group (23.9% compared with 10.7% p=0.036). Moreover, more patients in the first group had a reduced lymphocyte count and percentage (71.6% compared with 30.7% p=0.000; 49.3% compared with 29.7% p=0.015, respectively), and the former was significantly lower than that in the second group (0.94 [0.24-2.42] compared with 1.365 [0.22-3.62], p=0.000). Regarding prognosis, the proportion of severe cases and mortality in the first group were slightly higher than in the second group (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical manifestations, blood changes and outcomes differed in patients admitted at different time periods. In the second group of patients, clinical symptoms were less common than in the first group, routine blood changes and inflammatory indices were milder, and the clinical prognosis was better.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Young Adult
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(14): 7861-7868, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since December 2019, when the first SARS-CoV2 infections have been reported, the number of cases has increased exponentially. In our University Hospital Unit, the first patient with COVID-19 was admitted on the 8th of March 2020. We aimed to investigate the predictors of death among inpatients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective, monocentric study, consecutively enrolling patients with SARS-CoV2 infection. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were collected from the 8th of March to the 8th of April 2020. We aimed to describe the most frequent clinical and laboratory features and predictors of death among patients admitted to our Unit. RESULTS: 87 patients were enrolled, 56 (64.4%) were male, with a median age of 72 (IQR 62.5-83.5) years. The majority of our population had at least one comorbidity in their medical anamnesis. Hypertension and cardiovascular disease were the most frequent, followed by obesity. Eighty (92%) patients had at least one symptom, whereas 7 (8%) were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were fever and dyspnoea. Overall, 53 patients had lung disease confirmed at CT scan (60.9%). Twenty-five (28.7%) deaths occurred. Statistically significant predictors of death at multivariate analysis were lymphocytes count <900 cells/mm3, moderate ARDS, and lack of compliance at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first Italian experience available. Our results seem to be in line with international literature. As highlighted by our data, more studies are needed to investigate the role of lymphocytes subsets, CT scan values. Furthermore, therapy choice and timing in this challenging setting should be urgently investigated in randomized clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Proportional Hazards Models , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(14): 13849-13859, 2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690759

ABSTRACT

This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the correlation of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with critical illness in older patients with COVID-19, and evaluate the prognostic power of the NLR at admission. We enrolled 232 patients with COVID-19, aged ≥60 y, in Zhejiang province from January 17 to March 3, 2020. Primary outcomes were evaluated until April 13. Cox regression was performed for prognostic factors. Twenty-nine (12.5%) patients progressed to critical illness. Age, shortness of breath, comorbidities including hypertension, heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, higher NLR, lower albumin levels, and multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity were associated with progression. In the multivariate analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.121, confidence interval [CI] 1.070-1.174, P<0.001), heart disease (HR 2.587, CI 1.156-5.787, P=0.021), higher NLR (HR 1.136, CI 1.094-1.180, P < 0.001), and multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity (HR 4.518, CI 1.906-10.712, P<0.001) remained critical illness predictors. The NLR was independently associated with progression to critical illness; the relationship was significant and graded (HR: 1.16 per unit; 95% CI: 1.10-1.22; P for trend < 0.001). Therefore, NLR can be adopted as a prognostic tool to assist healthcare providers predict the clinical outcomes of older patients suffering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Critical Illness , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
J Infect Dis ; 221(11): 1762-1769, 2020 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan and has since rapidly spread throughout China. We aimed to clarify the characteristics and clinical significance of peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration in COVID-19. METHODS: The levels of peripheral lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry in 60 hospitalized COVID-19 patients before and after treatment, and their association with clinical characteristics and treatment efficacy was analyzed. RESULTS: Total lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells decreased in COVID-19 patients, and severe cases had a lower level than mild cases. The subsets showed a significant association with inflammatory status in COVID-19, especially CD8+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ ratio. After treatment, 37 patients (67%) showed clinical response, with an increase in CD8+ T cells and B cells. No significant change in any subset was detected in nonresponsive cases. In multivariate analysis, posttreatment decrease in CD8+ T cells and B cells and increase in CD4+/CD8+ ratio were indicated as independent predictors of poor efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration was associated with clinical characteristics and treatment efficacy of COVID-19. CD8+ T cells tended to be an independent predictor for COVID-19 severity and treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Lymphocyte Subsets , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670344

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2 (CoV) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV2) is causing a highly infectious pandemic pneumonia. Coronaviruses are positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses that infect several animal species, causing symptoms that range from those similar to the common cold to severe respiratory syndrome. The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the SARS-CoV2 functional receptor. Measures are currently undertaken worldwide to control the infection to avoid disruption of the social and economic equilibrium, especially in countries with poor healthcare resources. In a guarded optimistic view, we hope that the undertaken preventive and treatment measures will at least contribute to contain viral diffusion, attenuate activity, or even eliminate SARS-CoV2. In this review, we discuss emerging perspectives for prevention/treatment of COVID-19 infection. In addition to vaccines under development, passive immunization is an open opportunity since patients develop neutralizing antibodies. A full spectrum of potential drugs for COVID-19 infections could in turn affect virus binding or enzymatic activities involved in viral replication and transcription. Furthermore, clinical trials are currently evaluating the safety and efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs, such as tocilizumab. Bioinformatics may allow characterization of specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses; thus, CoV2 T cells' frequency can be correlated with the disease severity and outcome. Combinatorial antibody phage display may be empowered to identify the immune repertoire of CoV2-specific neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections , Immunization, Passive/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , A549 Cells , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 519, 2020 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan and has quickly spread across the world. The mortality rate in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is high. This study analyzed clinical and biochemical parameters between mild and severe patients, helping to identify severe or critical patients early. METHODS: In this single center, cross-sectional study, 143 patients were included and divided to mild/moderate and sever/critical groups. Correlation between the disease criticality and clinical features and peripheral blood biochemical markers was analyzed. Cut-off values for critically ill patients were speculated through the ROC curve. RESULTS: Significantly, disease severity was associated with age (r = 0.458, P < 0.001), comorbidities (r = 0.445, P < 0.001), white cell count (r = 0.229, P = 0.006), neutrophil count (r = 0.238, P = 0.004), lymphocyte count (r = - 0.295, P < 0.001), albumin (r = - 0.603, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = - 0.362, P < 0.001), serum potassium (r = - 0.237, P = 0.004), plasma glucose (r = 0.383, P < 0.001), total bilirubin (r = 0.340, P < 0.001), serum amyloid A (r = 0.58, P < 0.001), procalcitonin (r = 0.345, P < 0.001), C-reactive protein (r = 0.477, P < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.548, P < 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.342, P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.264, P = 0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.284, P = 0.001) and D-dimer (r = 0.477, P < 0.001) . CONCLUSIONS: With the following parameters such as age > 52 years, C-reactive protein > 64.79 mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase > 245 U/L, D-dimer > 0.96 µg/mL, serum amyloid A > 100.02 mg/L, or albumin < 36 g/L, the progress of COVID-19 to critical stage should be closely observed and possibly prevented. Lymphocyte count, serum potassium, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and procalcitonin may also be a prognostic indicator.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , China/epidemiology , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Potassium/blood , Procalcitonin/blood
17.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646575

ABSTRACT

Although critical illness has been associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperinflammation, the immune correlates of severe COVID-19 remain unclear. Here, we comprehensively analyzed peripheral blood immune perturbations in 42 SARS-CoV-2 infected and recovered individuals. We identified extensive induction and activation of multiple immune lineages, including T cell activation, oligoclonal plasmablast expansion, and Fc and trafficking receptor modulation on innate lymphocytes and granulocytes, that distinguished severe COVID-19 cases from healthy donors or SARS-CoV-2-recovered or moderate severity patients. We found the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio to be a prognostic biomarker of disease severity and organ failure. Our findings demonstrate broad innate and adaptive leukocyte perturbations that distinguish dysregulated host responses in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and warrant therapeutic investigation.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , Clonal Selection, Antigen-Mediated/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(14)2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646402

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The global threat of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues. The diversity of clinical characteristics and progress are reported in many countries as the duration of the pandemic is prolonged. We aimed to perform a novel systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on findings about correlations between clinical characteristics and laboratory features of patients with COVID-19. (2) Methods: We analyzed cases of COVID-19 in different countries by searching PubMed, Embase, Web of Science databases and Google Scholar, from the early stage of the outbreak to late March. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and treatment strategies were retrospectively reviewed for the analysis. (3) Results: Thirty-seven (n = 5196 participants) COVID-19-related studies were eligible for this systematic review and meta-analysis. Fever, cough and fatigue/myalgia were the most common symptoms of COVID-19, followed by some gastrointestinal symptoms which are also reported frequently. Laboratory markers of inflammation and infection including C-reactive protein (CRP) (65% (95% confidence interval (CI) 56-81%)) were elevated, while lymphocyte counts were decreased (63% (95% CI 47-78%)). Meta-analysis of treatment approaches indicated that three modalities of treatment were predominantly used in the majority of patients with a similar prevalence, including antiviral agents (79%), antibiotics (78%), and oxygen therapy (77%). Age was negatively correlated with number of lymphocytes, but positively correlated with dyspnea, number of white blood cells, neutrophils, and D-dimer. Chills had been proved to be positively correlated with chest tightness, lung abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) scans, neutrophil/lymphocyte/platelets count, D-dimer and CRP, cough was positively correlated with sputum production, and pulmonary abnormalities were positively correlated with CRP. White blood cell (WBC) count was also positively correlated with platelet counts, dyspnea, and neutrophil counts with the respective correlations of 0.668, 0.728, and 0.696. (4) Conclusions: This paper is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to reveal the relationship between various variables of clinical characteristics, symptoms and laboratory results with the largest number of papers and patients until now. In elderly patients, laboratory and clinical characteristics indicate a more severe disease course. Moreover, treatments such as antiviral agents, antibiotics, and oxygen therapy which are used in over three quarters of patients are also analyzed. The results will provide "evidence-based hope" on how to manage this unanticipated and overwhelming pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Chills/virology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Pandemics , Platelet Count
20.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e139, 2020 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639292

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, cases of severe coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection rapidly progressed to acute respiratory failure. This study aims to assess the association between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 210 patients with COVID-19 infection who were admitted to the Central Hospital of Wuhan from 27 January 2020 to 9 March 2020. Peripheral blood samples were collected and examined for lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry. Associations between tertiles of NLR and the incidence of severe illness were analysed by logistic regression.Of the 210 patients with COVID-19, 87 were diagnosed as severe cases. The mean NLR of the severe group was higher than that of the mild group (6.6 vs. 3.3, P < 0.001). The highest tertile of NLR (5.1-19.7) exhibited a 5.9-fold (95% CI 1.3-28.5) increased incidence of severity relative to that of the lowest tertile (0.6-2.5) after adjustments for age, diabetes, hypertension and other confounders. The number of T cells significantly decreased in the severe group (0.5 vs. 0.9, P < 0.001). COVID-19 might mainly act on lymphocytes, particularly T lymphocytes. NLR was identified as an early risk factor for severe COVID-19 illness. Patients with increased NLR should be admitted to an isolation ward with respiratory monitoring and supportive care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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