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1.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 136-147, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201741

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: The COVID-19 disease profile in Indian patients has been found to be different from the Western world. Changes in lymphocyte compartment have been correlated with disease course, illness severity and clinical outcome. This study was aimed to assess the peripheral lymphocyte phenotype and subset distribution in patients with COVID-19 disease from India with differential clinical manifestations. Methods: Percentages of peripheral lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry in hospitalized asymptomatic (n=53), mild symptomatic (n=36), moderate and severe (n=30) patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, recovered individuals (n=40) and uninfected controls (n=56) from Pune, Maharashtra, India. Results: Percentages of CD4+Th cells were significantly high in asymptomatic, mild symptomatic, moderate and severe patients and recovered individuals compared to controls. Percentages of Th memory (CD3+CD4+CD45RO+), Tc memory (CD3+CD8+CD45RO+) and B memory (CD19+CD27+) cells were significantly higher in the recovered group compared to both asymptomatic, mild symptomatic patient and uninfected control groups. NK cell (CD56+CD3-) percentages were comparable among moderate +severe patient and uninfected control groups. Interpretation & conclusions: The observed lower CD4+Th cells in moderate+severe group requiring oxygen support compared to asymptomatic+mild symptomatic group not requiring oxygen support could be indicative of poor prognosis. Higher Th memory, Tc memory and B memory cells in the recovered group compared to mild symptomatic patient groups might be markers of recovery from mild infection; however, it remains to be established if the persistence of any of these cells could be considered as a correlate of protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , India/epidemiology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets , Oxygen , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 899930, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141914

ABSTRACT

Background: Cellular immunodeficiency and comorbidities are common in COVID-19 patients. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate comorbidities impacting on the cellular immunity in COVID-19 patients. Methods: The research objects included 55 healthy controls and 718 COVID-19 patients who divided into the control group and the COVID-19 group, respectively. Those in the COVID-19 group were divided into subgroups on the basis of the number and types of comorbidities present. Lymphocyte itself and its subsets were compared between the control group and the COVID-19 group, the groups with comorbidities based on the different number and types of comorbidities, and the relationship between the lymphocyte counts and subsets with the number and types of comorbidities was investigated. Results: Compared with the control group, the lymphocyte counts and T cell subsets were significantly increased in the groups with comorbidities, but both B and NK cell subsets were significantly decreased in the no comorbidity group and in most of the groups with comorbidities (all P<0.05). In the three comorbidities group, the lymphocyte counts and T cell subsets were all significantly decreased, but the CD56+ percentage was obviously increased (all P<0.05). The number of comorbidities was negatively correlated with the lymphocyte counts and the T and NK cell subsets. A negative correlation also existed between cancer and both the lymphocyte counts and the T cell subsets, between chronic hepatitis B and the lymphocyte counts, and between chronic kidney disease and the CD3+ counts. A positive correlation existed between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) disease and both lymphocyte and CD3+ counts. The risk factors were number of comorbidities for the lymphocyte count, CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ percentages, NAFLD for the lymphocyte and CD3+ counts, cardiovascular diseases for CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ percentages, diabetes mellitus for the CD3+CD8+ percentage, and cancer for the CD3+ percentage, respectively. Conclusions: High numbers of comorbidities and specific comorbidities could impact the immune response of COVID-19 patients. This study provides a reference for clinicians in the identification of suitable and timely immunotherapy for COVID-19 patients. Clinical Trial Registry: https://www.chictr.org.cn/enindex.aspx, identifier ChiCTR2000034563.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets
3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(10): 1564-1569, 2022 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110321

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to research the effects of hematological and inflammatory parameters on the prognosis of COVID-19 disease and hospitalization duration. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and eighty-six patients with COVID-19 and a control group consisting of 187 healthy individuals were included in the study. Hematological variables and inflammatory parameters of the patients were recorded on the first and the fifth days of hospitalization. RESULTS: White blood cell count, lymphocyte count, and platelet count were statistically lower, and mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) levels were higher in the patient group compared to the control group. It was observed that the neutrophil count and MPV level were lower, and the platelet count and ferritin level were statistically higher on the fifth day of follow-up compared to the admission day. In contrast, there was a significantly positive correlation between the duration of hospitalization and the fifth day D-dimer (r = 0.546, p < 0.001) and ferritin (r = 0.568, p < 0.001); in addition, there was a negative correlation between the duration of hospitalization and admission day lymphocyte count and the fifth-day lymphocyte count. CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of ferritin and D-dimer, and decreased count of lymphocytes are among the important factors affecting the duration of hospitalization for COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we think that neutrophil count and MPV levels are low, and platelet count and ferritin levels are high during the disease. Therefore, these parameters can be used as prognostic indicators of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Platelet Count , Leukocyte Count , Mean Platelet Volume , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Ferritins
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18220, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096790

ABSTRACT

There have been numerous risk tools developed to enable triaging of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients with diverse levels of complexity. Here we presented a simplified risk-tool based on minimal parameters and chest X-ray (CXR) image data that predicts the survival of adult SARS-CoV-2 positive patients at hospital admission. We analysed the NCCID database of patient blood variables and CXR images from 19 hospitals across the UK using multivariable logistic regression. The initial dataset was non-randomly split between development and internal validation dataset with 1434 and 310 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, respectively. External validation of the final model was conducted on 741 Accident and Emergency (A&E) admissions with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection from a separate NHS Trust. The LUCAS mortality score included five strongest predictors (Lymphocyte count, Urea, C-reactive protein, Age, Sex), which are available at any point of care with rapid turnaround of results. Our simple multivariable logistic model showed high discrimination for fatal outcome with the area under the receiving operating characteristics curve (AUC-ROC) in development cohort 0.765 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.738-0.790), in internal validation cohort 0.744 (CI: 0.673-0.808), and in external validation cohort 0.752 (CI: 0.713-0.787). The discriminatory power of LUCAS increased slightly when including the CXR image data. LUCAS can be used to obtain valid predictions of mortality in patients within 60 days of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR results into low, moderate, high, or very high risk of fatality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Urea , X-Rays , Lymphocyte Count , Retrospective Studies
5.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0268712, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070753

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Available but insufficient evidence shows that changes may occur in the immune system following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The present study aimed at evaluating immunological changes in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia compared with the control group. METHOD: The present study was performed on 95 patients with COVID-19 (32 severe and 63 moderate cases) and 22 healthy controls. Relationship between immune cells, disease severity and lung involvement was assessed. Binary logistic regression and ROC curve tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A significant decrease was observed in CD20+ cell counts of the patients. To differentiate patients from healthy individuals, the cutoff point for the CD4+ cell count was 688 /µL, sensitivity 0.96, and specificity 0.84. An increase in CD4+ cells reduces the odds of severe disease (odds ratio = 0.82, P = 0.047) and death (odds ratio = 0.74, P = 0.029). CD4+ cells play a pivotal role in the severity of lung involvement (P = 0.03). In addition to CD4+ cells, Fc gamma receptor III (FcγRIII) (CD16) also played a significant prognosis (odds ratio = 0.55, P = 0.047). In severe cases, C-reactive protein, Blood urea nitrogen, and Creatine phosphokinase levels, as well as neutrophil counts, were significantly higher than those of moderate ones whereas lymphocyte count in severe cases was lower than that of moderate ones. CONCLUSION: The number of total T-cells and B-cells in patients with COVID-19 was lower than that of controls; however, their NK cells increased. FcγRIII and CD4+ cells are of great importance due to their association with COVID-19 prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(38): e30755, 2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042659

ABSTRACT

Patients with preexisting kidney disease or acute kidney injury had poorer outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. Lymphopenia was associated with more severe illness. Risk stratification with simple laboratory tests may help appropriate site patients in a cost-effective manner and ease the burden on healthcare systems. We examined a ratio of serum creatinine level to absolute lymphocyte count at presentation (creatinine-lymphocyte ratio, CLR) in predicting outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We analyzed 553 consecutive polymerase chain reaction-positive SARS-COV-2 hospitalized patients. Patients with end-stage kidney disease were excluded. Serum creatinine and full blood count (FBC) examination were obtained within the first day of admission. We examined the utility of CLR in predicting adverse clinical outcomes (requiring intensive care, mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy or death). An optimized cutoff of CLR > 77 was derived for predicting adverse outcomes (72.2% sensitivity, and 83.9% specificity). Ninety-seven patients (17.5%) fell within this cut off. These patients were older and more likely to have chronic medical conditions. A higher proportion of these patients had adverse outcomes (13.4% vs 1.1%, P < .001). On receiver operating curve analyses, CLR predicted patients who had adverse outcomes well (area under curve [AUC] = 0.82, 95%CI 0.72-0.92), which was comparable to other laboratory tests like serum ferritin, C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase. Elevated CLR on admission, which may be determined by relatively simple laboratory tests, was able to reasonably discriminate patients who had experienced adverse outcomes during their hospital stay. This may be a simple and cost-effective means of risk stratification and triage.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/therapy , Creatinine , Critical Care , Ferritins , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Lymphocyte Count , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05041, 2022 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040349

ABSTRACT

Background: Several laboratory data have been identified as predictors of disease severity or mortality in COVID-19 patients. However, the relative strength of laboratory data for the prediction of health outcomes in COVID-19 patients has not been fully explored. This meta-analytical study aimed to evaluate the prediction capabilities of laboratory data on the prognosis of COVID-19 patients during 2020 while mass vaccination has not started yet. Methods: Two electronic databases, MEDLINE and EMBASE, from inception to October 10, 2020 were searched. Observational studies of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with well-defined severity or survival status, and with the desired laboratory data at initial hospital administrations, were selected. Meta-regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations (GEE) method for clustered data was performed sequentially. Primary outcome measures were to compare the level of laboratory data and their impact on different health outcomes (severe vs non-severe, critically severe vs non-critically severe, and dead vs alive). Results: Meta-data of 13 clinical laboratory items at initial hospital presentations were extracted from 76 selected studies with a total of 26 627 COVID-19 patients in 16 countries. After adjusting for the effect of age, 1.03 0.87 (OR = 0.0576; 95% CI = 0.0043-0.4726; P = 0.0079) had a much lower risk of severity, critical severity, and mortality from COVID-19, respectively. Conclusions: Lymphocyte count was the most powerful predictor among the 13 common laboratory variables explored from COVID-19 patients to differentiate disease severity and to predict mortality. Lymphocyte count should be monitored for the prognoses of COVID-19 patients in clinical settings in particular for patients not fully vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mass Vaccination , Humans , Infant , Lymphocyte Count , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 988536, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039681

ABSTRACT

B cells secrete antibodies and mediate the humoral immune response, making them extremely important in protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, which caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In this review, we summarize the positive function and pathological response of B cells in SARS-CoV-2 infection and re-infection. Then, we structure the immunity responses that B cells mediated in peripheral tissues. Furthermore, we discuss the role of B cells during vaccination including the effectiveness of antibodies and memory B cells, viral evolution mechanisms, and future vaccine development. This review might help medical workers and researchers to have a better understanding of the interaction between B cells and SARS-CoV-2 and broaden their vision for future investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5963-5970, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026358

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 might present with multisystem involvement due to its entry into many cells with ACE2 receptors on their surfaces, such as heart, endothelial, and lung alveoli cells. Studies have indicated that COVID-19 infection causes a severe clinical presentation in diabetic patients due to dysregulation of the metabolic and immune systems. The hematological effects of COVID-19 and the relationship of lymphopenia with the severity of the disease have been reported previously. The parameter of percentage of large unstained cells (LUCs) reflects active lymphocytes and peroxidase-negative cells. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is another reliable marker of inflammation in cases of cardiac diseases, solid tumors, and sepsis. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the parameters of LUCs and NLR differed between diabetic and nondiabetic individuals with COVID-19. Associations with disease severity were also sought. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our retrospective study, the data of 1,053 patients [230 diabetic patients (21.83%) and 823 nondiabetic patients (78.15%)] were reviewed. The white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil count, neutrophil%, lymphocyte count, lymphocyte%, LUC count, %LUCs, NLR, platelet count, hemoglobin level, HbA1c, history of diabetes, surveillance during hospitalization, and pulmonary infiltration status within the first 24 hours after admission to the hospital were analyzed from the records. RESULTS: When diabetic patients were compared with nondiabetics, the age [65 (20-90) vs. 42 (18-94) years], WBC count [6.72 (2.6-24.04) vs.  5.91 (1.35-52.68)], neutrophil count [4.29 (1.28-65) vs. 3.68 (0.02-50.47)], neutrophil% [67.53±12.3 vs.  64.08±13.28], NLR [3.35 (0.83-38.11) vs. 2.48 (0.01-68.58)], and LUC count [0.11 (0.03-0.98) vs. 0.1 (0.02-3.06)] of the diabetic group were found to be higher and these differences were statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, and p=0.015, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We determined that LUC counts and NLR values in COVID-19-positive patients with diabetes were statistically significantly higher compared to nondiabetic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 18(11): 1187-1202, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008379

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are associated with alterations in blood cells that regulate immunity, inflammation, and hemostasis. We conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between the neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and COVID-19 progression and mortality. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus for studies published between January 2020 and June 2022. RESULTS: In 71 studies reporting the investigated parameters within 48 hours of admission, higher NLR (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.27, p < 0.0001), relative neutrophilia (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.46 to 1.80, p < 0.0001), relative lymphopenia (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.08, p < 0.001), and relative thrombocytopenia (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.22, p < 0.001), but not PLR (p = 0.11), were significantly associated with disease progression and mortality. Between-study heterogeneity was large-to-extreme. The magnitude and direction of the effect size were not modified in sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: NLR and neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet count significantly discriminate COVID-19 patients with different progression and survival outcomes. (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021267875).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neutrophils , Humans , Platelet Count , Lymphocyte Count , Prognosis , Lymphocytes , Blood Platelets , Retrospective Studies
12.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(10): e24671, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, there is a new variant Omicron BA.2 of SARS-CoV-2. In some previous studies, it was found that CBC, NLR, CRP, SAA, etc. in patients with SARS-CoV-2 had a series of changes, which were significantly correlated with the diagnosis and prognosis of patients. Therefore, in order to find specific diagnostic indicators, we explore the changes in these blood indicators and inflammatory indicators in patients with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron. METHODS: A total of 127 Omicron confirmed patients who had visited fever clinic was selected as the positive group, and 75 Omicron excluded patients were selected as the negative group. We collected and analyzed the CBC, CRP, SAA test data, and clinical data of all subjects for analysis and statistics. RESULTS: WBC, NEU, LYM, EOS, PLT, PCT, LYM * NEU count compared with the negative group were significantly lower (p < 0.05); on the contrary, CNR were significantly higher (p < 0.05); The levels of CRP and SAA were not significantly different from those of the negative group (p > 0.05); the AUC of 0.781 for the diagnosis of LYM * NEU with an optimal cutoff value of 5.79, with a sensitivity and specificity of 68% and 73%, respectively, Youden index of 0.41, giving the best diagnostic performance. CONCLUSION: The decreased LYM * NEU count can be used as the early, rapid, and accurate diagnostic indicator for Omicron. While due to the attenuated toxicity of BA.2 sublineage, CRP and SAA had no significance in the differential diagnosis of confirmed patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
13.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(4): 888-898, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1998219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a wide clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to mild, moderate, and severe cases. There are still many unknowns about the role of immunoregulatory mechanisms in COVID-19. We aimed to study regulatory T cells (Tregs) and B cell subsets and evaluate their correlations with severity of COVID-19. METHODS: In total, 50 patients with COVID-19 confirmed by PCR (mean age = 49.9 ± 12.8 years) and 40 healthy control (mean age = 47.9 ± 14.7 years) were included in this study. The patients were classified as 14 mild (median age = 35.5 [24-73] years), 22 moderate (median age = 51.5 [28-67] years) and 14 severe (median age = 55.5 [42-67] years). Within 24 h of admission, flow cytometry was used to assess the lymphocyte subsets, Tregs and Bregs without receiving any relevant medication. RESULTS: In all patients with COVID-19, the proportion of CD3+CD8+ T cells was reduced (p = 0.004) and the CD8+ Tregs were increased compared with control (p = 0.001). While the levels of regulatory B cells, plasmablasts, and mature naive B cells were found to be significantly high, primarily memory B-cell levels were low in all patients compared with controls (p < 0.05). Total CD3+ T cells were negatively correlated with the length of stay in the hospital (r = -0.286, p = 0.044). DISCUSSION: The changes in T and B cell subsets may show the dysregulation in the immunity of patients with COVID-19. In this context, the association between CD8+ Tregs and COVID-19 severity may help clinicians to predict severe and fatal COVID-19 in hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocyte Subsets , COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Lymphocyte Count , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987836

ABSTRACT

The persistence of long-term coronavirus-induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) sequelae demands better insights into its natural history. Therefore, it is crucial to discover the biomarkers of disease outcome to improve clinical practice. In this study, 160 COVID-19 patients were enrolled, of whom 80 had a "non-severe" and 80 had a "severe" outcome. Sera were analyzed by proximity extension assay (PEA) to assess 274 unique proteins associated with inflammation, cardiometabolic, and neurologic diseases. The main clinical and hematochemical data associated with disease outcome were grouped with serological data to form a dataset for the supervised machine learning techniques. We identified nine proteins (i.e., CD200R1, MCP1, MCP3, IL6, LTBP2, MATN3, TRANCE, α2-MRAP, and KIT) that contributed to the correct classification of COVID-19 disease severity when combined with relative neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. By analyzing PEA, clinical and hematochemical data with statistical methods that were able to handle many variables in the presence of a relatively small sample size, we identified nine potential serum biomarkers of a "severe" outcome. Most of these were confirmed by literature data. Importantly, we found three biomarkers associated with central nervous system pathologies and protective factors, which were downregulated in the most severe cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proteomics , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Machine Learning
15.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(9): e24652, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1981744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) profoundly affects the immune and hematopoietic systems with various degrees of reactive changes in the blood cell counts. Immuno-inflammatory indices are considered a simple and effective tool in the prediction of COVID-19 outcomes. We aimed to evaluate and compare the usefulness of leukocyte and platelet counts-based immuno-inflammatory indices on admission to hospital in predicting COVID-19 progression and mortality. METHODS: A total of 945 patients were enrolled. In addition to blood cell counts, we assessed hemogram-derived immuno-inflammatory indices in relation to COVID-19 progression and death. The indices were tested by analysis of variance, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and binomial logistic regressions. RESULTS: Patients with severe COVID-19 had significantly higher counts of neutrophils, eosinophils, and large immature cells (LIC), while decreased counts of platelets and monocytes. Lymphopenia was found in all of the patients, but without significant association with the outcomes. Patients with a LIC count ≥0.265 x 09 /L had 54.7% more odds of having COVID-19 progression. In multivariable analyses, platelets/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P/NLR) and platelets-to-neutrophil radio (P/N) were significant independent predictors of COVID-19 progression and mortality. The odds of a poor outcome were two times higher in cases with P/NLR < 43 x 109 /L and P/N < 29 x 109 /L. CONCLUSION: Indices that include platelet count in combination with neutrophil and/or lymphocyte counts displayed the best discriminatory ability and prognostic value of COVID-19 outcomes. Additionally, LIC showed promising results in the early identification of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Platelet Count , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
16.
Cell Rep ; 36(8): 109591, 2021 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370154

ABSTRACT

The relationship between B cells and CD4 T cells has been carefully studied, revealing a collaborative effort in which B cells promote the activation, differentiation, and expansion of CD4 T cells while the so-called "helper" cells provide signals to B cells, influencing their class switching and fate. Interactions between B cells and CD8 T cells are not as well studied, although CD8 T cells exhibit an accelerated contraction after certain infections in B-cell-deficient mice. Here, we find that B cells significantly enhance primary CD8 T cell responses after vaccination. Moreover, memory CD8 numbers and function are impaired in B-cell-deficient animals, leading to increased susceptibility to bacterial challenge. We also show that interleukin-27 production by B cells contributes to their impact on primary, but not memory, CD8 responses. Better understanding of the interactions between CD8 T cells and B cells may aid in the design of more effective future vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Interleukin-27/immunology , Interleukin-27/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
17.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(6): 721-724, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942032

ABSTRACT

This study was intended to define T lymphocyte subsets in different clinical groups of COVID-19-infected patients to explore the interaction between T cell-mediated immune response and the severity of COVID-19 course. Lymphopenia in patients with severe COVID-19 was found. In patients with severe COVID-19 course, the absolute counts of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes at admission were lower than on day 14 after discharge. Further analysis showed that the older were the patients with COVID-19, the more likely they developed severe infection. The results confirmed the significance of T lymphocytes in the clearance of the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocyte Subsets
18.
J Med Virol ; 94(11): 5128-5148, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929926

ABSTRACT

The precise interaction between the immune system and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical in deciphering the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is also vital for developing novel therapeutic tools, including monoclonal antibodies, antivirals drugs, and vaccines. Viral infections need innate and adaptive immune reactions since the various immune components, such as neutrophils, macrophages, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and B lymphocytes, play different roles in various infections. Consequently, the characterization of innate and adaptive immune reactions toward SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for defining the pathogenicity of COVID-19. In this study, we explain what is currently understood concerning the conventional immune reactions to SARS-CoV-2 infection to shed light on the protective and pathogenic role of immune response in this case. Also, in particular, we investigate the in-depth roles of other immune mediators, including neutrophil elastase, serum amyloid A, and syndecan, in the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Immunity , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocyte Count , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 24(7): 433-438, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some studies have shown that patients who are hospitalized with severe COVID-19 also have low levels of vitamin D. It is known that vitamin D can reduce the risk of infections and down regulate the immune/inflammatory reaction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between vitamin D status and lymphocyte subpopulations in hospitalized pneumonia COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In 33 positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients with radiologic evidence of interstitial pneumonia and in 16 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and seasonality lymphocyte subpopulations and vitamin D levels were evaluated. RESULTS: The majority of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (70.8%) presented vitamin D deficiency. The percentages of neutrophils presented a negative correlation (r = -0.74; P < 0.001), whereas the percentages of lymphocytes presented a positive correlation (r = 0.43; P < 0.01) with 25(OH)D. Moreover, vitamin D levels were positively correlated with CD3+ (r = 0.37, P < 0.05), CD4+ (r = 0.41, P < 0.05), CD8+ (r = 0.32, P < 0.07), and CD19+ (r = 0.38, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study confirms the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a reduction of lymphocyte subsets and altered T-lymphocyte activation. This finding may contribute to clarify the mechanisms by which vitamin D influences the course and outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets , Pneumonia/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
20.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264072, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910535

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has posed a severe healthcare challenge calling for an integrated approach in determining the clues for early non-invasive diagnostics of the potentially severe cases and efficient patient stratification. Here we analyze the clinical, laboratory and CT scan characteristics associated with high risk of COVID-19-related death outcome in the cohort of severely-ill patients in Russia. The data obtained reveal that elevated dead lymphocyte counts, decreased early apoptotic lymphocytes, decreased CD14+/HLA-Dr+ monocytes, increased expression of JNK in PBMCs, elevated IL-17 and decreased PAI-1 serum levels are associated with a high risk of COVID-19-related mortality thus suggesting them to be new prognostic factors. This set of determinants could be used as early predictors of potentially severe course of COVID-19 for trials of prevention or timely treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-17/blood , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Prognosis , Russia/epidemiology , Young Adult
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