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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(1): 33-37, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: B cell depletion is an established therapeutic principle in a wide range of autoimmune diseases. However, B cells are also critical for inducing protective immunity after infection and vaccination. We undertook this study to assess humoral and cellular immune responses after infection with or vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with B cell depletion and controls who are B cell-competent. METHODS: Antibody responses (tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and T cell responses (tested using interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay) against the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 and nucleocapsid proteins were assessed in a limited number of previously infected (n = 6) and vaccinated (n = 8) autoimmune disease patients with B cell depletion, as well as previously infected (n = 30) and vaccinated (n = 30) healthy controls. RESULTS: As expected, B cell and T cell responses to the nucleocapsid protein were observed only after infection, while respective responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 were found after both infection and vaccination. A SARS-CoV-2 antibody response was observed in all vaccinated controls (30 of 30 [100%]) but in none of the vaccinated patients with B cell depletion (0 of 8). In contrast, after SARS-CoV-2 infection, both the patients with B cell depletion (spike S1, 5 of 6 [83%]; nucleocapsid, 3 of 6 [50%]) and healthy controls (spike S1, 28 of 30 [93%]; nucleocapsid, 28 of 30 [93%]) developed antibodies. T cell responses against the spike S1 and nucleocapsid proteins were found in both infected and vaccinated patients with B cell depletion and in the controls. CONCLUSION: These data show that B cell depletion completely blocks humoral but not T cell SARS-CoV-2 vaccination response. Furthermore, limited humoral immune responses are found after SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with B cell depletion.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Depletion/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/virology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology
2.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(6): 103278, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415810

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) on clinical courses of B-cell-sufficient and B-cell-depleted patients with life-threatening COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this case series, we retrospectively analysed clinical, laboratory and cardiopulmonary parameters of six patients with life-threatening COVID-19 receiving convalescent plasma (CP) as rescue therapy between April 11, 2020 to October 10, 2020. Clinical and laboratory parameters before and after transfusion were compared in two B-cell-depleted patients and four B-cell sufficient patients (control group). RESULTS: Both B-cell-depleted patients cleared SARS-CoV-2 virus and survived, while all other patients died within 14 days from intervention despite maximal therapeutic efforts. D-dimer levels increased in both cohorts subsequent to CPT. In control patients, mean Interleukin-6 increased and platelet levels decreased as opposed to decreasing and stable levels in B-cell-depleted patients, respectively. Control patients required increased doses of vasopressor compared to decreasing doses in B-cell depleted patients subsequent to CPT. PO2/FiO2 decrease was more pronounced and respiratory deterioration required postinterventional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in two control patients. Transpulmonary thermodilution revealed a further increase of the Extravascular Lung Water Index upon CPT in control patients. CONCLUSION: Use of CP in late stages of life-threatening COVID-19 should be used with caution but may be beneficial in B-cell-depleted patients. Further studies are necessary to assess factors predicting potential therapeutic benefits as well as possible hazards.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Lymphocyte Depletion , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009668, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388961

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection presents clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to fatal respiratory failure. Despite the induction of functional SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in convalescent individuals, the role of virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in the control of SARS-CoV-2 replication remains unknown. In the present study, we show that subacute SARS-CoV-2 replication can be controlled in the absence of CD8+ T cells in cynomolgus macaques. Eight macaques were intranasally inoculated with 105 or 106 TCID50 of SARS-CoV-2, and three of the eight macaques were treated with a monoclonal anti-CD8 antibody on days 5 and 7 post-infection. In these three macaques, CD8+ T cells were undetectable on day 7 and thereafter, while virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses were induced in the remaining five untreated animals. Viral RNA was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs for 10-17 days post-infection in all macaques, and the kinetics of viral RNA levels in pharyngeal swabs and plasma neutralizing antibody titers were comparable between the anti-CD8 antibody treated and untreated animals. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the pharyngeal mucosa and/or retropharyngeal lymph node obtained at necropsy on day 21 in two of the untreated group but undetectable in all macaques treated with anti-CD8 antibody. CD8+ T-cell responses may contribute to viral control in SARS-CoV-2 infection, but our results indicate possible containment of subacute viral replication in the absence of CD8+ T cells, implying that CD8+ T-cell dysfunction may not solely lead to viral control failure.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/veterinary , Macaca fascicularis/immunology , Macaca fascicularis/virology , Monkey Diseases/immunology , Monkey Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Lymphocyte Depletion/veterinary , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology
6.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(10): 2478-2484, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340251

ABSTRACT

Treatment with convalescent plasma has been shown to be safe in coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) infection, although efficacy reported in immunocompetent patients varies. Nevertheless, neutralizing antibodies are a key requisite in the fight against viral infections. Patients depleted of antibody-producing B cells, such as those treated with rituximab (anti-CD20) for hematological malignancies, lack a fundamental part of their adaptive immunity. Treatment with convalescent plasma appears to be of general benefit in this particularly vulnerable cohort. We analyzed clinical course and inflammation markers of three B-cell-depleted patients suffering from COVID-19 who were treated with convalescent plasma. In addition, we measured serum antibody levels as well as peripheral blood CD38/HLA-DR-positive T-cells ex vivo and CD137-positive T-cells after in vitro stimulation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-derived peptides in these patients. We observed that therapy with convalescent plasma was effective in all three patients and analysis of CD137-positive T-cells after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptides showed an increase in peptide-specific T-cells after application of convalescent plasma. In conclusion, we here demonstrate efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy in three B-cell-depleted patients and present data that suggest that while application of convalescent plasma elevates systemic antibody levels only transiently, it may also boost specific T-cell responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunization, Passive/methods , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Depletion , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Rituximab/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 9/metabolism
8.
mBio ; 12(4): e0150321, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327616

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with T cell lymphopenia, but no causal effect of T cell deficiency on disease severity has been established. To investigate the specific role of T cells in recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, we studied rhesus macaques that were depleted of either CD4+, CD8+, or both T cell subsets prior to infection. Peak virus loads were similar in all groups, but the resolution of virus in the T cell-depleted animals was slightly delayed compared to that in controls. The T cell-depleted groups developed virus-neutralizing antibody responses and class switched to IgG. When reinfected 6 weeks later, the T cell-depleted animals showed anamnestic immune responses characterized by rapid induction of high-titer virus-neutralizing antibodies, faster control of virus loads, and reduced clinical signs. These results indicate that while T cells play a role in the recovery of rhesus macaques from acute SARS-CoV-2 infections, their depletion does not induce severe disease, and T cells do not account for the natural resistance of rhesus macaques to severe COVID-19. Neither primed CD4+ nor CD8+ T cells appeared critical for immunoglobulin class switching, the development of immunological memory, or protection from a second infection. IMPORTANCE Patients with severe COVID-19 often have decreased numbers of T cells, a cell type important in fighting most viral infections. However, it is not known whether the loss of T cells contributes to severe COVID-19 or is a consequence of it. We studied rhesus macaques, which develop only mild COVID-19, similar to most humans. Experimental depletion of T cells slightly prolonged their clearance of virus, but there was no increase in disease severity. Furthermore, they were able to develop protection from a second infection and produced antibodies capable of neutralizing the virus. They also developed immunological memory, which allows a much stronger and more rapid response upon a second infection. These results suggest that T cells are not critical for recovery from acute SARS-CoV-2 infections in this model and point toward B cell responses and antibodies as the essential mediators of protection from re-exposure.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Lymphocyte Depletion/methods , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Male
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 247-250, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300800

ABSTRACT

Prolonged B-cell depletion due to anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAbs) therapy impairs the adaptive immune response, causing severe manifestations during COronaVIrus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). The cases of two patients under anti-CD20 therapy who experienced prolonged and severe COVID-19 successfully treated with mAbs against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV-2 spike proteins are reported.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Lymphocyte Depletion/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, CD20/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289015

ABSTRACT

A 59-year-old male with follicular lymphoma treated by anti-CD20-mediated B-cell depletion and ablative chemotherapy was hospitalized with a COVID-19 infection. Although the patient did not develop specific humoral immunity, he had a mild clinical course overall. The failure of all therapeutic options allowed infection to persist nearly 300 days with active accumulation of SARS-CoV-2 virus mutations. As a rescue therapy, an infusion of REGEN-COV (10933 and 10987) anti-spike monoclonal antibodies was performed 270 days from initial diagnosis. Due to partial clearance after the first dose (2.4 g), a consolidation dose (8 g) was infused six weeks later. Complete virus clearance could then be observed over the following month, after he was vaccinated with the Pfizer-BioNTech anti-COVID-19 vaccination. The successful management of this patient required prolonged enhanced quarantine, monitoring of virus mutations, pioneering clinical decisions based upon close consultation, and the coordination of multidisciplinary experts in virology, immunology, pharmacology, input from REGN, the FDA, the IRB, the health care team, the patient, and the patient's family. Current decisions to take revolve around patient's follicular lymphoma management, and monitoring for virus clearance persistence beyond disappearance of REGEN-COV monoclonal antibodies after anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Overall, specific guidelines for similar cases should be established.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Lymphocyte Depletion , Lymphoma, Follicular/drug therapy , Lymphoma, Follicular/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20836, 2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059918

ABSTRACT

Impaired immune responses have been hypothesised to be a possible trigger of unfavourable outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to characterise IgM memory B cells in patients with COVID-19 admitted to an internal medicine ward in Northern Italy. Overall, 66 COVID-19 patients (mean age 74 ± 16.6 years; 29 females) were enrolled. Three patients (4.5%; 1 female) had been splenectomised and were excluded from further analyses. Fifty-five patients (87.3%) had IgM memory B cell depletion, and 18 (28.6%) died during hospitalisation (cumulative incidence rate 9.26/100 person-week; 5.8-14.7 95% CI). All patients who died had IgM memory B cell depletion. A superimposed infection was found in 6 patients (9.5%), all of them having IgM memory B cell depletion (cumulative incidence rate 3.08/100 person-week; 1.3-6.8 95% CI). At bivariable analyses, older age, sex, number of comorbidities, and peripheral blood lymphocyte count < 1500/µl were not correlated with IgM memory B cell depletion. A discrete-to-marked reduction of the B-cell compartment was also noticed in autoptic spleen specimens of two COVID-19 patients. We conclude that IgM memory B cells are commonly depleted in COVID-19 patients and this correlates with increased mortality and superimposed infections.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lymphocyte Depletion , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/immunology
14.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 320(1): L84-L98, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910283

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), driven by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a global pandemic in March 2020. Pathogenic T cells and inflammatory monocytes are regarded as the central drivers of the cytokine storm associated with the severity of COVID-19. In this study, we explored the characteristic peripheral cellular profiles of patients with COVID-19 in both acute and convalescent phases by single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF). Using a combination of algorithm-guided data analyses, we identified peripheral immune cell subsets in COVID-19 and revealed CD4+ T-cell depletion, T-cell differentiation, plasma cell expansion, and the reduced antigen presentation capacity of innate immunity. Notably, COVID-19 induces a dysregulation in the balance of monocyte populations by the expansion of the monocyte subsets. Collectively, our results represent a high-dimensional, single-cell profile of the peripheral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antigen Presentation/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Lymphocyte Depletion , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/cytology , Plasma Cells/cytology , Single-Cell Analysis
15.
Transplantation ; 105(1): 170-176, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients have higher risk of infectious diseases due to their reliance on immunosuppression. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, some clinicians might have opted for less potent immunosuppressive agents to counterbalance the novel infectious risk. We conducted a nationwide study to characterize immunosuppression use and subsequent clinical outcomes during the first 5 months of COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. METHODS: Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we studied all kidney-only recipients in the United States from January 1, 2017, to March 12, 2020 ("prepandemic" era; n = 64 849) and from March 13, 2020, to July 31, 2020 ("pandemic" era; n = 5035). We compared the use of lymphocyte-depleting agents (versus basiliximab or no induction) and maintenance steroids (versus steroid avoidance/withdrawal) in the pandemic era compared with the prepandemic era. Then, we compared early posttransplant outcomes by immunosuppression regimen during the pandemic era. RESULTS: Recipients in the pandemic era were substantially less likely to receive lymphocyte-depleting induction agents compared with their prepandemic counterparts (aOR = 0.400.530.69); similar trends were found across subgroups of state-level COVID-19 incidence, donor type, and recipient age. However, lymphocyte-depleting induction agents were associated with decreased rejection during admission (aOR = 0.110.230.47) but not with increased mortality in the pandemic era (aHR = 0.130.471.66). On the other hand, the use of maintenance steroids versus early steroid withdrawal remained similar (aOR = 0.711.071.62). CONCLUSIONS: The use of lymphocyte-depleting induction agents has decreased in favor of basiliximab and no induction during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, this shift might have resulted in increases in rejection with no clear reductions in posttransplant mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Lymphocyte Depletion , Male , Middle Aged
16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2055, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807548

ABSTRACT

The clinical and laboratory features of COVID-19 are reviewed with attention to the immunologic manifestations of the disease. Recent COVID-19 publications describe a variety of clinical presentations including an asymptomatic state, pneumonia, a hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis like syndrome, Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) but, also called Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome-Toxic Shock (PIMS-TS), Kawasaki Disease, and myocarditis. A common theme amongst multiple reports suggests an overexuberant autoimmune component of the disease but a common pathophysiology to explain the variations in clinical presentation has been elusive. Review of the basic science of other viral induced autoimmune disorders may give clues as to why immunosuppressive and immunomodulating regimens now appear to have some efficacy in COVID-19. Review of the immunopathology also reveals other therapies that have yet to be explored. There is potential use of T cell depleting therapies and possibly anti-CD20 therapy for COVID-19 and clinical research using these medications is warranted.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Lymphocyte Depletion , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/pathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/pathology
18.
Clin Transplant ; 34(9): e14055, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised regarding proceeding with kidney transplantation using standard immunosuppression in COVID-19 endemic areas. METHODS: We performed a single-center review of all adult kidney transplants performed during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City. Patients were managed with standard immunosuppression protocols, including lymphocyte depleting induction and trough-guided tacrolimus. Retrospective data were collected for 3 months from the date of transplantation or until study conclusion (5/7/2020). The primary outcomes assessed included patient and allograft survival as well as COVID-19 related hospital readmission. RESULTS: 30 kidney transplants were performed during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. After a median follow-up of 51.5 days, 93.3% of patients were alive with 100% death-censored allograft survival. 9 patients were readmitted to the hospital during the study period, 4 (13.3%) related to infection with COVID-19. Infections were mild in 3/4 patients, with one patient developing severe disease leading to respiratory failure. Patients readmitted with COVID-19 were numerically more likely to be African American, have a BMI > 30 kg/m2, have a lymphocyte count ≤ 300 cells/mL, and be on maintenance corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Kidney transplantation in areas endemic to COVID-19 using standard induction and maintenance immunosuppression appears to be associated with a modest risk for severe COVID-19 related disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Lymphocyte Depletion , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Graft Rejection , Graft Survival , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
19.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 202(2): 149-161, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646135

ABSTRACT

Although most autoimmune diseases are considered to be CD4 T cell- or antibody-mediated, many respond to CD20-depleting antibodies that have limited influence on CD4 and plasma cells. This includes rituximab, oblinutuzumab and ofatumumab that are used in cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and off-label in a large number of other autoimmunities and ocrelizumab in multiple sclerosis. Recently, the COVID-19 pandemic created concerns about immunosuppression in autoimmunity, leading to cessation or a delay in immunotherapy treatments. However, based on the known and emerging biology of autoimmunity and COVID-19, it was hypothesised that while B cell depletion should not necessarily expose people to severe SARS-CoV-2-related issues, it may inhibit protective immunity following infection and vaccination. As such, drug-induced B cell subset inhibition, that controls at least some autoimmunities, would not influence innate and CD8 T cell responses, which are central to SARS-CoV-2 elimination, nor the hypercoagulation and innate inflammation causing severe morbidity. This is supported clinically, as the majority of SARS-CoV-2-infected, CD20-depleted people with autoimmunity have recovered. However, protective neutralizing antibody and vaccination responses are predicted to be blunted until naive B cells repopulate, based on B cell repopulation kinetics and vaccination responses, from published rituximab and unpublished ocrelizumab (NCT00676715, NCT02545868) trial data, shown here. This suggests that it may be possible to undertake dose interruption to maintain inflammatory disease control, while allowing effective vaccination against SARS-CoV-29, if and when an effective vaccine is available.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antigens, CD20/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Lymphocyte Depletion , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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