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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 798813, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902970

ABSTRACT

A successful vaccination would represent the most efficient means to control the pandemic of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) that led to millions of deaths worldwide. Novel mRNA-based vaccines confer protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, but whether immunity is immediately effective and how long it will remain in recipients are uncertain. We sought to assess the effectiveness of a two-dose regimen since the boosts are often delayed concerning the recommended intervals. Methods: A longitudinal cohort of healthcare workers (HCW, N = 46; 30.4% men; 69.6% women; mean age 36.05 ± 2.2 years) with no SARS-CoV-2 infection as documented by negative polymerase chain reaction was immunophenotyped in PBMC once a week for 4 weeks from the prime immunization (Pfizer mRNA BNT162b2) and had received 2 doses, to study the kinetic response. Results: We identified three risk groups to develop SARS-CoV-2 infection IgG+-based (late responders, R-; early responders, R+; pauci responders, PR). In all receipts, amplification of B cells and NK cells, including IL4-producing B cells and IL4-producing CD8+ T cells, is early stimulated by the vaccine. After the boost, we observed a growing increase of NK cells but a resistance of T cells, IFNγ-producing CD4+T cells, and IFNγ-producing NK cells. Also, hematologic parameters decline until the boost. The positive association of IFNγ-producing NK with IFNγ-producing CD4+T cells by the multiple mixed-effect model, adjusted for confounders (p = 0.036) as well as the correlation matrix (r = 0.6, p < 0.01), suggests a relationship between these two subsets of lymphocytes. Conclusions: These findings introduce several concerns about policy delay in vaccination: based on immunological protection, B cells and the persistent increase of NK cells during 2 doses of the mRNA-based vaccine could provide further immune protection against the virus, while CD8+ T cells increased slightly only in the R+ and PR groups.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Immunization , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Interleukin-4/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Th1-Th2 Balance
2.
J Immunol ; 208(3): 685-696, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604665

ABSTRACT

Immune response dysregulation plays a key role in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis. In this study, we evaluated immune and endothelial blood cell profiles of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to determine critical differences between those with mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19 using spectral flow cytometry. We examined a suite of immune phenotypes, including monocytes, T cells, NK cells, B cells, endothelial cells, and neutrophils, alongside surface and intracellular markers of activation. Our results showed progressive lymphopenia and depletion of T cell subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) in patients with severe disease and a significant increase in the CD56+CD14+Ki67+IFN-γ+ monocyte population in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 that has not been previously described. Enhanced circulating endothelial cells (CD45-CD31+CD34+CD146+), circulating endothelial progenitors (CD45-CD31+CD34+/-CD146-), and neutrophils (CD11b+CD66b+) were coevaluated for COVID-19 severity. Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated the synergism among age, obesity, and hypertension with upregulated CD56+ monocytes, endothelial cells, and decreased T cells that lead to severe outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Circulating monocytes and endothelial cells may represent important cellular markers for monitoring postacute sequelae and impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection during convalescence and for their role in immune host defense in high-risk adults after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , CD56 Antigen/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Endothelial Cells/chemistry , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/chemistry , Neutrophils/immunology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/immunology , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
3.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(1): 269-281, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591653

ABSTRACT

The immune system plays a crucial role in the response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with significant differences among patients. The study investigated the relationships between lymphocyte subsets, cytokines, and disease outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The measurements of peripheral blood lymphocytes subsets and cytokine levels were performed by flow cytometry for 57 COVID-19 patients. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the severity of the disease (nonsevere vs. severe). Total lymphocytes, T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells were decreased in COVID-19 patients and statistical differences were found among different severity of illness and survival states (P ˂ 0.01). The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in severe and death groups and negatively correlated with lymphocyte subsets counts. The percentages of Th17 in the peripheral blood of patients were higher than those of healthy controls whereas the percentages of Th2 were lower. For the severe cases, the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of IL-6 was the largest among all the immune parameters (0.964; 95% confidence interval: 0.927-1.000, P < 0.0001). In addition, the preoperative IL-6 concentration of 77.38 pg/ml was the optimal cutoff value (sensitivity: 84.6%, specificity: 100%). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis and ROC curves, IL-6 > 106.44 pg/ml and CD8+ T cell counts <150 cells/µl were found to be associated with mortality. Measuring the immune parameters and defining a risk threshold can segregate patients who develop a severe disease from those with a mild pathology. The identification of these parameters may help clinicians to predict the outcome of the patients with high risk of unfavorable progress of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Africa, Northern , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 8669098, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the consistency and differences in the immune cells and cytokines between patients with COVID-19 or cancer. We further analyzed the correlations between the acute inflammation and cancer-related immune disorder. METHODS: This retrospective study involved 167 COVID-19 patients and 218 cancer patients. COVID-19 and cancer were each further divided into two subgroups. Quantitative and qualitative variables were measured by one-way ANOVA and chi-square test, respectively. Herein, we carried out a correlation analysis between immune cells and cytokines and used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to discover the optimal diagnostic index. RESULTS: COVID-19 and cancers were associated with lymphopenia and high levels of monocytes, neutrophils, IL-6, and IL-10. IL-2 was the optimal indicator to differentiate the two diseases. Compared with respiratory cancer patients, COVID-19 patients had lower levels of IL-2 and higher levels of CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells. In the subgroup analysis, IL-6 was the optimal differential diagnostic parameter that had the ability to identify if COVID-19 patients would be severely affected, and severe COVID-19 patients had lower levels of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD3+CD8+T cells, and CD19+ B cells) and CD16+CD56+ NK cells and higher level of neutrophils. There were significant differences in the levels of CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells between T1-2 and T3-4 stages as well as IL-2 and CD19+ B cells between N0-1 and N2-3 stages while no significant differences between the metastatic and nonmetastatic cancer patients. Additionally, there were higher correlations between IL-2 and IL-4, TNF-α and IL-2, TNF-α and IL-4, TNF-α and IFN-γ, and CD16+CD56+NK cells and various subsets of T cells in COVID-19 patients. There was a higher correlation between CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells in cancer patients. CONCLUSION: Inflammation associated with COVID-19 or cancer had effects on patients' outcomes. Accompanied by changes in immune cells and cytokines, there were consistencies, differences, and satisfactory correlations between patients with COVID-19 and those with cancers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Lymphopenia/blood , Monocytes/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
5.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211048567, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had become a worldwide health threat. Early prediction of the severity of COVID-19 patients was important for reducing death rate and controlling this disease. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 301 patients confirmed with COVID-19 in Wuhan from 8 February to 10 April 2020 were included. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets in COVID-19 patients were investigated. The receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) was used in discriminating the mild and severe/critical cases. RESULTS: There were difference in blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets among mild, severe and critical patients, which were also influenced by comorbidities and duration of disease. The area under the ROC of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells were 0.718, 0.721, 0.718, and 0.670, which were higher than that of other hematological parameters. The optimal threshold was 1205, 691, 402, and 177 per µl, respectively. Patients with higher counts of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+ T cells were correlated with shorter length of stay in hospital (p < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed disease severity, CD3+ T cells counts and time when the nucleic acid turned negative were independent risk factors for in-hospital death of COVID-19 patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets correlated with severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hospital Mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Young Adult
7.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(12): 6111-6120, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375838

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Whereas in most cases COVID-19 is asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic, extremely severe clinical forms are observed. In this case, complex immune dysregulations and an excessive inflammatory response are reported and are the main cause of morbidity and mortality. Natural killer cells are key players in the control of viral infection, and their activity is regulated by a tight balance between activating and inhibitory receptors; an alteration of NK activity was suggested to be associated with the development of severe forms of COVID-19. In this study, we analyzed peripheral NK cell subpopulations and the expression of activating and inhibitory receptors in 30 patients suffering from neurological conditions who recovered from mild, moderate, or severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, comparing the results to those of 10 SARS-CoV-2-uninfected patients. Results showed that an expansion of NK subset with lower cytolytic activity and an augmented expression of the 2DL1 inhibitory receptor, particularly when in association with the C2 ligand (KIR2DL1-C2), characterized the immunological scenario of severe COVID-19 infection. An increase of NK expressing the ILT2 inhibitory receptor was instead seen in patients recovering from mild or moderate infection compared to controls. Results herein suggest that the KIR2DL1-C2 NK inhibitory complex is a risk factor toward the development of severe form of COVID-19. Our results confirm that a complex alteration of NK activity is present in COVID-19 infection and offer a molecular explanation for this observation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Receptors, KIR/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Histocompatibility Antigens/immunology , Humans , Ligands , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 256, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351932

ABSTRACT

We collected blood from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent individuals and investigated SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular immunity in these discharged patients. Follow-up analysis in a cohort of 171 patients at 4-11 months after the onset revealed high levels of IgG antibodies. A total of 78.1% (164/210) of the specimens tested positive for neutralizing antibody (NAb). SARS-CoV-2 antigen peptide pools-stimulated-IL-2 and -IFN-γ response can distinguish COVID-19 convalescent individuals from healthy donors. Interestingly, NAb survival was significantly affected by the antigen peptide pools-stimulated-IL-2 response, -IL-8 response, and -IFN-γ response. The antigen peptide pools-activated CD8+ T cell counts were correlated with NAb. The antigen peptide pools-activated natural killer (NK) cell counts in convalescent individuals were correlated with NAb and disease severity. Our data suggested that the development of NAb is associated with the activation of T cells and NK cells. Our work provides a basis for further analysis of the protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and for understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19. It also has implications for the development of an effective vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Convalescence , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(15): 5057-5062, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Complete blood count parameters are frequently altered in COVID-19 patients. Leucopenia and lymphopenia are the most common findings. This is not specific to COVID-19 as similar alterations are found in various other viral infections. This work is intended to summarize the evidence regarding white blood cell and lymphocyte subset alterations in COVID-19 and their clinical implications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted to identify relevant original studies. Articles not available in English or referring exclusively to pediatric patients were excluded. The study was designed as a narrative review from its inception. RESULTS: Complete white blood cell number and lymphocytes may be reduced in COVID-19 patients. Circulating CD4+ cells (helper T lymphocytes), CD8+ cells (cytotoxic T lymphocytes), regulatory T cells and natural killer (NK) cells may be reduced, with a greater reduction observed in critically ill patients. CD4+ and regulatory cell deficiencies may contribute to the cytokine storm and subsequent tissue damage observed in severe COVID-19 infection. NK and CD8+ cell deficiency might delay infection clearance. These aberrations of cellular immunity may contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of the disease. Alterations observed in monocyte function can also be implicated as they are effector cells responsible for tissue damage and remodeling. B cell dysfunction and maturation abnormalities have also been reported, suggesting that the virus also impairs humoral immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphocyte subset abnormalities may be useful prognostic biomarkers for COVID-19, with circulating CD8+ cell count being the most promising as a predictor of severe disease requiring mechanical ventilation and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/virology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 646, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although there are a growing number of studies on evaluating lymphocyte subset counts as prognostic factors for COVID-19 disease severity, the lymphocyte subsets' analyses of both IgM and IgG responders and non-responders during the periods after onset of symptoms, have not been conducted yet. So, this study aimed to evaluate immune cell profiling of COVID-19 patients with and without antibody responses. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the levels of peripheral lymphocyte subsets were measured using flow cytometry in 53 patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, for whom antibody testing of COVID-19 was performed. RESULTS: The white blood cell, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts consistently decreased in the IgM and IgG non-responder group, while the differences in the median value between the two study groups were found to be statistically significant only in terms of neutrophil counts (P = 0.024 for IgM response and p-value = 0.046 for IgG response, respectively). Moreover, the level of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was observed to be significantly lower in the IgM or IgG non-responder group compared to the IgM or IgG responder group (3.6 ± 3.1 vs. 6.3 ± 4.2; p-value = 0.021). The patients with IgM antibody response had a significantly lower CD20+ lymphocytes (11% versus 15% in the groups without IgM antibody response, p-value = 0.031), The percentages of NK cells and CD4+ T cells significantly increased in the patients with IgG antibody response compared to those without IgG antibody response (13% versus 10%, p-value = 0.028, and 41.5% versus 34%; p-value = 0.03, respectively). Moreover, the patients who produced IgM or IgG antibody had significantly higher percentages of total T lymphocytes (64% versus 54%; p-value = 0.017), CD4+ T cells (41% versus 34%; p-value = 0.038), and NK cells (13% versus 9%, p-value = 0.023) compared to the group with no serological response. No significant difference was observed in the percentage of other lymphocyte subsets, including CD8+ T cells, Treg cells, and CD19+ B cells. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the total T cells, CD4+ T cells, and NK cells percentages are linked to serological response. Moreover, our findings suggested that neutrophil absolute counts and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio may be valuable predictors of IgM or IgG antibody response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Viral Immunol ; 34(5): 342-351, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343608

ABSTRACT

The spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity, related to cellular immune functions, has not been fully clarified yet. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the alteration of peripheral blood cells in patients with COVID-19. The flow cytometric characterization of immune cell subset was performed on 69 COVID-19 patients and 21 healthy controls. These data were evaluated based on the disease severity. A total of 69 patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were classified as asymptomatic infection (n = 14), nonsevere (n = 39), and severe (n = 16) groups. Decreased lymphocytes and increased CD14 + 4- monocytes are found in patients with severe COVID-19. Decreased CD4 expression level was observed in the monocytes of patients with severe COVID-19. The total lymphocytes, B and T lymphocytes, CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells, and natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells were found to be decreased in patients with severe COVID-19. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly different between patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls. The percentage of activated T cells (CD3+HLA-DR+) and B cells (CD19+CD38+) was lower in patients with severe COVID-19. Age and CD4- monocytes were independent predictors of disease severity. The SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect lymphocyte subsets, resulting in decreased T and B cells, monocytes, and NK and NKT cells. Decreased CD4 expression level by monocytes was significantly correlated with disease severity. Further studies on the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection are necessary to predict the disease severity and protect against the virus.


Subject(s)
CD4 Antigens/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 647, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Males and females differ in their immunological responses to foreign pathogens. However, most of the current COVID-19 clinical practices and trials do not take the sex factor into consideration. METHODS: We performed a sex-based comparative analysis for the clinical outcomes, peripheral immune cells, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) specific antibody levels of 1558 males and 1499 females COVID-19 patients from a single center. The lymphocyte subgroups were measured by Flow cytometry. The total antibody, Spike protein (S)-, receptor binding domain (RBD)-, and nucleoprotein (N)- specific IgM and IgG levels were measured by chemiluminescence. RESULTS: We found that male patients had approximately two-fold rates of ICU admission (4.7% vs. 2.7% in males and females, respectively, P = 0.005) and mortality (3% vs. 1.4%, in males and females, respectively, P = 0.004) than female patients. Survival analysis revealed that the male sex is an independent risk factor for death from COVID-19 (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-3.6, P = 0.003). The level of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood was higher in males during hospitalization. The renal (102/1588 [6.5%] vs. 63/1499 [4.2%], in males and females, respectively, P = 0.002) and hepatic abnormality (650/1588 [40.9%] vs. 475/1499 [31.7%], P = 0.003) were more common in male patients than in female patients. By analyzing dynamic changes of lymphocyte subsets after symptom onset, we found that the percentage of CD19+ B cells and CD4+ T cells was generally higher in female patients during the disease course of COVID-19. Notably, the protective RBD-specific IgG against SARS-CoV-2 sharply increased and reached a peak in the fourth week after symptom onset in female patients, while gradually increased and reached a peak in the seventh week after symptom onset in male patients. CONCLUSIONS: Males had an unfavorable prognosis, higher inflammation, a lower percentage of lymphocytes, and indolent antibody responses during SARS-CoV-2 infection and recovery. Early medical intervention and close monitoring are important, especially for male COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Characteristics
13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(14): 17961-17977, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318481

ABSTRACT

We intend to evaluate the differences of the clinical characteristics, cytokine profiles and immunological features in patients with different severity of COVID-19, and to develop novel nomograms based on inflammatory cytokines or lymphocyte subsets for the differential diagnostics for severe or critical and non-severe COVID-19 patients. We retrospectively studied 254 COVID-19 patients, 90 of whom were severe or critical patients and 164 were non-severe patients. Severe or critical patients had significantly higher levels of inflammatory cytokines than non-severe patients as well as lower levels of lymphocyte subsets. Significantly positive correlations between cytokine profiles were observed, while they were all significantly negatively correlated with lymphocyte subsets. Two effective nomograms were developed according to two multivariable logistic regression cox models based on inflammatory cytokine profiles and lymphocyte subsets separately. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics of two nomograms were 0.834 (95% CI: 0.779-0.888) and 0.841 (95% CI: 0.756-0.925). The bootstrapped-concordance indexes of two nomograms were 0.834 and 0.841 in training set, and 0.860 and 0.852 in validation set. Calibration curves and decision curve analyses demonstrated that the nomograms were well calibrated and had significantly more clinical net benefits. Our novel nomograms can accurately predict disease severity of COVID-19, which may facilitate the identification of severe or critical patients and assist physicians in making optimized treatment suggestions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokines/blood , Decision Support Techniques , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Nomograms , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Decision-Making , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation
14.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 6657894, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 caused large outbreaks of COVID-19 worldwide. COVID-19 resembles community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Our aim was to identify lymphocyte subpopulations to distinguish between COVID-19 and CAP. METHODS: We compared the peripheral blood lymphocytes and their subsets in 296 patients with COVID-19 and 130 patients with CAP. Parameters for independent prediction of COVID-19 were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: The main lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3+CD4+, CD16+CD56+, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio) and cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) of COVID-19 patients were significantly different from that of CAP patients. CD16+CD56+%, CD4+/CD8+ratio, CD19+, and CD3+CD4+ were identified as predictors of COVID-19 diagnosis by logistic regression. In addition, the CD3+CD4+counts, CD3+CD8+ counts, andTNF-α are independent predictors of disease severity in patients. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphopenia is an important part of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and lymphocyte subsets and cytokines may be useful to predict the severity and clinical outcomes of the disease.


Subject(s)
CD4-CD8 Ratio , COVID-19/blood , Interferon-gamma/blood , Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , Pneumonia/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Testing , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/pathology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(6): 620-630, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263492

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection often causes severe complications and even death. However, asymptomatic infection has also been reported, highlighting the difference in immune responses among individuals. Here we performed single-cell chromatin accessibility and T cell-receptor analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from individuals convalescing from COVID-19 and healthy donors. Chromatin remodelling was observed in both innate and adaptive immune cells in the individuals convalescing from COVID-19. Compared with healthy donors, recovered individuals contained abundant TBET-enriched CD16+ and IRF1-enriched CD14+ monocytes with sequential trained and activated epigenomic states. The B-cell lineage in recovered individuals exhibited an accelerated developmental programme from immature B cells to antibody-producing plasma cells. Finally, an integrated analysis of single-cell T cell-receptor clonality with the chromatin accessibility landscape revealed the expansion of putative SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells with epigenomic profiles that promote the differentiation of effector or memory cells. Overall, our data suggest that immune cells of individuals convalescing from COVID-19 exhibit global remodelling of the chromatin accessibility landscape, indicative of the establishment of immunological memory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epigenomics , Genes, T-Cell Receptor , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Adaptive Immunity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cell Differentiation , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
16.
Rev Neurol ; 72(11): 397-406, 2021 06 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248580

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: For more than a decade, following the ECTRIMS Congress, the Post-ECTRIMS Meeting has been held in Spain, where neurologists with expertise in multiple sclerosis (MS) from all over the country meet to review the most relevant latest developments presented at the ECTRIMS congress (on this occasion held together with ACTRIMS). AIM: This article, published in two parts, summarises the presentations that took place at the Post-ECTRIMS Meeting, held online on 16 and 17 October 2020. DEVELOPMENT: This first part includes the latest results regarding the impact of the environment and lifestyle on risk of MS and its clinical course, and the role of epigenetics and genetic factors on these processes. Findings from preclinical and clinical research on the lymphocyte subtypes identified and the involvement of lymphoid follicles and meningeal involvement in the disease are discussed. Changes in brain structure are addressed at the microscopic and macroscopic levels, including results from high-resolution imaging techniques. The latest advances on biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of MS, and on the involvement of the microbiome in these patients are also reported. Finally, results from patient registries on the impact of COVID-19 in MS patients are outlined. CONCLUSIONS: There have been new data on MS risk factors, the impact of MS at the cellular and structural level, the role of the microbiome in the disease, biomarkers, and the relationship between COVID-19 and MS.


TITLE: XIII Reunión Post-ECTRIMS: revisión de las novedades presentadas en el Congreso ECTRIMS 2020 (I).Introducción. Desde hace más de una década, tras el congreso ECTRIMS, se celebra en España la reunión Post-ECTRIMS, donde neurólogos expertos en esclerosis múltiple (EM) de toda España se reúnen para revisar las principales novedades presentadas en el ECTRIMS (en esta ocasión, celebrado junto con el ACTRIMS). Objetivo. En el presente artículo, publicado en dos partes, se resumen las ponencias que tuvieron lugar en la reunión Post-ECTRIMS, celebrada los días 16 y 17 de octubre de 2020 de forma virtual. Desarrollo. En esta primera parte se incluyen los últimos resultados acerca del impacto del ambiente y el estilo de vida sobre el riesgo de EM y su curso clínico, y el papel de la epigenética y los factores genéticos sobre estos procesos. Se discuten los hallazgos en investigación preclínica y clínica sobre los subtipos de linfocitos identificados, y la implicación de los folículos linfoides y la afectación meníngea en la enfermedad. Los cambios en la estructura cerebral se abordan a nivel microscópico y macroscópico, incluyendo resultados de técnicas de imagen de alta resolución. También se presentan los últimos avances sobre biomarcadores para el diagnóstico y el pronóstico de la EM, y sobre la afectación del microbioma en estos pacientes. Por último, se esbozan los resultados de registros de pacientes sobre el impacto de la COVID-19 en los pacientes con EM. Conclusiones. Ha habido nuevos datos sobre factores de riesgo de la EM, impacto de la EM a nivel celular y estructural, papel del microbioma en la enfermedad, biomarcadores y la relación entre COVID-19 y EM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis , Biomarkers , Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Comorbidity , Environmental Exposure , Epigenesis, Genetic , Europe , Gray Matter/pathology , Humans , Life Style , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphoid Tissue/pathology , Meninges/pathology , Microbiota , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/genetics , Multiple Sclerosis/microbiology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Neuroglia/pathology , Neurology/trends , Neurons/pathology , Remyelination
17.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243957

ABSTRACT

The dysregulation of both the innate and adaptive responses to SARS-CoV-2 have an impact on the course of COVID-19, and play a role in the clinical outcome of the disease. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in 82 patients with COVID-19, including 31 patients with a critical course of the disease. In COVID-19 patients who required hospitalization we analyzed T cell subsets, including Treg cells, as well as TCRα/ß and γ/δ, NK cells, and B cells, during the first two weeks after admission to hospital due to the SARS-CoV-2 infection, with marked reductions in leukocytes subpopulations, especially in critically ill COVID-19 patients. We showed decreased levels of Th, Ts cells, Treg cells (both naïve and induced), TCRα/ß and γ/δ cells, as well as CD16+CD56+NK cells in ICU compared to non-ICU COVID-19 patients. We observed impaired function of T and NK cells in critically ill COVID-19 patients with extremely low levels of secreted cytokines. We found that the IL-2/INFγ ratio was the strongest indicator of a critical course of COVID-19, and was associated with fatal outcomes. Our findings showed markedly impaired innate and adaptive responses in critically ill COVID-19 patients, and suggest that the immunosuppressive state in the case of a critical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection might reflect subsequent clinical deterioration and predict a fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune Tolerance , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adaptive Immunity , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Deterioration , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 675476, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236675

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are generally more susceptible to viral infection. Although the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on pregnant women remains to be determined, evidence indicates that risks of adverse clinical outcomes are similar in pregnancy to the general population. Here we analyzed clinical symptoms and outcomes of 20 pregnant and 299 reproductive-aged non-pregnant female COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized during the same period. Laboratory measurements were compared among mild cases and healthy pregnant women. Our study found that pregnant patients showed enhanced innate immune response evident by higher neutrophils and C-reactive protein. Cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors (CCGFs) profiles from 11 pregnant and 4 non-pregnant COVID-19 patients and 10 healthy pregnant female patients, and lymphocyte subsets analysis of 7 pregnant patients and 19 non-pregnant patients, indicate suppressed cytokine storm and potential enhanced CD8+ T cell and NK cell activity in pregnant patients with COVID-19, which may be essential in contributing to the unique anti-SARS-CoV-2 response in pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(3): 264-270, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The patients with hematological malignancies are a vulnerable group to COVID-19, due to the immunodeficiency resulting from the underlying disease and oncological treatment that significantly impair cellular and humoral immunity. Here we report on a beneficial impact of a passive immunotherapy with convalescent plasma to treat a prolonged, active COVID-19 infection in a patient with a history of nasopharyngeal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with the therapy inducing substantial impairment of particularly humoral arm of immune system. The specific aim was to quantify SARS-CoV2 neutralizing antibodies in a patient plasma during the course of therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Besides the standard of care treatment and monitoring, neutralizing antibody titers in patient's serum samples, calibrated according to the First WHO International Standard for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (human), were quantified in a time-dependent manner. During the immunotherapy period peripheral blood flow cytometry immunophenotyping was conducted to characterize lymphocyte subpopulations. RESULTS: The waves of clinical improvements and worsening coincided with transfused neutralizing antibodies rises and drops in the patient's systemic circulation, proving their contribution in controlling the disease progress. Besides the patient's lack of own humoral immune system, immunophenotyping analysis revealed also the reduced level of helper T-lymphocytes and immune exhaustion of monocytes. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic approach based on convalescent plasma transfusion transformed a prolonged, active COVID-19 infection into a manageable chronic disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19/therapy , Immunocompromised Host , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Chlorocebus aethiops , Combined Modality Therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Subsets/drug effects , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/immunology , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/therapy , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/blood , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Rituximab/administration & dosage , Rituximab/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vero Cells , Virus Cultivation
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1070-1077, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196481

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the dynamic changes of lymphocyte subsets and specific antibodies in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with different illness severity. The amounts of lymphocyte subsets and the levels of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibody were retrospectively analyzed in 707 COVID-19 cases. The amounts of lymphocyte subsets were significantly decreased with the increased severity of illness and the levels of IgM and IgG were lower in critical cases than severe and moderate cases. In deceased patients, the lymphocytes subsets were significantly lower than recovered patients. However, the relationship between the levels of IgM and IgG and the amounts of lymphocyte subsets were not significantly correlated. During different stages of COVID-19, the total T cell, CD4+ T cell, and CD8+ T cell counts were gradually recovered to the normal levels in severe and critical groups but the changing trend was relatively stable in the moderate group. The production of IgM and IgG antibodies were delayed in critical groups but also could reach the peak levels at one month after illness onset and decreased to background levels. To detect the kinetics of lymphocytes and antibodies has important clinical value in predicting the illness severity and understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunity , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , China , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
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