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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(17): 20886-20895, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368081

ABSTRACT

The potential role of abnormal ACE2 expression after SARS-CoV-2 infection in the prognosis of breast cancer is still ambiguous. In this study, we analyzed ACE2 changes in breast cancer and studied the correlation between ACE2 and the prognosis and further analyzed the relationship between immune infiltration and the prognosis of different breast cancer subtypes. Finally, we inferred the prognosis of breast cancer patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that ACE2 expression decreased significantly in breast cancer, except for basal-like subtype. Decreased ACE2 expression level was correlated with abnormal immune infiltration and poorer prognosis of luminal B breast cancer (RFS: HR 0.76, 95%CI=0.63-0.92, p=0.005; DMFS: HR 0.70, 95%CI=0.49-1.00, p=0.046). The expression of ACE2 was strongly positively correlated with the immune infiltration level of CD8+ T cell (r=0.184, p<0.001), CD4+ T cell (r=0.104, p=0.02) and neutrophils (r=0.101, p=0.02). ACE2 expression level in the luminal subtype was positively correlated with CD8A and CD8B markers in CD8+ T cells, and CEACAM3, S100A12 in neutrophils. In conclusion, breast tumor tissues might undergo a further decrease in the expression level of ACE2 after SARS-CoV-2 infection, which could contribute to further deterioration of immune infiltration and worsen the prognosis of luminal B breast cancer after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/immunology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/enzymology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Mice , Prognosis , Vero Cells
2.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(8): 1925-1939, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266906

ABSTRACT

Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) allow entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into host cells and play essential roles in cancer therapy. However, the functions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in kidney cancer remain unclear, especially as kidneys are targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: UCSC Xena project, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases (GSE30589 and GSE59185) were searched for gene expression in human tissues, gene expression data, and clinical information. Several bioinformatics methods were utilized to analyze the correlation between ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with respect to the prognosis of kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) and kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP). Results: ACE2 expression was significantly upregulated in tumor tissue, while its downregulation was associated with low survival in KIRC and KIRP patients. TMPRSS2 was downregulated in KIRC and KIRP, and its expression was not correlated with patient survival. According to clinical risk factor-based prediction models, ACE2 exhibits predictive accuracy for kidney cancer prognosis and is correlated with metabolism and immune infiltration. In an animal model, ACE2 expression was remarkably downregulated in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells compared to in the control. Conclusion: ACE2 expression is highly correlated with various metabolic pathways and is involved in immune infiltration.it plays a crucial role than TMPRSS2 in diagnosing and prognosis of kidney cancer patients. The overlap in ACE2 expression between kidney cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that patients with KIRC or KIRP are at high risk of developing serious symptoms.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/complications , Kidney Neoplasms/complications , Receptors, Virus/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/immunology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/mortality , Chlorocebus aethiops , Down-Regulation , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Neoplasms/immunology , Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism , Kidney Neoplasms/mortality , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Animal , Neoplasm Proteins/biosynthesis , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Organ Specificity , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Tissue Array Analysis , Vero Cells
3.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 52, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136226

ABSTRACT

In vitro-transcribed messenger RNA-based therapeutics represent a relatively novel and highly efficient class of drugs. Several recently published studies emphasize the potential efficacy of mRNA vaccines in treating different types of malignant and infectious diseases where conventional vaccine strategies and platforms fail to elicit protective immune responses. mRNA vaccines have lately raised high interest as potent vaccines against SARS-CoV2. Direct application of mRNA or its electroporation into dendritic cells was shown to induce polyclonal CD4+ and CD8+ mediated antigen-specific T cell responses as well as the production of protective antibodies with the ability to eliminate transformed or infected cells. More importantly, the vaccine composition may include two or more mRNAs coding for different proteins or long peptides. This enables the induction of polyclonal immune responses against a broad variety of epitopes within the encoded antigens that are presented on various MHC complexes, thus avoiding the restriction to a certain HLA molecule or possible immune escape due to antigen-loss. The development and design of mRNA therapies was recently boosted by several critical innovations including the development of technologies for the production and delivery of high quality and stable mRNA. Several technical obstacles such as stability, delivery and immunogenicity were addressed in the past and gradually solved in the recent years.This review will summarize the most recent technological developments and application of mRNA vaccines in clinical trials and discusses the results, challenges and future directions with a special focus on the induced innate and adaptive immune responses.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines/genetics , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/therapy , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Animals , Antigens, Neoplasm/genetics , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Transfer Techniques , Humans , Immunity , Immunotherapy , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/metabolism , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/pathology , Neoplasms/pathology , RNA Stability , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
4.
Life Sci ; 258: 118170, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680463

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a major health concern worldwide. Due to the lack of specific medication and vaccination, drug-repurposing attempts has emerged as a promising approach and identified several human proteins interacting with the virus. This study aims to provide a comprehensive molecular profiling of the immune cell-enriched SARS-CoV-2 interacting protein USP13. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The list of immune cell-enriched proteins interacting with SARS-CoV-2 was retrieved from The Human Protein Atlas. Genomic alterations were identified using cBioPortal. Survival analysis was performed via Kaplan-Meier Plotter. Analyses of protein expression and tumor infiltration levels were carried out by TIMER. KEY FINDINGS: 14 human proteins that interact with SARS-CoV-2 were enriched in immune cells. Among these proteins, USP13 had the highest frequency of genomic alterations. Higher USP13 levels were correlated with improved survival in breast and lung cancers, while resulting in poor prognosis in ovarian and gastric cancers. Furthermore, copy number variations of USP13 significantly affected the infiltration levels of distinct subtypes of immune cells in head & neck, lung, ovarian and stomach cancers. Although our results suggested a tumor suppressor role for USP13 in lung cancer, in other cancers, its role seemed to be context-dependent. SIGNIFICANCE: It is critical to identify and characterize human proteins that interact with SARS-CoV-2 in order to have a better understanding of the disease and to develop better therapies/vaccines. Here, we provided a comprehensive molecular profiling the immune cell-enriched SARS-CoV-2 interacting protein USP13, which will be useful for future studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Endopeptidases/immunology , Leukocytes/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , DNA Copy Number Variations , Databases, Protein , Endopeptidases/genetics , Humans , Leukocytes/virology , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/virology , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases
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