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Br J Haematol ; 197(1): 41-51, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612851


Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is associated with immunocompromise and high risk of severe COVID-19 disease and mortality. Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) patients also have immune impairment. We evaluated humoural and cellular immune responses in 181 patients with CLL (160) and MBL (21) to correlate failed seroconversion [<50 AU/ml SARS-CoV-2 II IgG assay, antibody to spike protein; Abbott Diagnostics)] following each of two vaccine doses with clinical and laboratory parameters. Following first and second doses, 79.2% then 45% of CLL, and 50% then 9.5% of MBL patients respectively remained seronegative. There was significant association between post dose two antibody level with pre-vaccination reduced IgM (p < 0.0001), IgG2 (p < 0.035), and IgG3 (p < 0.046), and CLL therapy within 12 months (p < 0.001) in univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, reduced IgM (p < 0.0002) and active therapy (p < 0.0002) retained significance. Anti-spike protein levels varied widely and were lower in CLL than MBL patients, and both lower than in normal donors. Neutralisation activity showed anti-spike levels <1000 AU/ml were usually negative for both an early viral clade and the contemporary Delta variant and 72.9% of CLL and 53.3% of MBL failed to reach levels ≥1000 AU/ml. In a representative sample, ~80% had normal T-cell responses. Failed seroconversion occurred in 36.6% of treatment-naïve patients, in 78.1% on therapy, and in 85.7% on ibrutinib.

COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Lymphocytosis , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Lymphocytosis/complications , SARS-CoV-2