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BMJ Case Rep ; 16(5)2023 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315734


The heterophile antibody (also known as the Monospot) test is a useful screening tool for infectious mononucleosis (IM) resulting from primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. However, up to 10% of patients with IM are heterophile negative. Heterophile-negative patients who have lymphocytosis or atypical lymphocytes on peripheral blood smear should be further tested for EBV serologies, which include testing for specific IgM and IgG antibodies against viral capsid antigens, early antigens and EBV nuclear antigen proteins. A diagnostic dilemma arises when the patient has clinical and laboratory features of IM, but is both heterophile negative and seronegative for IM, as illustrated in this case presentation. To avoid missed diagnoses of IM, misdiagnosis of mononucleosis-like illnesses and unnecessary testing, knowledge of test characteristics and the evolving course of EBV serologies is important to assure and inform both the physician and the patient.

Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Infectious Mononucleosis , Lymphocytosis , Humans , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Lymphocytosis/diagnosis , Infectious Mononucleosis/diagnosis , Antigens, Viral , Fever , Antibodies, Viral
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(10)2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064085


We present a woman in her 40s who arrived at the emergency room with hypertension and optic ataxia. Her medical history is only relevant for obesity. Her lumbar puncture revealed high intracranial pressure and lymphocytic pleocytosis, and her neuroimaging tests, including angiography and venography, were normal. The patient improved after a cerebrospinal fluid drainage with a lumbar puncture, and her clinical manifestations resolved in parallel to the lymphocytic pleocytosis.The patient was diagnosed with a syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis and fully recovered 21 days after her discharge.

Lymphocytosis , Nervous System Diseases , Ataxia/etiology , Female , Humans , Leukocytosis , Lymphocytosis/diagnosis , Syndrome
Leuk Lymphoma ; 63(12): 2795-2806, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908540


Since first described almost two decades ago, there has been significant evolution in our definition and understanding of the biology and implications of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). This review provides an overview of the definition, classification, biology, and natural history of MBL, mainly focused on the dominant CLL-like phenotype form of MBL. The increasingly recognized implications of MBL with respect to immune dysfunction are discussed, particularly in view of the COVID-19 pandemic, along with management recommendations for MBL in the clinic.

COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Lymphocytosis , Neoplasms, Plasma Cell , Precancerous Conditions , Humans , Lymphocytosis/diagnosis , Lymphocytosis/etiology , Lymphocytosis/therapy , Pandemics , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnosis , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/therapy , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/epidemiology , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biology