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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(10): 1791-1799, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 triggers severe illness with high mortality in a subgroup of patients. Such a critical course of COVID-19 is thought to be associated with the development of cytokine storm, a condition seen in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). However, specific data demonstrating a clear association of cytokine storm with severe COVID-19 are still lacking. The aim of this study was to directly address whether immune activation in COVID-19 does indeed mimic the conditions found in these classic cytokine storm syndromes. METHODS: Levels of 22 biomarkers were quantified in serum samples from patients with COVID-19 (n = 30 patients, n = 83 longitudinal samples in total), patients with secondary HLH/MAS (n = 50), and healthy controls (n = 9). Measurements were performed using bead array assays and single-marker enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum biomarker levels were assessed for correlations with disease outcome. RESULTS: In patients with secondary HLH/MAS, we observed pronounced activation of the interleukin-18 (IL-18)-interferon-γ axis, increased serum levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and IL-8, and strongly reduced levels of soluble Fas ligand in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These observations appeared to discriminate immune dysregulation in critical COVID-19 from the well-recognized characteristics of other cytokine storm syndromes. CONCLUSION: Serum biomarker profiles clearly separate COVID-19 from MAS or secondary HLH in terms of distinguishing the severe systemic hyperinflammation that occurs following SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings could be useful in determining the efficacy of drugs targeting key molecules and pathways specifically associated with systemic cytokine storm conditions in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Interleukin-18/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
3.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 87, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259207

ABSTRACT

Cases of thrombotic thrombocytopenia induced by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have been reported recently. Herein, we describe the first case of another critical disorder, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), in a healthy individual after COVID-19 vaccination. A 43-year-old Chinese farmer developed malaise, vomiting, and persistent high fever (up to 39.7 °C) shortly after receiving the first dose of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. The initial evaluation showed pancytopenia (neutrophil count, 0.70 × 109/L; hemoglobin, 113 g/L; platelet, 27 × 109/L), elevated triglyceride (2.43 mmol/L), and decreased fibrinogen (1.41 g/L). Further tests showed high serum ferritin levels (8140.4 µg/L), low NK cell cytotoxicity (50.13%-60.83%), and positive tests for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA. Hemophagocytosis was observed in the bone marrow. Therefore, HLH was confirmed, and dexamethasone acetate (10 mg/day) was immediately prescribed without etoposide. Signs and abnormal laboratory results resolved gradually, and the patient was discharged. HLH is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome caused by aberrantly activated macrophages and cytotoxic T cells, which may rapidly progress to terminal multiple organ failure. In this case, HLH was induced by the COVID-19 vaccination immuno-stimulation on a chronic EBV infection background. This report indicates that it is crucial to exclude the presence of active EBV infection or other common viruses before COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Bone Marrow/pathology , Dexamethasone/analogs & derivatives , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1291-1301, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258939

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The clinical and laboratory features of severe COVID-19 infection overlap with those of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a hyperinflammatory disorder often associated with several viral infections. The clinical syndrome of HLH encompasses fever, organomegaly, cytopenias, hyperferritinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, raised transaminases, hypofibrinogenemia, absent natural killer (NK) cell activity, increased soluble CD25 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes. METHODS: We analyzed clinicopathological and laboratory features of thirteen patients with severe COVID-19 infection suspected to have HLH and found to have hemophagocytic histiocytosis on bone marrow examination (BME). RESULTS: Five of thirteen (38.46%) patients fulfilled five of eight HLH 2004 criteria and/or had a H-score ≥169. Three (23.08%) satisfied four of eight and remainder five (38.46%) satisfied three of eight HLH 2004 criteria. Fever, raised serum ferritin (13/13, 100%), transaminases (9/13, 69.23%), triglycerides (4/13, 30.76%), cytopenias (5/13, 38.46%), hypofibrinogenemia (2/13, 15.38%), and organomegaly (1/13, 7.69%) were observed in our patients. BME showed hemophagocytic histiocytosis without lymphocytosis in all. Contrary to HLH, lymphocytopenia (11/13, 84.61%), leukocytosis (7/13, 53.84%), neutrophilia (7/13, 53.84%), and hyperfibrinogenemia (7/13, 53.84%) were observed. Serum CRP, LDH, and plasma D-dimer were elevated in all, while serum albumin was decreased in 12 of 13 (92.3%) patients. Five patients recovered with high-dose pulsed corticosteroid therapy. CONCLUSION: The immune response associated with severe COVID-19 infection is similar to HLH with few differences. HLH should be suspected in severe COVID-19 infection although all patients may not fulfill required HLH diagnostic criteria. BME should be done in suspected cases so that appropriate therapy may be initiated early.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Proteins/analysis , Bone Marrow Examination , COVID-19/immunology , Creatinine/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment , Triglycerides/blood
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5474-5480, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219314

ABSTRACT

In this study, laboratorial parameters of hospitalized novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients, who were complicated with severe pneumonia, were compared with the findings of cytokine storm developing in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Severe pneumonia occurred as a result of cytokine storm in some patients who needed intensive care unit (ICU), and it is aimed to determine the precursive parameters in this situation. Also in this study, the aim is to identify laboratory criteria that predict worsening disease and ICU intensification, as well as the development of cytokine storm. This article comprises a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a single institution with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study includes 150 confirmed COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. When they were considered as severe pneumonia patients, the clinic and laboratory parameters of this group are compared with H-score criteria. Patients are divided into two subgroups; patients with worsened symptoms who were transferred into tertiary ICU, and patients with stable symptoms followed in the clinic. For the patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, after they become complicated with severe pneumonia, lymphocytopenia (55.3%), anemia (12.0%), thrombocytopenia (19.3%), hyperferritinemia (72.5%), hyperfibrinogenemia (63.7%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (90.8%), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) (31.3%), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) (20.7%) are detected. There were no significant changes in other parameters. Blood parameters between the pre-ICU period and the ICU period (in which their situation had been worsened and acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] was developed) were also compared. In the latter group lymphocyte levels were found significantly reduced (p = 0.01), and LDH, highly sensitive troponin (hs-troponin), procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no change in hemoglobin, leukocyte, platelet, ferritin, and liver function test levels, including patients who developed ARDS, similar to the cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. COVID-19 pneumonia has similar findings as hyperinflammatory syndromes but does not seem to have typical features as in cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. In the severe patient group who has started to develop ARDS signs, a decrease in lymphocyte level in addition to the elevated LDH, hs-troponin, procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels can be a predictor in progression to ICU admission and could help in the planning of anti-cytokine therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/immunology , Anemia/pathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/diagnosis , Hyperferritinemia/immunology , Hyperferritinemia/pathology , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Triglycerides/blood , Troponin/blood
6.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 1076029621992128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063147

ABSTRACT

Hyperferritinemia is associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), macrophage activation syndromes (MAS) and coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Autopsies of hyperferritinemic patients that succumbed to either sepsis, HLH, MAS or COVID-19 have revealed disseminated microvascular thromboses with von Willebrand factor (VWF)-, platelets-, and/or fibrin-rich microthrombi. It is unknown whether high plasma ferritin concentration actively promotes microvascular thrombosis, or merely serves as a prognostic biomarker in these patients. Here, we show that secretion of VWF from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) is significantly enhanced by 100,000 ng/ml of recombinant ferritin heavy chain protein (FHC). Ferritin fraction that was isolated by size exclusion chromatography from the plasma of critically ill HLH patients promoted VWF secretion from HUVEC, compared to similar fraction from non-critically ill control plasma. Furthermore, recombinant FHC moderately suppressed the activity of VWF cleaving metalloprotease ADAMTS-13. These observations suggest that a state of marked hyperferritinemia could promote thrombosis and organ injury by inducing endothelial VWF secretion and reducing the ADAMTS-13 activity.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Ferritins/metabolism , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/complications , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , ADAMTS13 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/immunology , Critical Illness , Ferritins/blood , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Oxidoreductases/blood , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/blood , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology
7.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 155(5): 627-637, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050118

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is associated with diverse clinical, including hematologic, abnormalities. We describe peripheral blood and bone marrow findings in deceased and living patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We examined bone marrows from 20 autopsies and 2 living patients with COVID-19 using H&E-stained slides and immunohistochemical stains. Clinical history and laboratory values were reviewed. HScore was calculated to estimate risk of hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH). RESULTS: The deceased patients included 12 men and 8 women (aged 32 to >89 years; median, 63 years). Hematologic abnormalities included frequent neutrophilic leukocytosis, lymphopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia; one patient showed striking erythrocytosis. The bone marrows were all normocellular to hypercellular, most showing maturing trilineage hematopoiesis with myeloid left shift. In all 19 evaluable bone marrows, hemophagocytic histiocytes were identified. The HScore for secondary HLH ranged from 35 to 269 (median, 125; >169 in 5 patients). Coinfections were identified in 6 patients. In 2 living patients, bone marrow showed maturing trilineage hematopoiesis, including one showing few hemophagocytic histiocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood from deceased patients with COVID-19 frequently showed neutrophilic leukocytosis, lymphopenia, and, rarely, secondary polycythemia; hemophagocytosis was common in their bone marrow. Consistent with other studies, we provide histopathologic evidence of secondary HLH development in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Bone Marrow/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Hematologic Diseases/virology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Marrow/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hematologic Diseases/blood , Hematologic Diseases/diagnosis , Hematologic Diseases/pathology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
8.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(8): 505-513, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this review we described the values of commonly available HScore laboratory markers in patients with coronavirus-19 (COVID-19)-pneumonia associated cytokine storm syndrome (CPN-CSS) and compared results with those of other forms cytokine storm syndrome (O-CSS) to determine a pattern for CPN-CSS. Twelve CPN-CSS studies and six O-CSS studies were included. CPN-CSS typically obtained a single HScore value (e.g., aspartate transaminase > 30 U/L) while failing all other HScore criteria. A typical pattern for CPN-CSS was revealed when compared to O-CSS: lymphopenia vs. pancytopenia and increased vs. decreased fibrinogen. Findings, other than HScore commonly found in CPN-CSS studies, showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, and C-reactive protein. Although CPN-CSS studies describe severely ill patients, the HScore markers are typically less toxic that O-CSS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/virology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphopenia/virology , Pancytopenia/etiology , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 42(6): 773-779, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713319

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A hyperinflammatory environment has been a hallmark of COVID-19 infection and is thought to be a key mediator of morbidity. Elevated ferritin has been observed in many patients with COVID-19. Several retrospective studies have shown ferritin levels can be correlated and predictive of poor outcomes in COVID-19, though a rigorous analysis has been lacking. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 942 adult COVID-19 patients admitted in March 2020 at a large New York City health system with available ferritin levels. RESULTS: The primary outcome, all-cause mortality, was observed in 265 (28.1%) patients. Patients who died had a significantly higher median admission and maximum ferritin levels than those who did not. However, death was poorly predicted by admission and maximum ferritin levels on receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis, with AUCs of 0.677 and 0.638, respectively. AUCs increased when the cohort was limited to progressively younger patients. Ferritin levels were minimally better at predicting our secondary outcomes. These included mechanical ventilation, observed in 280 (29.7%) patients with an ROC yielding an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.769, and new renal replacement therapy, observed in 80 (8.5%) of patients with an ROC yielding an AUC of 0.787. We also performed a subset analysis on 22 patients with ferritins >20 000 ng/mL. None of the patients met HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria. Fifteen (68.2%) of these patients had suspected or confirmed bacterial infections. CONCLUSIONS: Though many patients with COVID-19 present with hyperferritinemia, elevated ferritin levels are not accurate predictors of outcomes and do not appear to be indicative of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Ferritins/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Aged , Area Under Curve , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Renal Dialysis , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 59(6): 102881, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665570

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19), has caused a pandemic. Few data are available about the risk of COVID-19 infection in persons with hematological cancer, but controversy whether these persons have the same clinical signs and outcomes. We describe a case of life-threatening COVID-19 infection complicated by severe anemia in patients affected also by chronic myelogenous leukemia. The screening for RBC antibodies and the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) turned positive. The identification of the antibodies, showed the presence of an alloantibody with anti-Lewis b specificity, which was reactive at room temperature, in the anti-human globulin phase (AGH) and with papain-treated red blood cells. At the same time hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), on the basis of major laboratory findings including hyperferritnemia, increase of triglicerides levels and according to the HLH score was suspected. Patients received antiviral therapy, steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. Hemolysis resolved and ferritin dramatically decreased after administration of Ig and a Afull recovery was achieved after viral infection resolution.This case highlights the novel and multifaceted hematological findings during sever COVID 19 infection. COVID 19-related pneumonia is mediated by hyper activation of effector T cells and excessive production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1, interferon-gamma, and TNF. This inflammatory process called "cytokine storm" is a life-threatening complication of COVID 19 infection. In this case severe immunohematological consequences are reported for the first time and recognition of this complications are probably underestimated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines/blood , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/blood , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/diagnostic imaging , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnostic imaging , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Chest ; 158(1): e15-e19, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-213323

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in late December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, COVID-19 has become a pandemic affecting more than 4.1 million people worldwide. Patients with COVID-19 have a wide spectrum of manifestations, one being cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and its fatal correlate, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Anti-cytokine therapy such as tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor antagonist, is a potential treatment for COVID-19; however, data regarding the efficacy of this anti-IL-6 therapy are currently lacking. We report two cases of patients who received a diagnosis of COVID-19 complicated by CRS and were treated with tocilizumab. Both patients progressed to sHLH despite treatment with tocilizumab, and one developed viral myocarditis, challenging the safety and clinical usefulness of tocilizumab in the treatment of COVID-19-induced CRS. These cases highlight the need for clinical trials to determine optimal patient selection and timing for the use of tocilizumab during this disease process.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Male , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/etiology , Shock, Septic/therapy
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