Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 33
Filter
1.
Hosp Pediatr ; 12(5): e162-e170, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To compare previous hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis criteria with adult coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated hyperinflammatory syndrome (cHIS) criteria for the diagnosis of hyperinflammation in pediatric patients with COVID-19. The secondary objective was to assess treatment response to intravenous (IV) anakinra in these patients. METHODS: This case series included children admitted to the PICU for COVID-19 pneumonia with hyperinflammation and treated with IV anakinra between July 2020 to April 2021. Hyperinflammatory criteria were determined for each patient. Clinical course, chest imaging, and inflammatory marker trends were assessed pre- and post-anakinra treatment. RESULTS: All patients had a cHIS criteria score of ≥5. Two patients met 2004-hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis criteria. Only the patient that required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation met the H-Score cut-off value. All but one patient had a decrease in their inflammatory markers and improvement in clinical status with early initiation of adjunctive IV anakinra. CONCLUSIONS: In this case series, adult cHIS criteria were successfully used to identify pediatric COVID-19 patients with hyperinflammation. Ferritin levels decreased after the early initiation of IV anakinra.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Pneumonia , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
2.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715131

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 patients present a clinical and laboratory overlap with other hyperinflammatory conditions such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). However, the underlying mechanisms of these conditions remain to be explored. Here, we investigated the transcriptome of 1596 individuals, including patients with COVID-19 in comparison to healthy controls, other acute inflammatory states (HLH, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children [MIS-C], Kawasaki disease [KD]), and different respiratory infections (seasonal coronavirus, influenza, bacterial pneumonia). We observed that COVID-19 and HLH share immunological pathways (cytokine/chemokine signaling and neutrophil-mediated immune responses), including gene signatures that stratify COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and COVID-19_nonICU patients. Of note, among the common differentially expressed genes (DEG), there is a cluster of neutrophil-associated genes that reflects a generalized hyperinflammatory state since it is also dysregulated in patients with KD and bacterial pneumonia. These genes are dysregulated at the protein level across several COVID-19 studies and form an interconnected network with differentially expressed plasma proteins that point to neutrophil hyperactivation in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. scRNAseq analysis indicated that these genes are specifically upregulated across different leukocyte populations, including lymphocyte subsets and immature neutrophils. Artificial intelligence modeling confirmed the strong association of these genes with COVID-19 severity. Thus, our work indicates putative therapeutic pathways for intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Neutrophil Activation , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566338

ABSTRACT

We describe two young cases of reactive haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with the resultant stress cardiomyopathy in the setting of underlying autoimmune diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Still's disease. The initial presentation was similar in both cases with fever, hyperinflammatory response, hypotension (vasoplegia), bicytopenia and hyperferritinemia. Despite standard of care and multiple broad-spectrum antibiotics, both cases remained pyrexic and were ultimately admitted to the intensive therapy unit to treat cardiogenic shock. Echocardiogram of both cases showed low ejection fraction, the cause for which was not found until the final diagnosis of HLH was made. Both cases made a complete clinical and cardiac recovery following the initiation of high-dose glucocorticoids and anakinra.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/drug therapy
5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 219-223, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530139

ABSTRACT

While severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection primarily causes inflammation in the respiratory system, there is growing evidence of extrapulmonary tissue damage mediated by the host innate immune system in children and adults. A cytokine storm can manifest as a viral-induced haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Here, we present a previously healthy 8-year-old boy with newly diagnosed cardiac injury and COVID-19-related HLH syndrome with haemophagocytosis in bone marrow biopsy. After remission of inflammation, the patient underwent a heart transplant due to persistent cardiac failure. The histology of the explanted heart showed only a focal subtle subendocardial inflammation. Three days after transplant, he developed progressive acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with the rise of inflammatory markers. He unfortunately died after 20 days because of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). For the first time, we described a child with COVID-19-related HLH and severe cardiac failure, which had a poor prognosis despite a heart transplant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Adult , Child , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Male , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 811, 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a severe hyperinflammatory disease, whose diagnosis is based on the HLH-2004 criteria. In secondary forms of HLH (sHLH), the primary goal is treating the triggering factors such as COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019). The link between the cytokine storm related to COVID-19 and development of sHLH has already been reported since the onset of pandemic, but little is known about clinical manifestations of HLH which develop after the patient's recovery from mild symptomatic or asymptomatic Sars-CoV-2 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a woman diagnosed with sHLH related to previous Sars-CoV-2 infection and successfully treated with steroids, colchicine, etoposide and ruxolitinib. CONCLUSIONS: Our report suggests that HLH-like syndrome might be secondary to Sars-CoV-2 infection, even if the patient utterly recovered from the mildly symptomatic viral infection. In addition, we underline the treatment with low dose ruxolitinib plus etoposide as a potential choice for Sars-CoV-2 infection related HLH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Female , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406643

ABSTRACT

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) causing multiorgan failure has been reported as an acute clinical presentation of COVID-19. However, the literature surrounding HLH in the context of a postacute COVID-19 syndrome is limited. This report presents a case of a life-threatening HLH occurring 6 weeks after a pauci-symptomatic COVID-19 infection in a previously healthy adult. A bone marrow aspirate confirmed the HLH and the patient was successfully treated with dexamethasone and etoposide. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HLH occurring as a postacute COVID-19 syndrome following a pauci-symptomatic initial infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Adult , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(10): 1791-1799, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 triggers severe illness with high mortality in a subgroup of patients. Such a critical course of COVID-19 is thought to be associated with the development of cytokine storm, a condition seen in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). However, specific data demonstrating a clear association of cytokine storm with severe COVID-19 are still lacking. The aim of this study was to directly address whether immune activation in COVID-19 does indeed mimic the conditions found in these classic cytokine storm syndromes. METHODS: Levels of 22 biomarkers were quantified in serum samples from patients with COVID-19 (n = 30 patients, n = 83 longitudinal samples in total), patients with secondary HLH/MAS (n = 50), and healthy controls (n = 9). Measurements were performed using bead array assays and single-marker enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum biomarker levels were assessed for correlations with disease outcome. RESULTS: In patients with secondary HLH/MAS, we observed pronounced activation of the interleukin-18 (IL-18)-interferon-γ axis, increased serum levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and IL-8, and strongly reduced levels of soluble Fas ligand in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These observations appeared to discriminate immune dysregulation in critical COVID-19 from the well-recognized characteristics of other cytokine storm syndromes. CONCLUSION: Serum biomarker profiles clearly separate COVID-19 from MAS or secondary HLH in terms of distinguishing the severe systemic hyperinflammation that occurs following SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings could be useful in determining the efficacy of drugs targeting key molecules and pathways specifically associated with systemic cytokine storm conditions in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Interleukin-18/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314667

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic examines not only the state of actual health care but also the state of fundamental medicine in various countries. Pro-inflammatory processes extend far beyond the classical concepts of inflammation. They manifest themselves in a variety of ways, beginning with extreme physiology, then allostasis at low-grade inflammation, and finally the shockogenic phenomenon of "inflammatory systemic microcirculation". The pathogenetic core of critical situations, including COVID-19, is this phenomenon. Microcirculatory abnormalities, on the other hand, lie at the heart of a specific type of general pathological process known as systemic inflammation (SI). Systemic inflammatory response, cytokine release, cytokine storm, and thrombo-inflammatory syndrome are all terms that refer to different aspects of SI. As a result, the metabolic syndrome model does not adequately reflect the pathophysiology of persistent low-grade systemic inflammation (ChSLGI). Diseases associated with ChSLGI, on the other hand, are risk factors for a severe COVID-19 course. The review examines the role of hypoxia, metabolic dysfunction, scavenger receptors, and pattern-recognition receptors, as well as the processes of the hemophagocytic syndrome, in the systemic alteration and development of SI in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Inflammation/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236429

ABSTRACT

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis has been reported as an uncommon complication of severe COVID-19 disease while thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura has been rarely reported. Here, we are reporting a 21-year-old man who developed a combination of these complications during the hospital stay in the post-COVID-19 recovery period. He presented with fever and bilateral COVID-19-related pneumonia requiring invasive ventilation. His hospital course was complicated by the development of pneumothorax, ventilator-associated pneumonia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. He received remdesivir, IVIG, steroid, fresh frozen plasma and supportive care but had a fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Adult , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Male , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/complications , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166386

ABSTRACT

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare diagnosis that carries a high degree of mortality. We present this case of a previously healthy 22-year-old woman, who was admitted acutely ill to the hospital. One week prior, she had been seen by her primary care physician for fatigue and malaise. At that time, she was noted to have anterior and posterior cervical lymphadenopathy. She was referred to the emergency room and was diagnosed with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mononucleosis based on her clinical symptoms and positive heterophile antibody test. She was discharged after an uneventful 48-hour stay on the wards. She represented 7 days after discharge with cough, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, epigastric abdominal pain, diarrhoea, weight loss and subjective fevers. She had also reported haematemesis, epistaxis and melaena. Vital signs included temperature 36.9°C, blood pressure 90/50 mm Hg, heart rate 130 beats per minute and respiratory rate 32 breaths per minute. Physical examination was notable for an acutely ill appearing woman with scleral icterus, hepatosplenomegaly and palpable cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy. Complete blood count showed pancytopaenia with haemoglobin 59 g/L (normal 120-160 g/L), white blood cell count 2.7×109/L (normal 4-10.5×109/L) and platelet count 50×109/L (normal 150-450×109/L). The white blood cell count differential included 58% neutrophils (normal 38%-77%) with immature neutrophils in band form elevated at 45% (normal <14%), 16% lymphocytes (normal 20%-48%), 7% monocytes (normal <12%) and no eosinophils (normal <6%). Blood smear revealed anisocytosis, poikilocytosis and hypochromia. Coagulation panel showed elevated levels of d-dimer level at 1.39 µg/mL (normal <0.45 µg/mL), prolonged prothrombin time at 34.4 s (normal 11-15 s), prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time of 55.6 s (normal 25-34 s), prolonged international normalised ratio at 3.31 (normal <1.1) and low fibrinogen 60 mg/dL (normal >200 mg/dL). Lipid panel showed cholesterol at 114 mg/dL (normal 125-200 mg/dL), triglycerides 207 mg/dL (normal 30-150 mg/dL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol 10 mg/dL (normal 40-60 mg/dL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 63 mg/dL (normal <100 mg/dL). Other lab abnormalities included elevated ferritin of 6513 ng/mL (normal 10-150 ng/mL) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase of 1071 unit/L (normal 95-240 unit/L). Soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha level was elevated at 60 727 units/mL (normal 223-710 units/mL). Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan showed abnormal tracer localisation within the paratracheal, hilar, pelvic, abdominal and subcarinal lymph nodes, along with FDG-PET positive hepatosplenomegaly. A bone marrow biopsy showed hypercellular marrow (95% cellularity) with trilineage haematopoiesis, haemophagocytic cells, polytypic plasmacytosis and T-cell lymphocytosis, along with positive latent membrane protein-1 immunohistochemical staining for EBV. EBV quantitative DNA PCR showed >1 million copies. These findings were consistent with a diagnosis of HLH secondary to EBV infection. Despite intense therapy with the HLH-94 protocol, the patient expired from her illness after a prolonged hospital course.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Infectious Mononucleosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Pancytopenia , Adult , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Young Adult
15.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(3): e1008810, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121603

ABSTRACT

Abnormal coagulation and an increased risk of thrombosis are features of severe COVID-19, with parallels proposed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a life-threating condition associated with hyperinflammation. The presence of HLH was described in severely ill patients during the H1N1 influenza epidemic, presenting with pulmonary vascular thrombosis. We tested the hypothesis that genes causing primary HLH regulate pathways linking pulmonary thromboembolism to the presence of SARS-CoV-2 using novel network-informed computational algorithms. This approach led to the identification of Neutrophils Extracellular Traps (NETs) as plausible mediators of vascular thrombosis in severe COVID-19 in children and adults. Taken together, the network-informed analysis led us to propose the following model: the release of NETs in response to inflammatory signals acting in concert with SARS-CoV-2 damage the endothelium and direct platelet-activation promoting abnormal coagulation leading to serious complications of COVID-19. The underlying hypothesis is that genetic and/or environmental conditions that favor the release of NETs may predispose individuals to thrombotic complications of COVID-19 due to an increase risk of abnormal coagulation. This would be a common pathogenic mechanism in conditions including autoimmune/infectious diseases, hematologic and metabolic disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Extracellular Traps/genetics , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/genetics , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/genetics , Algorithms , Cell Degranulation/genetics , Computational Biology , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Pandemics , Protein Interaction Maps , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
16.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e927087, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disease characterized by an intense immunologic response that results in multiorgan dysfunction. It typically manifests as a result of a familial genetic immunodeficiency disorder or secondary to a trigger such as an infection, malignancy, or autoimmune disease. The major factors involved in the development of the disease are an individual's genetic propensity to develop HLH, such as rare associated mutations, or inflammatory processes that trigger the immune system to go haywire. CASE REPORT Before the COVID-19 pandemic, a 22-year-old woman with a history of congenital absence of the right kidney, right-sided hearing loss, and leukopenia presented with a 3-week history of generalized malaise, fever, chest pain, cough, and shortness of breath. She developed an acute systemic cytomegalovirus infection further complicated by HLH. Based on her history and clinical course, an underlying primary immunodeficiency was suspected. An immunodeficiency gene panel revealed a monoallelic mutation in GATA2, a gene that encodes zinc-transcription factors responsible for the regulation of hematopoiesis. CONCLUSIONS GATA2 deficiency encompasses a large variety of mutations in the GATA2 gene and leads to disorders associated with hematologic and immunologic manifestations of monocytopenia and B-, and natural killer-cell deficiency. Over time, affected individuals are at high risk of developing life-threatening infections and serious hematologic complications, such as myelodysplastic syndromes and/or leukemias. We aimed to illustrate the importance of identifying an underlying genetic disorder associated with secondary HLH to help guide acute and long-term management.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , GATA2 Deficiency/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Female , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Young Adult
17.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(1): 7-18, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064458

ABSTRACT

Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an acute and rapidly progressive systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by cytopenia, excessive cytokine production, and hyperferritinemia. Common clinical manifestations of HLH are acute unremitting fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and multiorgan failure. Due to a massive cytokine release, this clinical condition is considered as a cytokine storm syndrome. HPS has primary and acquired (secondary, reactive) forms. Its primary form is mostly seen in childhood and caused by various mutations with genetic inheritance and, therefore, is called familial HLH. Secondary HLH may be caused in the presence of an underlying disorder, that is, secondary to a malignant, infectious, or autoimmune/autoinflammatory stimulus. This paper aims to review the pathogenesis and the clinical picture of HLH, and its severe complication, the cytokine storm, with a special emphasis on the developed classification criteria sets for rheumatologists, since COVID-19 infection has clinical symptoms resembling those of the common rheumatologic conditions and possibly triggers HLH. MED-LINE/Pubmed was searched from inception to April 2020, and the following terms were used for data searching: "hemophagocytic syndrome" OR "macrophage activation syndrome" OR "hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis", OR "cytokine storm". Finally, AND "COVID-19" was included in this algorithm. The selection is restricted to the past 5 years and limited numbers of earlier key references were manually selected. Only full-text manuscripts, published in an English language peer-reviewed journal were included. Manuscript selection procedure and numbers are given in Fig. 2. Briefly, the database search with the following terms of "Hemophagocytic syndrome" OR "Macrophage activation syndrome" OR "Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis" OR "Cytokine storm" yielded 6744 results from inception to April 2020. The selection is restricted to the past 5 years and only limited numbers of earlier key references were selected, and this algorithm resulted in 3080 manuscripts. The addition of (AND "COVID-19") resulted in 115 publications of which 47 studies, together with four sections of an online book were used in the final review. No statistical method was used. HLH is triggered by genetic conditions, infections, malignancies, autoimmune-autoinflammatory diseases, and some drugs. In COVID-19 patients, secondary HLH and cytokine storm may be responsible for unexplained progressive fever, cytopenia, ARDS, neurological and renal impairment. Differentiation between the primary and secondary forms of HLH is utterly important, since primary form of HLH requires complicated treatments such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Further studies addressing the performance of HScore and other recommendations in the classification of these patients is necessary.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/physiopathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics , Rheumatology/methods , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 1076029621992128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063147

ABSTRACT

Hyperferritinemia is associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), macrophage activation syndromes (MAS) and coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Autopsies of hyperferritinemic patients that succumbed to either sepsis, HLH, MAS or COVID-19 have revealed disseminated microvascular thromboses with von Willebrand factor (VWF)-, platelets-, and/or fibrin-rich microthrombi. It is unknown whether high plasma ferritin concentration actively promotes microvascular thrombosis, or merely serves as a prognostic biomarker in these patients. Here, we show that secretion of VWF from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) is significantly enhanced by 100,000 ng/ml of recombinant ferritin heavy chain protein (FHC). Ferritin fraction that was isolated by size exclusion chromatography from the plasma of critically ill HLH patients promoted VWF secretion from HUVEC, compared to similar fraction from non-critically ill control plasma. Furthermore, recombinant FHC moderately suppressed the activity of VWF cleaving metalloprotease ADAMTS-13. These observations suggest that a state of marked hyperferritinemia could promote thrombosis and organ injury by inducing endothelial VWF secretion and reducing the ADAMTS-13 activity.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Ferritins/metabolism , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/complications , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , ADAMTS13 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/immunology , Critical Illness , Ferritins/blood , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Oxidoreductases/blood , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/blood , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology
20.
Clin Rheumatol ; 40(4): 1233-1244, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002103

ABSTRACT

Primary and secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) are hyperferritinaemic hyperinflammatory syndromes with a common terminal pathway triggered by different etiopathogenetic factors. HLH is characterised by a decreased capacity of interferon gamma production with an activated NK phenotype profile similar to other hyperinflammatory syndromes. Viruses are closely linked to the development of HLH as infectious triggers, and the break of tolerance to self-antigens is considered a critical mechanism involved in the development of immune-mediated conditions triggered by viral infections. Emerging studies in patients with COVID-19 are suggesting a key role of monocytes/macrophages in the pathogenesis of this viral infection, and there is a significant overlap between several features reported in severe COVID-19 and the features included in the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria. Therefore, SARS-Cov-2, as other respiratory viruses, may also be considered a potential etiological trigger of HLH. The frequency of HLH in adult patients with severe COVID-19 is lower than 5%, although this figure could be underestimated considering that most reported cases lacked information about some specific criteria (mainly the histopathological criteria and the measurement of NK cell function and sCD25 levels). Because HLH is a multi-organ syndrome, the diagnostic approach in a patient with severe COVID-19 in whom HLH is suspected must be carried out in a syndromic and holistic way, and not in the light of isolated clinical or laboratory features. In COVID-19 patients presenting with persistent high fever, progressive pancytopenia, and hepatosplenic involvement, together with the characteristic triad of laboratory abnormalities (hyperferritinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, and hypofibrinogenaemia), the suspicion of HLH is high, and the diagnostic workup must be completed with specific immunological and histopathological studies.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/physiopathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics , Rheumatology/methods , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL