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2.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(4): 543-546, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211412

ABSTRACT

Down syndrome (DS) predisposes to severe immunologic reaction secondary to infectious triggers. Here, we report a pediatric DS patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who developed a hyperinflammatory syndrome, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis requiring pediatric intensive care unit admission and treatment with steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and remdesivir. Investigations into genetic susceptibilities for COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated complications warrant systematic clinical and scientific studies. We report a pediatric Down syndrome patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who developed secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis requiring treatment with steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and remdesivir. Investigations into genetic susceptibilities for COVID-19-associated complications warrant systematic clinical and scientific studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Down Syndrome/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Child, Preschool , Critical Care , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Male , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
3.
J Exp Med ; 218(6)2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203555

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) emerged in April 2020 in communities with high COVID-19 rates. This new condition is heterogenous but resembles Kawasaki disease (KD), a well-known but poorly understood and clinically heterogenous pediatric inflammatory condition for which weak associations have been found with a myriad of viral illnesses. Epidemiological data clearly indicate that SARS-CoV-2 is the trigger for MIS-C, which typically occurs about 1 mo after infection. These findings support the hypothesis of viral triggers for the various forms of classic KD. We further suggest that rare inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) altering the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 may underlie the pathogenesis of MIS-C in some children. The discovery of monogenic IEIs underlying MIS-C would shed light on its pathogenesis, paving the way for a new genetic approach to classic KD, revisited as a heterogeneous collection of IEIs to viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/genetics , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Cytokines/blood , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/genetics , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Models, Biological , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology
5.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e927087, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disease characterized by an intense immunologic response that results in multiorgan dysfunction. It typically manifests as a result of a familial genetic immunodeficiency disorder or secondary to a trigger such as an infection, malignancy, or autoimmune disease. The major factors involved in the development of the disease are an individual's genetic propensity to develop HLH, such as rare associated mutations, or inflammatory processes that trigger the immune system to go haywire. CASE REPORT Before the COVID-19 pandemic, a 22-year-old woman with a history of congenital absence of the right kidney, right-sided hearing loss, and leukopenia presented with a 3-week history of generalized malaise, fever, chest pain, cough, and shortness of breath. She developed an acute systemic cytomegalovirus infection further complicated by HLH. Based on her history and clinical course, an underlying primary immunodeficiency was suspected. An immunodeficiency gene panel revealed a monoallelic mutation in GATA2, a gene that encodes zinc-transcription factors responsible for the regulation of hematopoiesis. CONCLUSIONS GATA2 deficiency encompasses a large variety of mutations in the GATA2 gene and leads to disorders associated with hematologic and immunologic manifestations of monocytopenia and B-, and natural killer-cell deficiency. Over time, affected individuals are at high risk of developing life-threatening infections and serious hematologic complications, such as myelodysplastic syndromes and/or leukemias. We aimed to illustrate the importance of identifying an underlying genetic disorder associated with secondary HLH to help guide acute and long-term management.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , GATA2 Deficiency/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Female , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Young Adult
7.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 155(5): 627-637, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050118

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is associated with diverse clinical, including hematologic, abnormalities. We describe peripheral blood and bone marrow findings in deceased and living patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We examined bone marrows from 20 autopsies and 2 living patients with COVID-19 using H&E-stained slides and immunohistochemical stains. Clinical history and laboratory values were reviewed. HScore was calculated to estimate risk of hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH). RESULTS: The deceased patients included 12 men and 8 women (aged 32 to >89 years; median, 63 years). Hematologic abnormalities included frequent neutrophilic leukocytosis, lymphopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia; one patient showed striking erythrocytosis. The bone marrows were all normocellular to hypercellular, most showing maturing trilineage hematopoiesis with myeloid left shift. In all 19 evaluable bone marrows, hemophagocytic histiocytes were identified. The HScore for secondary HLH ranged from 35 to 269 (median, 125; >169 in 5 patients). Coinfections were identified in 6 patients. In 2 living patients, bone marrow showed maturing trilineage hematopoiesis, including one showing few hemophagocytic histiocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood from deceased patients with COVID-19 frequently showed neutrophilic leukocytosis, lymphopenia, and, rarely, secondary polycythemia; hemophagocytosis was common in their bone marrow. Consistent with other studies, we provide histopathologic evidence of secondary HLH development in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Bone Marrow/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Hematologic Diseases/virology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Marrow/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hematologic Diseases/blood , Hematologic Diseases/diagnosis , Hematologic Diseases/pathology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
8.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 154(4): 466-474, 2020 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015195

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A subset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients exhibit clinical features of cytokine storm. However, clinicopathologic features diagnostic of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) have not been reported. We studied the reticuloendothelial organs of 4 consecutive patients who died of COVID-19 and correlated with clinical and laboratory parameters to detect HLH. METHODS: Autopsies were performed on 4 patients who died of COVID-19. Routine H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining for CD163 were performed to detect hemophagocytosis. Clinical and laboratory results from premortem blood samples were used to calculate H-scores. RESULTS: All 4 cases demonstrated diffuse alveolar damage within the lungs. Three of the 4 cases had histologic evidence of hemophagocytosis within pulmonary lymph nodes. One case showed hemophagocytosis in the spleen but none showed hemophagocytosis in liver or bone marrow. Lymphophagocytosis was the predominant form of hemophagocytosis observed. One patient showed diagnostic features of HLH with an H-score of 217, while a second patient likely had HLH with a partial H-score of 145 due to a missing triglyceride level. The remaining 2 patients had H-scores of 131 and 96. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-associated HLH. Identification of HLH in a subset of patients with severe COVID-19 will inform clinical trials of therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Bone Marrow/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Spleen/pathology
9.
Histopathology ; 78(5): 727-737, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991400

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Haemophagocytosis in the bone marrow of patients who have succumbed to coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has not been widely studied. The aims of the present study were to perform morphological analyses and morphometry of haemophagocytosis in the bone marrow of patients with severe COVID-19, and to correlate the findings with the clinical course of the disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this single-centre study performed at the University Hospital Jena, bone marrow specimens of 15 deceased patients who had experienced a severe course of COVID-19 were sampled from the vertebral column during autopsy. Slides of the bone marrow were stained with routine stains or immunohistochemically, and further examined for haemophagocytosis by the use of light microscopy. To substantiate the morphological findings, additional slides were stained for CD163 and morphometry was performed. In all bone marrow samples, an increase in cellularity was found. Haemophagocytes with erythrophagocytosis were detected in 67% of the deceased patients. In tissues with low numbers of haemophagocytes or ill-defined haemophagocytes, an increase in iron deposits was frequently seen. Morphological findings were then correlated with several important clinical data, and the HScore (probability of having a reactive hemophagocytic syndrome) was calculated to posthumously confirm the diagnosis of secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The median duration of disease and the hospitalisation time were lower in patients with haemophagocytosis (n = 10) than in patients without haemophagocytosis (n = 5). In addition, patients with haemophagocytes showed increased inflammatory parameters 2-5 days prior to death, in contrast to patients without haemophagocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Haemophagocytosis is a common finding in the bone marrow of deceased individuals with severe COVID-19, and may indicate fatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Bone Marrow/pathology , Bone Marrow/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Male , Middle Aged
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2055, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807548

ABSTRACT

The clinical and laboratory features of COVID-19 are reviewed with attention to the immunologic manifestations of the disease. Recent COVID-19 publications describe a variety of clinical presentations including an asymptomatic state, pneumonia, a hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis like syndrome, Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) but, also called Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome-Toxic Shock (PIMS-TS), Kawasaki Disease, and myocarditis. A common theme amongst multiple reports suggests an overexuberant autoimmune component of the disease but a common pathophysiology to explain the variations in clinical presentation has been elusive. Review of the basic science of other viral induced autoimmune disorders may give clues as to why immunosuppressive and immunomodulating regimens now appear to have some efficacy in COVID-19. Review of the immunopathology also reveals other therapies that have yet to be explored. There is potential use of T cell depleting therapies and possibly anti-CD20 therapy for COVID-19 and clinical research using these medications is warranted.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Lymphocyte Depletion , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/pathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/pathology
11.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(1): 5-9, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796862

ABSTRACT

IMPACT STATEMENT: Severe COVID-19 associated pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome has recently been described with life-threatening features of cytokine storm and loosely referred to as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Although a recent report indicated favorable responses to the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra in eight patients with COVID-19 secondary HLH diagnosed using the HScore calculation, others have suggested that the diagnosis of secondary HLH is uncommon and that the use of the HScore has limited value in guiding immunomodulatory therapy for COVID-19. Here, we provide additional perspective on this important controversy based upon comparisons between 14 COVID-19 cytokine storm patients and 10 secondary HLH patients seen immediately prior to the pandemic. We hypothesize that identification of HLH may relate to the severity or timing of cytokine release and suggest distinguishing between cytokine release syndrome and secondary HLH, reserving the latter term for cases fulfilling diagnostic criteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Splenomegaly/etiology
14.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 214, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, a disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), commonly presents as fever, cough, dyspnea, and myalgia or fatigue. Although the majority of patients with COVID-19 have mild symptoms, some are more prone to serious outcomes, including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a severe, life-threatening inflammatory syndrome associated with intense cytokine release (also known as a "cytokine storm"). Similar to COVID-19, HLH is characterized by aggressive course leading to multi-organ failure. MAIN TEXT: The purpose of this review article is to draw attention to the possibility of the complication of HLH in patients with the severe course of COVID-19. Indeed, some of the clinical characteristics observed in the more severe cases of COVID-19 are reminiscent of secondary HLH (which can be triggered by infections, malignancies, rheumatological diseases, or autoimmune/immunodeficiency conditions). The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection also suggests that HLH or a similar hyperinflammatory syndrome is the cause of the severe course of the infection. CONCLUSION: The pathogenesis and clinical symptoms of severe COVID-19 indicate that an increased inflammatory response corresponding to HLH is occurring. Therefore, patients with severe COVID-19 should be screened for hyperinflammation using standard laboratory tests to identify those for whom immunosuppressive therapy may improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Mod Pathol ; 33(11): 2139-2146, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634770

ABSTRACT

The spectrum of COVID-19 infection includes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), although the histological basis for these disorders has not been thoroughly explored. Post-mortem pulmonary and bone marrow biopsies were performed in 33 patients. Samples were studied with a combination of morphological and immunohistochemical techniques. Bone marrow studies were also performed in three living patients. Bone marrow post-mortem studies showed striking lesions of histiocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis (HHH) in most (16/17) cases. This was also observed in three alive patients, where it mimicked the changes observed in hemophagocytic histiocytosis. Pulmonary changes included a combination of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrinous microthrombi predominantly involving small vessels, in particular the alveolar capillary. These findings were associated with the analytical and clinical symptoms, which helps us understand the respiratory insufficiency and reveal the histological substrate for the macrophage activation syndrome-like exhibited by these patients. Our results confirm that COVID-19 infection triggers a systemic immune-inflammatory disease and allow specific therapies to be proposed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Histiocytes/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Bone Marrow/pathology , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Hyperplasia/pathology , Hyperplasia/virology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Chest ; 158(1): e15-e19, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-213323

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in late December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, COVID-19 has become a pandemic affecting more than 4.1 million people worldwide. Patients with COVID-19 have a wide spectrum of manifestations, one being cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and its fatal correlate, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Anti-cytokine therapy such as tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor antagonist, is a potential treatment for COVID-19; however, data regarding the efficacy of this anti-IL-6 therapy are currently lacking. We report two cases of patients who received a diagnosis of COVID-19 complicated by CRS and were treated with tocilizumab. Both patients progressed to sHLH despite treatment with tocilizumab, and one developed viral myocarditis, challenging the safety and clinical usefulness of tocilizumab in the treatment of COVID-19-induced CRS. These cases highlight the need for clinical trials to determine optimal patient selection and timing for the use of tocilizumab during this disease process.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/virology , Male , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/etiology , Shock, Septic/therapy
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