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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 860891, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834406

ABSTRACT

Immunosuppressant conditions such as hematological malignancies increase the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. It has been described in the literature that patients on anti-CD20 maintenance therapies for lymphoid malignancies are susceptible to having recurrent flares together with viral replication or reinfections, although these cases are scarce. These patients are not well represented in randomized controlled trials, and as a consequence, the evidence for the use of certain treatments in this scenario is lacking. We present two cases of patients with B-cell lymphoma on remission and treated with rituximab on maintenance. They developed at least 1 flare of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after acute infection and always after receiving rituximab. RT-PCR was positive in the nasopharyngeal swab and also in plasma. Patients were treated during flares with remdesivir, hyperimmune plasma, and corticosteroids. These two cases showed the unresolved problem of COVID-19 in immunosuppressant patients and showed that despite the vast amount of information available on SARS-CoV-2, information in this subgroup of patients is lacking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Hematol ; 115(1): 7-10, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604920

ABSTRACT

We investigated the efficacy of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in patients with B-cell malignancies treated with anti-CD20 antibody. Although T-cell-mediated immune responses were detected even in patients receiving R-CHOP treatment, the S1 antibody titer following BNT162b2 vaccination remained only marginally increased for more than 3 years after the final dose of anti-CD20 antibody. We found no relationship between the percent of B-cells and S1 antibody titer. The duration of this suppression was much longer than we anticipated. Further protection and treatment strategies against COVID-19 for these patients are warranted.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lymphoma, B-Cell/complications , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibody Formation , Antigens, CD20/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Lymphoma, B-Cell/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Vincristine/therapeutic use
5.
Semin Oncol ; 48(4-6): 279-282, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection increases mortality in hematological malignancies. In a large meta-analysis, patients aged 60 years and older had a significantly higher risk of death than patients under 60 years of age [1]. Furthermore, a high risk of death and reduced survival in patients receiving B cell depletion therapy with prolonged COVID-19 infection was reported in a recent study [2]. High-grade B-cell lymphomas are classified as morphologically aggressive lymphomas with the presence of a high mitotic index and Ki-67 proliferation rates. They demonstrate aggressive behavior clinically as well as morphologically, and COVID-19 infection is an important factor that increases mortality in these patients. Herein, we present an elderly patient with a diagnosis of high-grade B-cell lymphoma, in whom a complete response was observed after prolonged COVID-19 infection. CASE SUMMARY: An 81-year-old female patient received her first cycle of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone) treatment after being diagnosed with high- grade B-cell lymphoma. After being discharged from the hospital, the patient was referred to the emergency department with complaints of fever and fatigue when she came for the second cycle of chemotherapy. Her COVID-19 PCR test was found positive. She was admitted to the infectious diseases service and favipiravir treatment was started. On the 24th day of hospitalization, it was decided to perform interim FDG-PET/CT (Fluorodeoxyglucose - Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography) scan at a time that her PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) test was still positive. A complete metabolic response was detected in her imaging. On the 26th day, the PCR test became negative and the patient was transferred to the oncology service and received the second cycle of R-CHOP treatment. CONCLUSION: Our case emphasizes that antitumor effect could be seen in a patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection and a hematologic malignancy. It also highlights being alert to prolonged COVID-19 infection in patients receiving B-cell depletion therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Frail Elderly , Lymphoma, B-Cell/complications , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Vincristine/therapeutic use , Aged, 80 and over , Amides/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(10): 2478-2484, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340251

ABSTRACT

Treatment with convalescent plasma has been shown to be safe in coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) infection, although efficacy reported in immunocompetent patients varies. Nevertheless, neutralizing antibodies are a key requisite in the fight against viral infections. Patients depleted of antibody-producing B cells, such as those treated with rituximab (anti-CD20) for hematological malignancies, lack a fundamental part of their adaptive immunity. Treatment with convalescent plasma appears to be of general benefit in this particularly vulnerable cohort. We analyzed clinical course and inflammation markers of three B-cell-depleted patients suffering from COVID-19 who were treated with convalescent plasma. In addition, we measured serum antibody levels as well as peripheral blood CD38/HLA-DR-positive T-cells ex vivo and CD137-positive T-cells after in vitro stimulation with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-derived peptides in these patients. We observed that therapy with convalescent plasma was effective in all three patients and analysis of CD137-positive T-cells after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptides showed an increase in peptide-specific T-cells after application of convalescent plasma. In conclusion, we here demonstrate efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy in three B-cell-depleted patients and present data that suggest that while application of convalescent plasma elevates systemic antibody levels only transiently, it may also boost specific T-cell responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunization, Passive/methods , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocyte Depletion , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Rituximab/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 9/metabolism
7.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(1): 296-299, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009200

ABSTRACT

We report the case of an HIV-1-infected patient, treated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody for a B-cell lymphoma previously treated by autologous stem cell transplant. He suffered from chronic COVID19 and we monitored by plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA by highly sensitive droplet-based digital PCR technology (ddPCR). Under tocilizumab therapy and despite a first clinical improvement biologically associated with decreasing inflammatory markers, a slight increase of SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia quantified by ddPCR was highlighted, confirming the absence of viral efficacy of this treatment and predicting the subsequent observed deterioration. As expected, his complete recovery, finally achieved after COVID-19 convalescent plasmatherapy, strictly paralleled plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance. With these results, we confirmed the interest of SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia monitoring by ddPCR in COVID-19 patients, particularly during treatment, and firstly showed that this new and specific biomarker could be helpful to select eligible patient for anti-IL6 receptors therapy considering the variable levels of efficacy recently observed with such therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Lymphocytes/virology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/complications , Lymphoma, B-Cell/genetics , Lymphoma, B-Cell/virology , RNA, Viral/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load/drug effects
8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(14): 3514-3516, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693869

ABSTRACT

As the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic spreads and the number of Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor (BTKi)-treated COVID-19-affected patients grows, we must consider the pros and cons of BTKi discontinuation for our patients. In favor of BTKi continuation, BTK plays an active role in macrophage polarization. By modulating key transcription factors, BTK may regulate macrophage polarization downstream of classic M1 and M2 polarizing stimuli and mitigate the hyperinflammatory state associated with COVID-19. In favor of BTKi discontinuation, we note a potentially increased risk of secondary infections and impaired humoral immunity. We hypothesize that the potential benefit of blunting a hyperinflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 through attenuation of M1 polarization outweighs the potential risk of impaired humoral immunity, not to mention the risk of rapid progression of B-cell malignancy following BTKi interruption. On the basis of this, we suggest continuing BTKi in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamides/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/prevention & control , Macrophages/immunology , Pandemics , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
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