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2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 57, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702971

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmissible disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that poses a major threat to global public health. Although COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, causing severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe cases, it can also result in multiple extrapulmonary complications. The pathogenesis of extrapulmonary damage in patients with COVID-19 is probably multifactorial, involving both the direct effects of SARS-CoV-2 and the indirect mechanisms associated with the host inflammatory response. Recognition of features and pathogenesis of extrapulmonary complications has clinical implications for identifying disease progression and designing therapeutic strategies. This review provides an overview of the extrapulmonary complications of COVID-19 from immunological and pathophysiologic perspectives and focuses on the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets for the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 799896, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662583

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection results in rapid T lymphocytopenia and functional impairment of T cells. The underlying mechanism, however, remains incompletely understood. In this study, we focused on characterizing the phenotype and kinetics of T-cell subsets with mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) by multicolor flow cytometry and investigating the association between MD and T-cell functionality. While 73.9% of study subjects displayed clinical lymphocytopenia upon hospital admission, a significant reduction of CD4 or CD8 T-cell frequency was found in all asymptomatic, symptomatic, and convalescent cases. CD4 and CD8 T cells with increased MD were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients within the first week of symptom onset. Lower proportion of memory CD8 T cell with MD was found in severe patients than in mild ones at the stage of disease progression. Critically, the frequency of T cells with MD in symptomatic patients was preferentially associated with CD4 T-cell loss and CD8 T-cell hyperactivation, respectively. Patients bearing effector memory CD4 and CD8 T cells with the phenotype of high MD exhibited poorer T-cell responses upon either phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin or SARS-CoV-2 peptide stimulation than those with low MD. Our findings demonstrated an MD-associated mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2-induced T lymphocytopenia and functional impairment during the acute phase of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/etiology , Mitochondrial Diseases/etiology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Ionomycin/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/immunology , Mitochondrial Diseases/immunology , Phosphorylcholine/analogs & derivatives , Phosphorylcholine/therapeutic use , Polymethacrylic Acids/therapeutic use
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009850, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394562

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the betacoronavirus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus that can mediate asymptomatic or fatal infections characterized by pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and multi-organ failure. Several studies have highlighted the importance of B and T lymphocytes, given that neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses are required for an effective immunity. In addition, other reports have described myeloid cells such as macrophages and monocytes play a major role in the immunity against SARS-CoV-2 as well as dysregulated pro-inflammatory signature that characterizes severe COVID-19. During COVID-19, neutrophils have been defined as a heterogeneous group of cells, functionally linked to severe inflammation and thrombosis triggered by degranulation and NETosis, but also to suppressive phenotypes. The physiological role of suppressive neutrophils during COVID-19 and their implications in severe disease have been poorly studied and is not well understood. Here, we discuss the current evidence regarding the role of neutrophils with suppressive properties such as granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) and their possible role in suppressing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes expansion and giving rise to lymphopenia in severe COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphopenia/complications , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/immunology , Neutrophils/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5425-5431, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363680

ABSTRACT

A rapid outbreak of novel coronavirus, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), has made it a global pandemic. This study focused on the possible association between lymphopenia and computed tomography (CT) scan features and COVID-19 patient mortality. The clinical data of 596 COVID-19 patients were collected from February 2020 to September 2020. The patients' serological survey and CT scan features were retrospectively explored. The median age of the patients was 56.7 ± 16.4 years old. Lung involvement was more than 50% in 214 COVID-19 patients (35.9%). The average blood lymphocyte percentage was 20.35 ± 10.16 (normal range, 20%-50%). Although the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were high in more than 80% of COVID-19 patients; CRP, ESR, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) may not indicate the in-hospital mortality of COVID-19. Patients with severe lung involvement and lymphopenia were found to be significantly associated with increased odds of death (odds ratio, 9.24; 95% confidence interval, 4.32-19.78). These results indicated that lymphopenia < 20% along with pulmonary involvement >50% impose a multiplicative effect on the risk of mortality. The in-hospital mortality rate of this group was significantly higher than other COVID-19 hospitalized cases. Furthermore, they meaningfully experienced a prolonged stay in the hospital (p = .00). Lymphocyte count less than 20% and chest CT scan findings with more than 50% involvement might be related to the patient's mortality. These could act as laboratory and clinical indicators of disease severity, mortality, and outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia/complications , Pneumonia/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Iran , Lung/virology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Lymphopenia/diagnostic imaging , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(12): 3297-3315, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298835

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer are at higher risk of severe coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the mechanisms underlying virus-host interactions during cancer therapies remain elusive. When comparing nasopharyngeal swabs from cancer and noncancer patients for RT-qPCR cycle thresholds measuring acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 1063 patients (58% with cancer), we found that malignant disease favors the magnitude and duration of viral RNA shedding concomitant with prolonged serum elevations of type 1 IFN that anticorrelated with anti-RBD IgG antibodies. Cancer patients with a prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection exhibited the typical immunopathology of severe COVID-19 at the early phase of infection including circulation of immature neutrophils, depletion of nonconventional monocytes, and a general lymphopenia that, however, was accompanied by a rise in plasmablasts, activated follicular T-helper cells, and non-naive Granzyme B+FasL+, EomeshighTCF-1high, PD-1+CD8+ Tc1 cells. Virus-induced lymphopenia worsened cancer-associated lymphocyte loss, and low lymphocyte counts correlated with chronic SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding, COVID-19 severity, and a higher risk of cancer-related death in the first and second surge of the pandemic. Lymphocyte loss correlated with significant changes in metabolites from the polyamine and biliary salt pathways as well as increased blood DNA from Enterobacteriaceae and Micrococcaceae gut family members in long-term viral carriers. We surmise that cancer therapies may exacerbate the paradoxical association between lymphopenia and COVID-19-related immunopathology, and that the prevention of COVID-19-induced lymphocyte loss may reduce cancer-associated death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Lymphopenia/complications , Neoplasms/complications , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Shedding , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , DNA, Bacterial/blood , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Female , Humans , Interferon Type I/blood , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Micrococcaceae/genetics , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/mortality , Pandemics , Prognosis , Time Factors , Young Adult
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194673

ABSTRACT

Immune homeostasis is a tightly regulated system that is critical for defense against invasion by foreign pathogens and protection from self-reactivity for the survival of an individual. How the defects in this system might result in autoimmunity is discussed in this review. Reduced lymphocyte number, termed lymphopenia, can mediate lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP) to maintain peripheral lymphocyte numbers. LIP not only occurs in normal physiological conditions but also correlates with autoimmunity. Of note, lymphopenia is also a typical marker of immune aging, consistent with the fact that not only the autoimmunity increases in the elderly, but also autoimmune diseases (ADs) show characteristics of immune aging. Here, we discuss the types and rates of LIP in normal and autoimmune conditions, as well as the coronavirus disease 2019 in the context of LIP. Importantly, although the causative role of LIP has been demonstrated in the development of type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, a two-hit model has suggested that the factors other than lymphopenia are required to mediate the loss of control over homeostasis to result in ADs. Interestingly, these factors may be, if not totally, related to the function/number of regulatory T cells which are key modulators to protect from self-reactivity. In this review, we summarize the important roles of lymphopenia/LIP and the Treg cells in various autoimmune conditions, thereby highlighting them as key therapeutic targets for autoimmunity treatments.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmunity/immunology , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Homeostasis/immunology , Humans , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 596518, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156116

ABSTRACT

Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04365634. Context: Diabetes mellitus was associated with increased severity and mortality of disease in COVID-19 pneumonia. So far the effect of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) or hyperglycemia on the immune system among COVID-19 disease has remained unclear. Objective: We aim to explore the clinical and immunological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among COVID-19 patients. Design and Methods: In this retrospective study, the clinical and immunological characteristics of 306 hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients (including 129 diabetic and 177 non-diabetic patients) were analyzed. The serum concentrations of laboratory parameters including cytokines and numbers of immune cells were measured and compared between diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Results: Compared with non-diabetic group, diabetic cases more frequently had lymphopenia and hyperglycemia, with higher levels of urea nitrogen, myoglobin, D-dimer and ferritin. Diabetic cases indicated the obviously elevated mortality and the higher levels of cytokines IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α, as well as the distinctly reduced Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios compared with non-diabetic cases. The longitudinal assays showed that compared to that at week 1, the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly elevated at week 2 after admission in non-survivors of diabetic cases, whereas there were greatly reductions from week 1 to week 2 in survivors of diabetic cases. Compared with survival diabetic patients, non-survival diabetic cases displayed distinct higher serum concentrations of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and lower Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios at week 2. Samples from a subset of participants were evaluated by flow cytometry for the immune cells. The counts of peripheral total T lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells were markedly lower in diabetic cases than in non-diabetic cases. The non-survivors showed the markedly declined counts of CD8+ T cells and NK cells than survivors. Conclusion: The elevated cytokines, imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios and reduced of peripheral numbers of CD8+ T cells and NK cells might contribute to the pathogenic mechanisms of high mortality of COVID-19 patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/immunology , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Th1 Cells/pathology , Th2 Cells/pathology
9.
Endocr J ; 68(7): 849-856, 2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150573

ABSTRACT

At the current time of rising demand for hospital beds, it is important to triage COVID-19 patients according to the treatment needed during hospitalization. The need for oxygen therapy is an important factor determining hospital admission of these patients. Our retrospective study was designed to identify risk factors associated with the progression to oxygen requirement in COVID-19 patients. A total of 133 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to our hospital from February 22, 2020, to August 23. After excluding asymptomatic, non-Japanese, pediatric, pregnant patients and also those who needed oxygen immediately at admission, data of the remaining 84 patients were analyzed. The patients were separated into those who required oxygen after admission and those who did not, and their characteristics were compared. Age, body mass index (BMI), lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were significantly different between the two groups. Multivariate analysis identified four significant and independent risk factors of oxygen requirement, including advanced age, obesity, glucose intolerance and lymphocytopenia. Dividing the patients into subgroups according to the number of these risk factors found in each patient indicated that the need for oxygen increased with higher number of these risk factors in the same individual. Our results suggest that the presence of higher number of these risk factors in COVID-19 patients is associated with future oxygen requirement and that this index can be potentially useful in triaging COVID-19 patients staying home in the context of need for hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Glucose Intolerance/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Obesity/complications , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/physiology , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Glucose Intolerance/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(6): 7713-7722, 2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134586

ABSTRACT

If age boundaries are arbitrarily or roughly defined, age-related analyses can result in questionable findings. Here, we aimed to delineate the uniquely age-dependent immune features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a retrospective study of 447 patients, stratified according to age distributions of COVID-19 morbidity statistics into well-defined age-cohorts (2-25y, 26-38y, 39-57y, 58-68y, and 69-79y). Age-dependent susceptibilities and severities of the disease were observed in COVID-19 patients. A comparison of the lymphocyte counts among the five age-groups indicated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection led to age-dependent lymphopenia. Among the lymphocyte subsets, the CD8+ T cell count alone was significantly and age-dependently decreased (520, 385, 320, 172, and 139 n/µl in the five age-groups, respectively). In contrast, the CD4+ T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell counts did not differ among age-cohorts. Age and CD8+ T cell counts (r=‒0.435, p<0.0001) were negatively correlated in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection age-dependently increased the plasma C-reactive protein concentrations (2.0, 5.0, 9.0, 11.6, and 36.1 mg/L in the five age-groups, respectively). These findings can be used to elucidate the role of CD8+ T cells in age-related pathogenesis and to help develop therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Age Distribution , CD3 Complex/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Patient Admission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
11.
Saudi Med J ; 42(3): 299-305, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical and laboratory characteristics of the Saudi children with confirmed COVID-19. METHODS: Eighty-eight children (0-14 years) with COVID-19 who were admitted to Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from April to June 2020 were recruited. RESULTS: Mean age was 5.74 ± 4.7 years with 41 (49.4%) males and 42 (50.6%) females. The length of hospital stay (LOS) ranged from 1 to 17 days. The main source of infection was infected family members. Mean values of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were noticeably above normal. Degree of severity and length of stay was significantly correlated with lymphopenia (r= -0.36; p=0.001), whereas it was positively correlated with absolute neutrophil count and with high inflammatory markers, such as CRP, LDH, and others. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying the clinical and laboratory characteristics of the Saudi children with confirmed COVID-19 will improve understanding of this disease's presentation and will help put rapid and proper management strategies into place to face this pandemic. A high index of suspicion is needed for cases presenting with multi-system inflammatory disease, which represented 5.7% of the included study population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Length of Stay , Lymphopenia/complications , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20834, 2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060282

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread from China all over the world and many COVID-19 outbreaks have been reported in long-term care facilities (LCTF). However, data on clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in such settings are scarce. We conducted a retrospective, observational cohort study to assess clinical characteristics and baseline predictors of mortality of COVID-19 patients hospitalized after an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a LTCF. A total of 50 patients were included. Mean age was 80 years (SD, 12 years), and 24/50 (57.1%) patients were males. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 32%. At Cox regression analysis, significant predictors of in-hospital mortality were: hypernatremia (HR 9.12), lymphocyte count < 1000 cells/µL (HR 7.45), cardiovascular diseases other than hypertension (HR 6.41), and higher levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6, pg/mL) (HR 1.005). Our study shows a high in-hospital mortality rate in a cohort of elderly patients with COVID-19 and hypernatremia, lymphopenia, CVD other than hypertension, and higher IL-6 serum levels were identified as independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Given the small population size as major limitation of our study, further investigations are necessary to better understand and confirm our findings in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Long-Term Care/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , China/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypernatremia/complications , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphopenia/complications , Male , Nursing Homes , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Ann Hematol ; 100(2): 309-320, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014126

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Primarily an infection of the lower respiratory tract, it is now well known to cause multisystem abnormalities. Hematologic manifestations constitute a significant area of concern. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infects monocytes and endothelial cells leading to a complex downstream cascade, cytokine storm, and eventual intravascular thrombosis. Coronavirus disease 2019 causes lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and thrombocytopenia. Prophylactic anticoagulation is vital in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, as its effect on the coagulation system is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The disease can cause both arterial and venous thromboses, especially pulmonary embolism and pulmonary microthrombi. A high index of suspicion is indispensable in recognizing these complications, and timely institution of therapeutic anticoagulation is vital in treating them. Virus-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation is uncommon but shares some similarities to sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation. Marked elevations in hematologic biomarkers such as lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, ferritin, and C-reactive protein are associated with worse outcomes. Understanding the pathophysiology and recognizing factors associated with poor prognosis are crucial in improving patient outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hematologic Diseases/blood , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hematologic Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy
14.
J Diabetes Complications ; 35(2): 107809, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic. COVID-19 is more severe in people with diabetes. The identification of risk factors for predicting disease severity in COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is urgently needed. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-six patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in our study. The patients were divided into 2 groups: COVID-19 patients with or without T2DM. The patients were further divided into four subgroups according to the severity of COVID-19 as follows: Subgroup A included moderate COVID-19 patients without diabetes, subgroup B included severe COVID-19 patients without diabetes, subgroup C included moderate COVID-19 patients with diabetes, and subgroup D included severe COVID-19 patients with diabetes. The clinical features and radiological assessments were collected and analyzed. We tracked the dynamic changes in laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes during the hospitalization period. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression to analyze the risk factors that predict the severity of COVID-19 with T2DM. RESULTS: Firstly, compared with the nondiabetic group, the COVID-19 with T2DM group had a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and procalcitonin (PCT) but lower lymphocyte counts and T lymphocyte subsets, including CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD16 + CD56 cells, and CD19+ cells. Secondly, compared with group A, group C had higher levels of Fasting blood glucose (FBG), IL-6, TNF-α, and neutrophils but lower lymphocyte, CD3+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, and CD4+ T cell counts. Similarly, group D had higher FBG, IL-6 and TNF-α levels and lower lymphocyte, CD3+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, and CD4+ T cell counts than group B. Thirdly, binary logistic regression analysis showed that HbA1c, IL-6, and lymphocyte count were risk factors for the severity of COVID-19 with T2DM. Importantly, COVID-19 patients with T2DM were more likely to worsen from moderate to severe COVID-19 than nondiabetic patients. Of note, lymphopenia and inflammatory responses remained more severe throughout hospitalization for COVID-19 patients with T2DM. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that COVID-19 patients with T2DM are more likely to develop severe COVID-19 than those without T2DM and that hyperglycemia associated with the lymphopenia and inflammatory responses in COVID-19 patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Hyperglycemia/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , China , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Logistic Models , Lymphopenia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
16.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241659, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934330

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 began in December 2019 and rapidly became a pandemic. The present study investigated the significance of lymphopenia on disease severity. A total of 115 patients with confirmed COVID-19 from a tertiary hospital in Changsha, China, were enrolled. Clinical, laboratory, treatment and outcome data were gathered and compared between patients with and without lymphopenia. The median age was 42 years (1-75). Fifty-four patients (47.0%) of the 115 patients had lymphopenia on admission. More patients in the lymphopenia group had hypertension (30.8% vs. 10.0%, P = 0.006) and coronary heart disease (3.6% vs. 0%, P = 0.029) than in the nonlymphopenia group, and more patients with leukopenia (48.1% vs 14.8%, P<0.001) and eosinopenia (92.6% vs 54.1%, P<0.001) were observed. Lymphopenia was also correlated with severity grades of pneumonia (P<0.001) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level (P = 0.0014). Lymphopenia was associated with a prolonged duration of hospitalization (17.0 days vs. 14.0 days, P = 0.002). Lymphocyte recovery appeared the earliest, prior to CRP and chest radiographs, in severe cases, which suggests its predictive value for disease improvement. Our results demonstrated the clinical significance of lymphopenia for predicting the severity of and recovery from COVID-19, which emphasizes the need to dynamically monitor lymphocyte count.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
18.
Electromagn Biol Med ; 40(1): 11-25, 2021 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872877

ABSTRACT

Among haematological parameters of patients seriously ill with the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), leucocytosis, lymphocytopenia, and the abnormal release of circulating cytokines, termed cytokine storm syndrome (CSS, also known as cytokine release syndrome or CRS), were found associated with disease severity. In particular, according to the serum cytokine profiling, pro-inflammatory interleukin 6 (IL-6) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) were observed to be considerably higher in patients experiencing respiratory distress, septic shock and/or multi-organ failure, namely "critical cases" requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission, very often resulting in death. Interestingly, the production of these cytokines from human lymphocytes was found to be modulated by exposure of 24 h to a 554.2-553.8 mT inhomogeneous static magnetic field (SMF), which elicits IL-10 and suppresses IL-6. Thus, herein, with the aim of restoring lymphocyte count and physiological serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10, the infusion of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched and SMF-exposed allogenic lymphocytes is proposed for the first time as an easy and affordable treatment option for COVID-19 patients. Even if the count of lymphocytes in COVID-19 patients is very low, SMF exposure may be a valuable tool for reprogramming autologous lymphocytes towards physiological conditions. Furthermore, the same procedure could be extended to include the whole autologous or allogenic white blood cells (WBCs). Time-varying/pulsed magnetic fields exerting comparable cell effects could also be employed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , HLA Antigens/immunology , Lymphocytes/cytology , Lymphopenia/therapy , Magnetic Fields , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Immunotherapy , Interleukin-6/chemistry , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Signal Transduction/immunology
19.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(1): 71-78, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-775497

ABSTRACT

Importance: Lymphopenia is common and correlates with poor clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To determine whether a therapy that increases peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte cell counts leads to clinical improvement in patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting and Participants: Between February 18 and April 10, 2020, we conducted an open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial at 3 participating centers in China. The main eligibility criteria were pneumonia, a blood lymphocyte cell count of 800 per µL (to convert to ×109/L, multiply by 0.001) or lower, and no comorbidities. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was confirmed with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction testing. Exposures: Usual care alone, or usual care plus 3 doses of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF, 5 µg/kg, subcutaneously at days 0-2). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the time from randomization to improvement of at least 1 point on a 7-category disease severity score. Results: Of 200 participants, 112 (56%) were men and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 45 (40-55) years. There was random assignment of 100 patients (50%) to the rhG-CSF group and 100 (50%) to the usual care group. Time to clinical improvement was similar between groups (rhG-CSF group median of 12 days (IQR, 10-16 days) vs usual care group median of 13 days (IQR, 11-17 days); hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.95-1.71; P = .06). For secondary end points, the proportion of patients progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, or septic shock was lower in the rhG-CSF group (rhG-CSF group, 2% vs usual care group, 15%; difference, -13%; 95%CI, -21.4% to -5.4%). At 21 days, 2 patients (2%) had died in the rhG-CSF group compared with 10 patients (10%) in the usual care group (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95%CI, 0.04-0.88). At day 5, the lymphocyte cell count was higher in the rhG-CSF group (rhG-CSF group median of 1050/µL vs usual care group median of 620/µL; Hodges-Lehmann estimate of the difference in medians, 440; 95% CI, 380-490). Serious adverse events, such as sepsis or septic shock, respiratory failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, occurred in 29 patients (14.5%) in the rhG-CSF group and 42 patients (21%) in the usual care group. Conclusion and Relevance: In preliminary findings from a randomized clinical trial, rhG-CSF treatment for patients with COVID-19 with lymphopenia but no comorbidities did not accelerate clinical improvement, but the number of patients developing critical illness or dying may have been reduced. Larger studies that include a broader range of patients with COVID-19 should be conducted. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000030007.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Hematologic Agents/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , China , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Recombinant Proteins , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/physiopathology , Shock, Septic/physiopathology , Time Factors
20.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020008, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a compelling need to identify clinical and laboratory predictors of unfavorable clinical course and death in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). A trend towards low lymphocyte count and high neutrophil counts in patients with poor outcomes has been reported by earlier studies. We aim to synthesize existing data evaluating the relationship between clinical outcomes and abnormal neutrophil and lymphocyte counts at admission in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: An electronic search was carried out in PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to identify eligible studies reporting frequency data on neutrophilia and lymphopenia at admission in hospitalization in COVID-19 patients. Pooled odds ratios of clinical outcomes for each parameter were calculated using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies (4,969 patients) were included in this meta-analysis. Lymphopenia at admission was found to be significantly associated with increased odd of progression to severe disease (odds ratio [OR], 4.20; 95% confidence interval [95CI%], 3.46-5.09) and death (OR, 3.71; 95%CI, 1.63-8.44). Neutrophilia at admission was also found to be significantly associated with increased odd of progression to severe disease (OR, 7.99; 95%CI, 1.77-36.14) and death (OR, 7.87; 95%CI, 1.75-35.35). Subgroup analysis revealed that COVID-19 patients with severe lymphopenia (<0.5 x10×9/L) had 12-fold increased odds of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Admission lymphopenia and neutrophilia are associated with poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Regular monitoring and early and even more aggressive intervention shall hence be advisable in patients with low lymphocyte and high neutrophil counts. These variables may be useful in risk stratification models.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Leukocyte Disorders/congenital , Lymphopenia/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Disease Progression , Global Health , Humans , Leukocyte Disorders/complications , Leukocyte Disorders/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends
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