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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(43): e31138, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of nicotinamide-based supportive therapy for lymphopenia in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Twenty four patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 12) during hospitalization in a ratio of 1:1. Based on conventional treatment, the treatment group was administered 100 mg nicotinamide 5 times a day for 2 days. The control group received routine treatment only. The primary endpoint was the change in the absolute lymphocyte count. The secondary endpoints included both in-hospital death and the composite endpoint of aggravation, according to upgraded oxygen therapy, improved nursing level, and ward rounds of superior physicians for changes in conditions. RESULTS: Full blood counts before and after nicotinamide administration were comparable in each group (all P > .05). Before and after receiving nicotinamide, mean absolute lymphocyte counts were similar between the two groups ([0.94 ± 0.26] × 109/L vs [0.89 ± 0.19] × 109/L, P = .565; [1.15 ± 0.48] × 109/L vs [1.02 ± 0.28] × 109/L, P = .445, respectively). Therefore, there was no statistically significant difference in the lymphocyte improvement rate between the two groups (23.08 ± 46.10 vs 16.52 ± 24.10, P = .67). There was also no statistically significant difference in the secondary endpoints between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Among patients with COVID-19, there was no statistically significant difference in the change of whole blood counts and absolute lymphocyte counts before and after intervention in both groups. Therefore, no new evidence has been found regarding the effect of niacinamide on lymphopenia in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Niacinamide/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Lymphopenia/etiology
2.
Allergy ; 77(8): 2468-2481, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: T-cell lymphopenia and functional impairment is a hallmark of severe acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). How T-cell numbers and function evolve at later timepoints after clinical recovery remains poorly investigated. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled and longitudinally sampled 173 individuals with asymptomatic to critical COVID-19 and analyzed phenotypic and functional characteristics of T cells using flow cytometry, 40-parameter mass cytometry, targeted proteomics, and functional assays. RESULTS: The extensive T-cell lymphopenia observed particularly in patients with severe COVID-19 during acute infection had recovered 6 months after infection, which was accompanied by a normalization of functional T-cell responses to common viral antigens. We detected persisting CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation up to 12 months after infection, in patients with mild and severe COVID-19, as measured by increased HLA-DR and CD38 expression on these cells. Persistent T-cell activation after COVID-19 was independent of administration of a COVID-19 vaccine post-infection. Furthermore, we identified a subgroup of patients with severe COVID-19 that presented with persistently low CD8+ T-cell counts at follow-up and exhibited a distinct phenotype during acute infection consisting of a dysfunctional T-cell response and signs of excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine production. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that T-cell numbers and function recover in most patients after COVID-19. However, we find evidence of persistent T-cell activation up to 12 months after infection and describe a subgroup of severe COVID-19 patients with persistently low CD8+ T-cell counts exhibiting a dysregulated immune response during acute infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Transfusion ; 62(9): 1779-1790, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Plateletpheresis involves platelet separation and collection from whole blood while other blood cells are returned to the donor. Because platelets are replaced faster than red blood cells, as many as 24 donations can be done annually. However, some frequent apheresis platelet donors (>20 donations annually) display severe plateletpheresis-associated lymphopenia; in particular, CD4+ T but not B cell numbers are decreased. COVID-19 vaccination thereby provides a model to assess whether lymphopenic platelet donors present compromised humoral immune responses. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed vaccine responses following 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccination in a cohort of 43 plateletpheresis donors with a range of pre-vaccination CD4+ T cell counts (76-1537 cells/µl). In addition to baseline T cell measurements, antibody binding assays to full-length Spike and the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) were performed pre- and post-vaccination. Furthermore, pseudo-particle neutralization and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assays were conducted to measure antibody functionality. RESULTS: Participants were stratified into two groups: <400 CD4/µl (n = 27) and ≥ 400 CD4/µl (n = 16). Following the first dose, 79% seroconverted within the <400 CD4/µl group compared to 87% in the ≥400 CD4/µl group; all donors were seropositive post-second dose with significant increases in antibody levels. Importantly differences in CD4+ T cell levels minimally impacted neutralization, Spike recognition, and IgG Fc-mediated effector functions. DISCUSSION: Overall, our results indicate that lymphopenic plateletpheresis donors do not exhibit significant immune dysfunction; they have retained the T and B cell functionality necessary for potent antibody responses after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , Blood Donors , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Lymphopenia/etiology , Platelet Count , Plateletpheresis/methods
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 799896, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662583

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection results in rapid T lymphocytopenia and functional impairment of T cells. The underlying mechanism, however, remains incompletely understood. In this study, we focused on characterizing the phenotype and kinetics of T-cell subsets with mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) by multicolor flow cytometry and investigating the association between MD and T-cell functionality. While 73.9% of study subjects displayed clinical lymphocytopenia upon hospital admission, a significant reduction of CD4 or CD8 T-cell frequency was found in all asymptomatic, symptomatic, and convalescent cases. CD4 and CD8 T cells with increased MD were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients within the first week of symptom onset. Lower proportion of memory CD8 T cell with MD was found in severe patients than in mild ones at the stage of disease progression. Critically, the frequency of T cells with MD in symptomatic patients was preferentially associated with CD4 T-cell loss and CD8 T-cell hyperactivation, respectively. Patients bearing effector memory CD4 and CD8 T cells with the phenotype of high MD exhibited poorer T-cell responses upon either phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin or SARS-CoV-2 peptide stimulation than those with low MD. Our findings demonstrated an MD-associated mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2-induced T lymphocytopenia and functional impairment during the acute phase of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/etiology , Mitochondrial Diseases/etiology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Ionomycin/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/immunology , Mitochondrial Diseases/immunology , Phosphorylcholine/analogs & derivatives , Phosphorylcholine/therapeutic use , Polymethacrylic Acids/therapeutic use
5.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(6): 1287-1295, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650087

ABSTRACT

Immune cell dysregulation and lymphopenia characterize COVID-19 pathology in moderate to severe disease. While underlying inflammatory factors have been extensively studied, homeostatic and mucosal migratory signatures remain largely unexplored as causative factors. In this study, we evaluated the association of circulating IL-6, soluble mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule (sMAdCAM), and IL-15 with cellular dysfunction characterizing mild and hypoxemic stages of COVID-19. A cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals (n = 130) at various stages of disease progression together with healthy controls (n = 16) were recruited from COVID Care Centres (CCCs) across Mumbai, India. Multiparametric flow cytometry was used to perform in-depth immune subset characterization and to measure plasma IL-6 levels. sMAdCAM, IL-15 levels were quantified using ELISA. Distinct depletion profiles, with relative sparing of CD8 effector memory and CD4+ regulatory T cells, were observed in hypoxemic disease within the lymphocyte compartment. An apparent increase in the frequency of intermediate monocytes characterized both mild as well as hypoxemic disease. IL-6 levels inversely correlated with those of sMAdCAM and both markers showed converse associations with observed lympho-depletion suggesting opposing roles in pathogenesis. Interestingly, IL-15, a key cytokine involved in lymphocyte activation and homeostasis, was detected in symptomatic individuals but not in healthy controls or asymptomatic cases. Further, plasma IL-15 levels negatively correlated with T, B, and NK count suggesting a compensatory production of this cytokine in response to the profound lymphopenia. Finally, higher levels of plasma IL-15 and IL-6, but not sMAdCAM, were associated with a longer duration of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-15/blood , Lymphopenia , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Lymphopenia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Immunol ; 208(3): 685-696, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604665

ABSTRACT

Immune response dysregulation plays a key role in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis. In this study, we evaluated immune and endothelial blood cell profiles of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to determine critical differences between those with mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19 using spectral flow cytometry. We examined a suite of immune phenotypes, including monocytes, T cells, NK cells, B cells, endothelial cells, and neutrophils, alongside surface and intracellular markers of activation. Our results showed progressive lymphopenia and depletion of T cell subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) in patients with severe disease and a significant increase in the CD56+CD14+Ki67+IFN-γ+ monocyte population in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 that has not been previously described. Enhanced circulating endothelial cells (CD45-CD31+CD34+CD146+), circulating endothelial progenitors (CD45-CD31+CD34+/-CD146-), and neutrophils (CD11b+CD66b+) were coevaluated for COVID-19 severity. Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated the synergism among age, obesity, and hypertension with upregulated CD56+ monocytes, endothelial cells, and decreased T cells that lead to severe outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Circulating monocytes and endothelial cells may represent important cellular markers for monitoring postacute sequelae and impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection during convalescence and for their role in immune host defense in high-risk adults after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , CD56 Antigen/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Endothelial Cells/chemistry , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/chemistry , Neutrophils/immunology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/immunology , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
8.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1309-1318, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409690

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Developing prognostic markers can be useful for clinical decision-making. Peripheral blood (PB) examination is simple and basic that can be performed in any facility. We aimed to investigate whether PB examination can predict prognosis in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: Complete blood count (CBC) and PB cell morphology were examined in 38 healthy controls (HCs) and 40 patients with COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19, including 26 mild and 14 severe cases, were hospitalized in Juntendo University Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) between April 1 and August 6, 2020. PB examinations were performed using Sysmex XN-3000 automated hematology analyzer and Sysmex DI-60 employing the convolutional neural network-based automatic image-recognition system. RESULTS: Compared with mild cases, severe cases showed a significantly higher incidence of anemia, lymphopenia, and leukocytosis (P < .001). Granular lymphocyte counts were normal or higher in mild cases and persistently decreased in fatal cases. Temporary increase in granular lymphocytes was associated with survival of patients with severe infection. Red cell distribution width was significantly higher in severe cases than in mild cases (P < .001). Neutrophil dysplasia was consistently observed in COVID-19 cases, but not in HCs. Levels of giant neutrophils and toxic granulation/Döhle bodies were increased in severe cases. CONCLUSION: Basic PB examination can be useful to predict the prognosis of COVID-19, by detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced multi-lineage changes in blood cell counts and morphological anomalies. These changes were dynamically correlated with disease severity and may be associated with disruption of hematopoiesis and the immunological system due to bone marrow stress in severe infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/blood , Leukocytosis/etiology , Lymphocytes/ultrastructure , Lymphopenia/etiology , Neutrophils/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Anemia/blood , Anemia/etiology , Blood Cell Count/instrumentation , Blood Cell Count/methods , COVID-19/mortality , Cell Shape , Cytoplasmic Granules/ultrastructure , Erythrocyte Indices , Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Leukocytosis/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neural Networks, Computer , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Pharmacol Res ; 160: 105036, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364401

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The current diagnosis and medicines approach in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) does not reflect the heterogeneous characteristics of this disease. This study aims to find a new antiviral combination regimen by investigating the frequency of clinically relevant and objectively identified comorbidities, and the clustering of these clinical syndromes and varying results of treatment with antiviral drugs in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. METHODS: This study recruited 151 severe COVID-19 infection cases diagnosed in our hospital examination and illustrated the clinical potential during a consecutive 25-day medication period. Potential differences in disease severity and clinical characteristics, hematological profile, and current pharmacologic treatments (single agent, double or triple combinations, and the combined antiviral drugs plus Lianhua Qingwen) among comorbidity clusters were explored. RESULTS: Although disease severity was comparable among three clusters, it was markedly different in terms of laboratory test status. Coagulable abnormality was mainly present in cluster 1 and cluster 2. Other indicators were normal, except for a significant increase of neutrophils presented in cluster 2. Patients showed the most complicated haematological results in cluster 3, including severe coagulation abnormalities, leukocytosis, neutrophilic granulocytosis, and lymphopenia. Our results for the first time suggest that a quadruple combination therapy (Ribavirin, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Umifenovir, and Lianhua Qingwen) can be considered as a preferred treatment approach to severe COVID-19 patients. After treatment, abnormal coagulation and leukocyte had markedly improved with a better prognosis. CONCLUSION: This study expands the understanding of the co-occurrence of combination therapy in patients with COVID-19, which provides the probability of developing novel combined therapy. Furthermore, explore clinical trials of variable antivirus treatments based on subgroup analyses or on using subgroups in the selection criteria would be the next step.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Blood Cell Count , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Granulocytes , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytosis/etiology , Lymphopenia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
11.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1302-1308, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288297

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to identify the associations between the lymphocytes (LYM) absolute count on admission and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 224 COVID-19 patients who were admitted to General Hospital of Central Theater Command of the PLA from January 22 to April 4, 2020, were consecutively included. These patients were divided into the lymphopenia group and the nonlymphopenia group according to whether the LYM count on admission was below the normal range. RESULTS: During hospitalization, patients in the lymphopenia group have a much higher all-cause mortality (14.5% vs 0.0%; P < .001) and an evidently longer length of hospital stay (24.0 vs 17.5 days; P < .001) than patients in the nonlymphopenia group. The correlation analysis results indicated that the LYM count was negatively correlated with the values of NEU (R = -.2886, P < .001), PT (R = -.2312, P < .001), FIB (R = -.2954, P < .001), D-D (R = -.3554, P < .001), CRP (R = -.4899, P < .001), IL-6 (R = -.5459, P < .001), AST (R = -.2044, P < .01), Cr (R = -.1350, P < .05), CPK (R = -.2119, P < .01), CK-Mb (R = -.1760, P < .01), and LDH (R = -.4330, P < .001), and was positively correlated with the count of PLT (R = .2679, P < .001). In addition, LYM as a continuous variable was associated with 97% decreased risk of in-hospital mortality in the fully adjusted models (OR = 0.03, 95%CI, 0.00-0.37, P < .001). DISCUSSION: LYM screening on admission is a critical predictor for assessment of disease severity and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19, and lymphopenia substantially correlates with poor clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Lymphocyte Count , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Cell Count , Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Creatinine/blood , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, General/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/etiology , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
12.
Pharmacol Res ; 159: 104946, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279674

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has sparked a global pandemic, affecting more than 4 million people worldwide. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and even acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); with a fatality of 7.0 %. Accumulating evidence suggested that the progression of COVID-19 is associated with lymphopenia and excessive inflammation, and a subset of severe cases might exhibit cytokine storm triggered by secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Furthermore, secondary bacterial infection may contribute to the exacerbation of COVID-19. We recommend using both IL-10 and IL-6 as the indicators of cytokine storm, and monitoring the elevation of procalcitonin (PCT) as an alert for initiating antibacterial agents. Understanding the dynamic progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial to determine an effective treatment strategy to reduce the rising mortality of this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Procalcitonin/blood , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12775, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275948

ABSTRACT

With increasing numbers of patients recovering from COVID-19, there is increasing evidence for persistent symptoms and the need for follow-up studies. This retrospective study included patients without comorbidities, who recovered from COVID-19 and attended an outpatient clinic at a university hospital for follow-up care and potential convalescent plasma donation. Network analysis was applied to visualize symptom combinations and persistent symptoms. Comprehensive lab-testing was ascertained at each follow-up to analyze differences regarding patients with vs without persistent symptoms. 116 patients were included, age range was 18-69 years (median: 41) with follow-ups ranging from 22 to 102 days. The three most frequent persistent symptoms were Fatigue (54%), Dyspnea (29%) and Anosmia (25%). Lymphopenia was present in 13 of 112 (12%) cases. Five of 35 cases (14%) had Lymphopenia in the later follow-up range of 80-102 days. Serum IgA concentration was the only lab parameter with significant difference between patients with vs without persistent symptoms with reduced serum IgA concentrations in the patient cohort of persistent symptoms (p = 0.0219). Moreover, subgroup analyses showed that patients with lymphopenia experienced more frequently persistent symptoms. In conclusion, lymphopenia persisted in a noticeable percentage of recovered patients. Patients with persistent symptoms had significantly lower serum IgA levels. Furthermore, our data provides evidence that lymphopenia is associated with persistence of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Lymphopenia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aftercare , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
15.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251250, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232461

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Clinical characterisation studies have been essential in helping inform research, diagnosis and clinical management efforts, particularly early in a pandemic. This systematic review summarises the early literature on clinical characteristics of patients admitted to hospital, and evaluates the quality of evidence produced during the initial stages of the pandemic. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Global Health databases were searched for studies published from January 1st 2020 to April 28th 2020. Studies which reported on at least 100 hospitalised patients with Covid-19 of any age were included. Data on clinical characteristics were independently extracted by two review authors. Study design specific critical appraisal tools were used to evaluate included studies: the Newcastle Ottawa scale for cohort and cross sectional studies, Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for case series and the Cochrane collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. RESULTS: The search yielded 78 studies presenting data on 77,443 people. Most studies (82%) were conducted in China. No studies included patients from low- and middle-income countries. The overall quality of included studies was low to moderate, and the majority of studies did not include a control group. Fever and cough were the most commonly reported symptoms early in the pandemic. Laboratory and imaging findings were diverse with lymphocytopenia and ground glass opacities the most common findings respectively. Clinical data in children and vulnerable populations were limited. CONCLUSIONS: The early Covid-19 literature had moderate to high risk of bias and presented several methodological issues. Early clinical characterisation studies should aim to include different at-risk populations, including patients in non-hospital settings. Pandemic preparedness requires collection tools to ensure observational studies are methodologically robust and will help produce high-quality data early on in the pandemic to guide clinical practice and public health policy. REVIEW REGISTRATION: Available at https://osf.io/mpafn.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Databases, Factual , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Lymphopenia/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 661052, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229177

ABSTRACT

While lymphocytopenia is a common characteristic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the mechanisms responsible for this lymphocyte depletion are unclear. Here, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical and immunological data from 18 fatal COVID-19 cases, results showed that these patients had severe lymphocytopenia, together with high serum levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10), and elevation of many other mediators in routine laboratory tests, including C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and natriuretic peptide type B. The spleens and hilar lymph nodes (LNs) from six additional COVID-19 patients with post-mortem examinations were also collected, histopathologic detection showed that both organs manifested severe tissue damage and lymphocyte apoptosis in these six cases. In situ hybridization assays illustrated that SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA accumulates in these tissues, and transmission electronic microscopy confirmed that coronavirus-like particles were visible in the LNs. SARS-CoV-2 Spike and Nucleocapsid protein (NP) accumulated in the spleens and LNs, and the NP antigen restricted in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) positive macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 triggered the transcription of Il6, Il8 and Il1b genes in infected primary macrophages and DCs in vitro, and SARS-CoV-2-NP+ macrophages and DCs also manifested high levels of IL-6 and IL-1ß, which might directly decimate human spleens and LNs and subsequently lead to lymphocytopenia in vivo. Collectively, these results demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 induced lymphocytopenia by promoting systemic inflammation and direct neutralization in human spleen and LNs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spleen/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Lymph Nodes/ultrastructure , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Spleen/ultrastructure
17.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(3): 264-270, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The patients with hematological malignancies are a vulnerable group to COVID-19, due to the immunodeficiency resulting from the underlying disease and oncological treatment that significantly impair cellular and humoral immunity. Here we report on a beneficial impact of a passive immunotherapy with convalescent plasma to treat a prolonged, active COVID-19 infection in a patient with a history of nasopharyngeal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with the therapy inducing substantial impairment of particularly humoral arm of immune system. The specific aim was to quantify SARS-CoV2 neutralizing antibodies in a patient plasma during the course of therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Besides the standard of care treatment and monitoring, neutralizing antibody titers in patient's serum samples, calibrated according to the First WHO International Standard for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (human), were quantified in a time-dependent manner. During the immunotherapy period peripheral blood flow cytometry immunophenotyping was conducted to characterize lymphocyte subpopulations. RESULTS: The waves of clinical improvements and worsening coincided with transfused neutralizing antibodies rises and drops in the patient's systemic circulation, proving their contribution in controlling the disease progress. Besides the patient's lack of own humoral immune system, immunophenotyping analysis revealed also the reduced level of helper T-lymphocytes and immune exhaustion of monocytes. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic approach based on convalescent plasma transfusion transformed a prolonged, active COVID-19 infection into a manageable chronic disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19/therapy , Immunocompromised Host , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Chlorocebus aethiops , Combined Modality Therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Subsets/drug effects , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/immunology , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/therapy , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/blood , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Rituximab/administration & dosage , Rituximab/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vero Cells , Virus Cultivation
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 905-912, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191602

ABSTRACT

Without an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the build-up of herd immunity through natural infection has been suggested as a means to control COVID-19. Although population immunity is typically estimated by the serological investigation of recovered patients, humoral immunity in asymptomatic subjects has not been well studied, although they represent a large proportion of all SARS-CoV-2 infection cases. In this study, we conducted a serosurvey of asymptomatic infections among food workers and performed serological and cellular response analyses of asymptomatic subjects in Wuhan, the original epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak. Our data showed that up to 5.91% of the food workers carried SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies asymptomatically; however, in 90.4% of them, the antibody level declined over a 2-week period. IgM and IgG antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies, were significantly lower in asymptomatic subjects than in recovered symptomatic patients with similar disease courses. Furthermore, the asymptomatic subjects showed lymphopenia and a prominent decrease in the B-cell population, as well as a low frequency of antibody-secreting cells and a low cytokine response. These factors probably contributed to the low and unsustained antibody levels in asymptomatic subjects. Our results show that asymptomatic subjects are likely to be vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, and neither the proportion of population immunity nor the breadth of immune responses is sufficient for herd immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , China/epidemiology , Convalescence , Cytokines/blood , Disease Susceptibility , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Follow-Up Studies , Food Handling , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin M/biosynthesis , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/etiology , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sputum/virology
20.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(5): 1237-1242, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175057

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Outbreak of corona virus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Our aim is to document hematological parameters of patients with COVID-19 during initial stage of diagnosis and to identify early hematological indicators of severe infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Shifa International Hospital, Pakistan from April to November 2020. Patients hospitalized with COVID-19, diagnosed on RT-PCR and had a complete blood count (CBC) done within 48 hours of diagnosis were included. Data was analyzed using IBM® SPSS Statistics. RESULTS: A total of 425 patients were included in this study out of whom 272(64%) were males. The mean age was 55.61 ± 17.84 years. 95 patients (22.4%) had normal blood counts within 48 hours of COVID-19 diagnosis. Cytopenias were seen in 193(45.4%) patients. There were 75(17.6%) mortalities during the study period. Chi-square test showed that thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and neutrophilic leucocytosis were significantly associated with mortality (P = .037, P < .001, P < .001 respectively) and need for ventilator (P = .009, P < .001, P < .001, respectively). Neutrophilia was also associated with development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (P < .001). On ROC analysis, Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.693 and 0.660 for the outcomes mortality and need for ventilator, respectively. For a subset of 288 patients who had D-dimer levels checked within 48 hours of COVID-19 diagnosis, the AUC for mortality and ventilator need was 0.708 and 0.671, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hematological indices are vital indicators in the prognosis and risk stratification of COVID-19 during initial stages of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Adult , Aged , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
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