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1.
J Cell Biol ; 221(6)2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806200

ABSTRACT

The endolysosome system plays central roles in both autophagic degradation and secretory pathways, including the release of extracellular vesicles and particles (EVPs). Although previous work reveals important interconnections between autophagy and EVP-mediated secretion, our understanding of these secretory events during endolysosome inhibition remains incomplete. Here, we delineate a secretory autophagy pathway upregulated in response to endolysosomal inhibition, which mediates EVP-associated release of autophagic cargo receptors, including p62/SQSTM1. This secretion is highly regulated and dependent on multiple ATGs required for autophagosome formation, as well as the small GTPase Rab27a. Furthermore, disrupting autophagosome maturation, either via genetic inhibition of autophagosome-to-autolysosome fusion or expression of SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a, is sufficient to induce EVP secretion of autophagy cargo receptors. Finally, ATG-dependent EVP secretion buffers against the intracellular accumulation of autophagy cargo receptors when classical autophagic degradation is impaired. Thus, we propose secretory autophagy via EVPs functions as an alternate route to clear sequestered material and maintain proteostasis during endolysosomal dysfunction or impaired autophagosome maturation.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Extracellular Vesicles , Lysosomes , Proteostasis , Autophagosomes/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Humans , Lysosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequestosome-1 Protein , Viroporin Proteins , rab27 GTP-Binding Proteins
2.
Cells ; 11(6)2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760407

ABSTRACT

A distinct set of channels and transporters regulates the ion fluxes across the lysosomal membrane. Malfunctioning of these transport proteins and the resulting ionic imbalance is involved in various human diseases, such as lysosomal storage disorders, cancer, as well as metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. As a consequence, these proteins have stimulated strong interest for their suitability as possible drug targets. A detailed functional characterization of many lysosomal channels and transporters is lacking, mainly due to technical difficulties in applying the standard patch-clamp technique to these small intracellular compartments. In this review, we focus on current methods used to unravel the functional properties of lysosomal ion channels and transporters, stressing their advantages and disadvantages and evaluating their fields of applicability.


Subject(s)
Ion Channels , Lysosomal Storage Diseases , Humans , Intracellular Membranes/metabolism , Ion Channels/metabolism , Ions/metabolism , Lysosomal Storage Diseases/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Patch-Clamp Techniques
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(4)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621335

ABSTRACT

After binding to its cell surface receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters the host cell through directly fusing with plasma membrane (cell surface pathway) or undergoing endocytosis traveling to lysosome/late endosome for membrane fusion (endocytic pathway). However, the endocytic entry regulation by host cell remains elusive. Recent studies show ACE2 possesses a type I PDZ binding motif (PBM) through which it could interact with a PDZ domain-containing protein such as sorting nexin 27 (SNX27). In this study, we determined the ACE2-PBM/SNX27-PDZ complex structure, and, through a series of functional analyses, we found SNX27 plays an important role in regulating the homeostasis of ACE2 receptor. More importantly, we demonstrated SNX27, together with retromer complex (the core component of the endosomal protein sorting machinery), prevents ACE2/virus complex from entering lysosome/late endosome, resulting in decreased viral entry in cells where the endocytic pathway dominates. The ACE2/virus retrieval mediated by SNX27-retromer could be considered as a countermeasure against invasion of ACE2 receptor-using SARS coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Endosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sorting Nexins/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cytosol/metabolism , Endocytosis , Gene Expression Profiling , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Homeostasis , Humans , Lentivirus , Lysosomes/metabolism , Peptides/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Sorting Nexins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
4.
Pharm Res ; 39(1): 57-73, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615473

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are effective against respiratory viruses in vitro. However, they lack antiviral efficacy upon oral administration. Translation of in vitro to in vivo exposure is necessary for understanding the disconnect between the two to develop effective therapeutic strategies. METHODS: We employed an in vitro ion-trapping kinetic model to predict the changes in the cytosolic and lysosomal concentrations of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in cell lines and primary human airway cultures. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model with detailed respiratory physiology was used to predict regional airway exposure and optimize dosing regimens. RESULTS: At their reported in vitro effective concentrations in cell lines, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine cause a significant increase in their cytosolic and lysosomal concentrations by altering the lysosomal pH. Higher concentrations of the compounds are required to achieve similar levels of cytosolic and lysosomal changes in primary human airway cells in vitro. The predicted cellular and lysosomal concentrations in the respiratory tract for in vivo oral doses are lower than the in vitro effective levels. Pulmonary administration of aerosolized chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine is predicted to achieve high bound in vitro-effective concentrations in the respiratory tract, with low systemic exposure. Achieving effective cytosolic concentrations for activating immunomodulatory effects and adequate lysosomal levels for inhibiting viral replication could be key drivers for treating viral respiratory infections. CONCLUSION: Our analysis provides a framework for extrapolating in vitro effective concentrations of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to in vivo dosing regimens for treating viral respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Aerosols , Algorithms , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cytosol/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lysosomes/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture
5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1076, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550352

ABSTRACT

Lysine-selective molecular tweezers are promising drug candidates against proteinopathies, viral infection, and bacterial biofilm. Despite demonstration of their efficacy in multiple cellular and animal models, important questions regarding their mechanism of action, including cell penetrance and intracellular distribution, have not been answered to date. The main impediment to answering these questions has been the low intrinsic fluorescence of the main compound tested to date, called CLR01. Here, we address these questions using new fluorescently labeled molecular tweezers derivatives. We show that these compounds are internalized in neurons and astrocytes, at least partially through dynamin-dependent endocytosis. In addition, we demonstrate that the molecular tweezers concentrate rapidly in acidic compartments, primarily lysosomes. Accumulation of molecular tweezers in lysosomes may occur both through the endosomal-lysosomal pathway and via the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Moreover, by visualizing colocalization of molecular tweezers, lysosomes, and tau aggregates we show that lysosomes likely are the main site for the intracellular anti-amyloid activity of molecular tweezers. These findings have important implications for the mechanism of action of molecular tweezers in vivo, explaining how administration of low doses of the compounds achieves high effective concentrations where they are needed, and supporting the development of these compounds as drugs for currently cureless proteinopathies.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes/metabolism , Bridged-Ring Compounds/metabolism , Endosomes/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Organophosphates/metabolism , Animals , Autophagy/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
6.
ACS Chem Biol ; 16(12): 2845-2851, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521690

ABSTRACT

Arbidol (ARB) is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug approved in Russia and China for the treatment of influenza. ARB was tested in patients as a drug candidate for the treatment at the early onset of COVID-19 caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite promising clinical results and multiple ongoing trials, preclinical data are lacking and the molecular mechanism of action of ARB against SARS-CoV-2 remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ARB binds to the spike viral fusion glycoprotein of the SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain as well as its more virulent variants from the United Kingdom (strain B.1.1.7) and South Africa (strain B.1.351). We pinpoint the ARB binding site on the S protein to the S2 membrane fusion domain and use an infection assay with Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) pseudoviruses (PVs) pseudotyped with the S proteins of the Wuhan strain and the new variants to show that this interaction is sufficient for the viral cell entry inhibition by ARB. Finally, our experiments reveal that the ARB interaction leads to a significant destabilization and eventual lysosomal degradation of the S protein in cells. Collectively, our results identify ARB as the first clinically approved small molecule drug binder of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein and place ARB among the more promising drug candidates for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Indoles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Indoles/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Mutation , Protein Domains , Proteolysis/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488608

ABSTRACT

Muscle fatigue (MF) declines the capacity of muscles to complete a task over time at a constant load. MF is usually short-lasting, reversible, and is experienced as a feeling of tiredness or lack of energy. The leading causes of short-lasting fatigue are related to overtraining, undertraining/deconditioning, or physical injury. Conversely, MF can be persistent and more serious when associated with pathological states or following chronic exposure to certain medication or toxic composites. In conjunction with chronic fatigue, the muscle feels floppy, and the force generated by muscles is always low, causing the individual to feel frail constantly. The leading cause underpinning the development of chronic fatigue is related to muscle wasting mediated by aging, immobilization, insulin resistance (through high-fat dietary intake or pharmacologically mediated Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) agonism), diseases associated with systemic inflammation (arthritis, sepsis, infections, trauma, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders (heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD))), chronic kidney failure, muscle dystrophies, muscle myopathies, multiple sclerosis, and, more recently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The primary outcome of displaying chronic muscle fatigue is a poor quality of life. This type of fatigue represents a significant daily challenge for those affected and for the national health authorities through the financial burden attached to patient support. Although the origin of chronic fatigue is multifactorial, the MF in illness conditions is intrinsically linked to the occurrence of muscle loss. The sequence of events leading to chronic fatigue can be schematically denoted as: trigger (genetic or pathological) -> molecular outcome within the muscle cell -> muscle wasting -> loss of muscle function -> occurrence of chronic muscle fatigue. The present review will only highlight and discuss current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the upregulation of muscle wasting, thereby helping us understand how we could prevent or treat this debilitating condition.


Subject(s)
Muscle Fatigue/physiology , Muscle Proteins/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Autophagy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Lysosomes/metabolism , Muscle Fatigue/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Muscular Atrophy/etiology , Sarcopenia/physiopathology
8.
ACS Chem Biol ; 16(5): 844-856, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457790

ABSTRACT

Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are S-palmitoylated proteins in vertebrates that restrict a diverse range of viruses. S-palmitoylated IFITM3 in particular engages incoming virus particles, prevents their cytoplasmic entry, and accelerates their lysosomal clearance by host cells. However, how S-palmitoylation modulates the structure and biophysical characteristics of IFITM3 to promote its antiviral activity remains unclear. To investigate how site-specific S-palmitoylation controls IFITM3 antiviral activity, we employed computational, chemical, and biophysical approaches to demonstrate that site-specific lipidation of cysteine 72 enhances the antiviral activity of IFITM3 by modulating its conformation and interaction with lipid membranes. Collectively, our results demonstrate that site-specific S-palmitoylation of IFITM3 directly alters its biophysical properties and activity in cells to prevent virus infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Interferons/chemistry , Lipids/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Cell Membrane/ultrastructure , Computational Biology , Drug Design , Humans , Interferons/pharmacology , Lipoylation , Lysosomes/metabolism , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Signal Transduction
10.
Biol Aujourdhui ; 215(1-2): 25-43, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358361

ABSTRACT

Targeted protein degradation (TPD), discovered twenty years ago through the PROTAC technology, is rapidly developing thanks to the implication of many scientists from industry and academia. PROTAC chimeras are heterobifunctional molecules able to link simultaneously a protein to be degraded and an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This allows the protein ubiquitination and its degradation by 26S proteasome. PROTACs have evolved from small peptide molecules to small non-peptide and orally available molecules. It was shown that PROTACs are capable to degrade proteins considered as "undruggable" i.e. devoid of well-defined pockets and deep grooves possibly occupied by small molecules. Among these "hard to drug" proteins, several can be degraded by PROTACs: scaffold proteins, BAF complex, transcription factors, Ras family proteins. Two PROTACs are clinically tested for breast (ARV471) and prostate (ARV110) cancers. The protein degradation by proteasome is also induced by other types of molecules: molecular glues, hydrophobic tagging (HyT), HaloPROTACs and homo-PROTACs. Other cellular constituents are eligible to induced degradation: RNA-PROTACs for RNA binding proteins and RIBOTACs for degradation of RNA itself (SARS-CoV-2 RNA). TPD has recently moved beyond the proteasome with LYTACs (lysosome targeting chimeras) and MADTACs (macroautophagy degradation targeting chimeras). Several techniques such as screening platforms together with mathematical modeling and computational design are now used to improve the discovery of new efficient PROTACs.


TITLE: Dégradation induite des protéines par des molécules PROTAC et stratégies apparentées : développements à visée thérapeutique. ABSTRACT: Alors que, pour la plupart, les médicaments actuels sont de petites molécules inhibant l'action d'une protéine en bloquant un site d'interaction, la dégradation ciblée des protéines, découverte il y a une vingtaine d'années via les petites molécules PROTAC, connaît aujourd'hui un très grand développement, aussi bien au niveau universitaire qu'industriel. Cette dégradation ciblée permet de contrôler la concentration intracellulaire d'une protéine spécifique comme peuvent le faire les techniques basées sur les acides nucléiques (oligonucléotides antisens, ARNsi, CRISPR-Cas9). Les molécules PROTAC sont des chimères hétéro-bifonctionnelles capables de lier simultanément une protéine spécifique devant être dégradée et une E3 ubiquitine ligase. Les PROTAC sont donc capables de provoquer l'ubiquitinylation de la protéine ciblée et sa dégradation par le protéasome 26S. De nature peptidique, puis non peptidique, les PROTAC sont maintenant administrables par voie orale. Ce détournement du système ubiquitine protéasome permet aux molécules PROTAC d'élargir considérablement le champ des applications thérapeutiques puisque l'élimination de protéines dépourvues de poches ou de crevasses bien définies, dites difficiles à cibler, devient possible. Cette technologie versatile a conduit à la dégradation d'une grande variété de protéines comme des facteurs de transcription, des sérine/thréonine/tyrosine kinases, des protéines de structure, des protéines cytosoliques, des lecteurs épigénétiques. Certaines ligases telles que VHL, MDM2, cereblon et IAP sont couramment utilisées pour être recrutées par les PROTAC. Actuellement, le nombre de ligases pouvant être utilisées ainsi que la nature des protéines dégradées sont en constante augmentation. Deux PROTAC sont en étude clinique pour les cancers du sein (ARV471) et de la prostate (ARV110). La dégradation spécifique d'une protéine par le protéasome peut aussi être induite par d'autres types de molécules synthétiques : colles moléculaires, marqueurs hydrophobes, HaloPROTAC, homo-PROTAC. D'autres constituants cellulaires sont aussi éligibles à une dégradation induite : ARN-PROTAC pour les protéines se liant à l'ARN et RIBOTAC pour la dégradation de l'ARN lui-même comme celui du SARS-CoV-2. Des dégradations induites en dehors du protéasome sont aussi connues : LYTAC, pour des chimères détournant la dégradation de protéines extracellulaires vers les lysosomes, et MADTAC, pour des chimères détournant la dégradation par macroautophagie. Plusieurs techniques, en particulier des plates-formes de criblage, la modélisation mathématique et la conception computationnelle sont utilisées pour le développement de nouveaux PROTAC efficaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Design , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Proteolysis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy , Catalysis , Humans , Lysosomes/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , Protein Stability , Proteolysis/drug effects , RNA/drug effects , RNA-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Structure-Activity Relationship , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
11.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1466-1475, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343667

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly worldwide, causing significant mortality. There is a mechanistic relationship between intracellular coronavirus replication and deregulated autophagosome-lysosome system. We performed transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from COVID-19 patients and identified the aberrant upregulation of genes in the lysosome pathway. We further determined the capability of two circulating markers, namely microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3B) and (p62/SQSTM1) p62, both of which depend on lysosome for degradation, in predicting the emergence of moderate-to-severe disease in COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization for supplemental oxygen therapy. Logistic regression analyses showed that LC3B was associated with moderate-to-severe COVID-19, independent of age, sex and clinical risk score. A decrease in LC3B concentration <5.5 ng/ml increased the risk of oxygen and ventilatory requirement (adjusted odds ratio: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.1-22.0; P = 0.04). Serum concentrations of p62 in the moderate-to-severe group were significantly lower in patients aged 50 or below. In conclusion, lysosome function is deregulated in PBMCs isolated from COVID-19 patients, and the related biomarker LC3B may serve as a novel tool for stratifying patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 from those with asymptomatic or mild disease. COVID-19 patients with a decrease in LC3B concentration <5.5 ng/ml will require early hospital admission for supplemental oxygen therapy and other respiratory support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Autophagy , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cell Cycle , Cholesterol/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Binding Proteins/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
J Biol Chem ; 297(2): 100940, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293905

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 envelope protein (S2-E) is a conserved membrane protein that is important for coronavirus (CoV) assembly and budding. Here, we describe the recombinant expression and purification of S2-E in amphipol-class amphipathic polymer solutions, which solubilize and stabilize membrane proteins, but do not disrupt membranes. We found that amphipol delivery of S2-E to preformed planar bilayers results in spontaneous membrane integration and formation of viroporin cation channels. Amphipol delivery of the S2-E protein to human cells results in plasma membrane integration, followed by retrograde trafficking to the trans-Golgi network and accumulation in swollen perinuclear lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1-positive vesicles, likely lysosomes. CoV envelope proteins have previously been proposed to manipulate the luminal pH of the trans-Golgi network, which serves as an accumulation station for progeny CoV particles prior to cellular egress via lysosomes. Delivery of S2-E to cells will enable chemical biological approaches for future studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pathogenesis and possibly even development of "Trojan horse" antiviral therapies. Finally, this work also establishes a paradigm for amphipol-mediated delivery of membrane proteins to cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/drug effects , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Polymers/pharmacology , Propylamines/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , trans-Golgi Network/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Lipid Bilayers/chemistry , Lipid Bilayers/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Polymers/chemistry , Propylamines/chemistry , Protein Transport , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry
14.
Sci Immunol ; 6(60)2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276879

ABSTRACT

The nutrient-sensing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is integral to cell fate decisions after T cell activation. Sustained mTORC1 activity favors the generation of terminally differentiated effector T cells instead of follicular helper and memory T cells. This is particularly pertinent for T cell responses of older adults who have sustained mTORC1 activation despite dysfunctional lysosomes. Here, we show that lysosome-deficient T cells rely on late endosomes rather than lysosomes as an mTORC1 activation platform, where mTORC1 is activated by sensing cytosolic amino acids. T cells from older adults have an increased expression of the plasma membrane leucine transporter SLC7A5 to provide a cytosolic amino acid source. Hence, SLC7A5 and VPS39 deficiency (a member of the HOPS complex promoting early to late endosome conversion) substantially reduced mTORC1 activities in T cells from older but not young individuals. Late endosomal mTORC1 is independent of the negative-feedback loop involving mTORC1-induced inactivation of the transcription factor TFEB that controls expression of lysosomal genes. The resulting sustained mTORC1 activation impaired lysosome function and prevented lysosomal degradation of PD-1 in CD4+ T cells from older adults, thereby inhibiting their proliferative responses. VPS39 silencing of human T cells improved their expansion to pertussis and to SARS-CoV-2 peptides in vitro. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of CD4+ Vps39-deficient LCMV-specific SMARTA cells improved germinal center responses, CD8+ memory T cell generation, and recall responses to infection. Thus, curtailing late endosomal mTORC1 activity is a promising strategy to enhance T cell immunity.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Endosomes/metabolism , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/genetics , Adoptive Transfer/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Autophagy-Related Proteins/deficiency , Autophagy-Related Proteins/genetics , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/genetics , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Female , Forkhead Box Protein O1/deficiency , Forkhead Box Protein O1/genetics , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Signal Transduction/immunology , Transfection , Vesicular Transport Proteins/deficiency , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics , Young Adult
15.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(5): 956-972, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243283

ABSTRACT

An ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now the greatest threat to global public health. Herbal medicines and their derived natural products have drawn much attention in the treatment of COVID-19, but the detailed mechanisms by which natural products inhibit SARS-CoV-2 have not been elucidated. Here, we show that platycodin D (PD), a triterpenoid saponin abundant in Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), a dietary and medicinal herb commonly used in East Asia, effectively blocks the two main SARS-CoV-2 infection routes via lysosome- and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-driven entry. Mechanistically, PD prevents host entry of SARS-CoV-2 by redistributing membrane cholesterol to prevent membrane fusion, which can be reinstated by treatment with a PD-encapsulating agent. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of PD are recapitulated by the pharmacological inhibition or gene silencing of NPC1, which is mutated in patients with Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) displaying disrupted membrane cholesterol distribution. Finally, readily available local foods or herbal medicines containing PG root show similar inhibitory effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study proposes that PD is a potent natural product for preventing or treating COVID-19 and that briefly disrupting the distribution of membrane cholesterol is a potential novel therapeutic strategy for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saponins/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Humans , Lysosomes/drug effects , Lysosomes/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Platycodon/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saponins/chemistry , Triterpenes/chemistry
16.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223961

ABSTRACT

The flavonoid naringenin (Nar), present in citrus fruits and tomatoes, has been identified as a blocker of an emerging class of human intracellular channels, namely the two-pore channel (TPC) family, whose role has been established in several diseases. Indeed, Nar was shown to be effective against neoangiogenesis, a process essential for solid tumor progression, by specifically impairing TPC activity. The goal of the present review is to illustrate the rationale that links TPC channels to the mechanism of coronavirus infection, and how their inhibition by Nar could be an efficient pharmacological strategy to fight the current pandemic plague COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Flavanones/pharmacology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Arabidopsis/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , Endosomes/virology , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Humans , Lysosomes/drug effects , Lysosomes/metabolism , Lysosomes/virology , Neoplasms/blood supply , Neoplasms/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vacuoles/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
17.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol ; 363: 203-269, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212320

ABSTRACT

An increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) regulates a plethora of functions in the cardiovascular (CV) system, including contraction in cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells and endothelial colony forming cells. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) represents the largest endogenous Ca2+ store, which releases Ca2+ through ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and/or inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) upon extracellular stimulation. The acidic vesicles of the endolysosomal (EL) compartment represent an additional endogenous Ca2+ store, which is targeted by several second messengers, including nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2], and may release intraluminal Ca2+ through multiple Ca2+ permeable channels, including two-pore channels 1 and 2 (TPC1-2) and Transient Receptor Potential Mucolipin 1 (TRPML1). Herein, we discuss the emerging, pathophysiological role of EL Ca2+ signaling in the CV system. We describe the role of cardiac TPCs in ß-adrenoceptor stimulation, arrhythmia, hypertrophy, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. We then illustrate the role of EL Ca2+ signaling in VSMCs, where TPCs promote vasoconstriction and contribute to pulmonary artery hypertension and atherosclerosis, whereas TRPML1 sustains vasodilation and is also involved in atherosclerosis. Subsequently, we describe the mechanisms whereby endothelial TPCs promote vasodilation, contribute to neurovascular coupling in the brain and stimulate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Finally, we discuss about the possibility to target TPCs, which are likely to mediate CV cell infection by the Severe Acute Respiratory Disease-Coronavirus-2, with Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs to alleviate the detrimental effects of Coronavirus Disease-19 on the CV system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Signaling/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/metabolism , Animals , Brain/blood supply , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Models, Cardiovascular , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , NADP/analogs & derivatives , NADP/metabolism , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/metabolism , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Transient Receptor Potential Channels/metabolism
18.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1466-1475, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096499

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly worldwide, causing significant mortality. There is a mechanistic relationship between intracellular coronavirus replication and deregulated autophagosome-lysosome system. We performed transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from COVID-19 patients and identified the aberrant upregulation of genes in the lysosome pathway. We further determined the capability of two circulating markers, namely microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3B) and (p62/SQSTM1) p62, both of which depend on lysosome for degradation, in predicting the emergence of moderate-to-severe disease in COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization for supplemental oxygen therapy. Logistic regression analyses showed that LC3B was associated with moderate-to-severe COVID-19, independent of age, sex and clinical risk score. A decrease in LC3B concentration <5.5 ng/ml increased the risk of oxygen and ventilatory requirement (adjusted odds ratio: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.1-22.0; P = 0.04). Serum concentrations of p62 in the moderate-to-severe group were significantly lower in patients aged 50 or below. In conclusion, lysosome function is deregulated in PBMCs isolated from COVID-19 patients, and the related biomarker LC3B may serve as a novel tool for stratifying patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 from those with asymptomatic or mild disease. COVID-19 patients with a decrease in LC3B concentration <5.5 ng/ml will require early hospital admission for supplemental oxygen therapy and other respiratory support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Autophagy , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cell Cycle , Cholesterol/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Binding Proteins/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
19.
Mol Genet Metab ; 132(2): S2-S6, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091577
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079663

ABSTRACT

Lysosomotropism is a biological characteristic of small molecules, independently present of their intrinsic pharmacological effects. Lysosomotropic compounds, in general, affect various targets, such as lipid second messengers originating from lysosomal enzymes promoting endothelial stress response in systemic inflammation; inflammatory messengers, such as IL-6; and cathepsin L-dependent viral entry into host cells. This heterogeneous group of drugs and active metabolites comprise various promising candidates with more favorable drug profiles than initially considered (hydroxy) chloroquine in prophylaxis and treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections/Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and cytokine release syndrome (CRS) triggered by bacterial or viral infections. In this hypothesis, we discuss the possible relationships among lysosomotropism, enrichment in lysosomes of pulmonary tissue, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and transition to COVID-19. Moreover, we deduce further suitable approved drugs and active metabolites based with a more favorable drug profile on rational eligibility criteria, including readily available over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Benefits to patients already receiving lysosomotropic drugs for other pre-existing conditions underline their vital clinical relevance in the current SARS-CoV2/COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Lysosomes/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chlorpromazine/pharmacokinetics , Chlorpromazine/pharmacology , Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Drug Discovery/methods , Drug Repositioning/methods , Fluvoxamine/pharmacokinetics , Fluvoxamine/pharmacology , Fluvoxamine/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-1/immunology , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Lysosomes/immunology , Lysosomes/metabolism , Lysosomes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacokinetics , Small Molecule Libraries/therapeutic use , Virus Replication/drug effects
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