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1.
Nature ; 609(7928): 815-821, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050415

ABSTRACT

Lysosomal dysfunction has been increasingly linked to disease and normal ageing1,2. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), a hallmark of lysosome-related diseases, can be triggered by diverse cellular stressors3. Given the damaging contents of lysosomes, LMP must be rapidly resolved, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, using an unbiased proteomic approach, we show that LMP stimulates a phosphoinositide-initiated membrane tethering and lipid transport (PITT) pathway for rapid lysosomal repair. Upon LMP, phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase type 2α (PI4K2A) accumulates rapidly on damaged lysosomes, generating high levels of the lipid messenger phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. Lysosomal phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate in turn recruits multiple oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related protein (ORP) family members, including ORP9, ORP10, ORP11 and OSBP, to orchestrate extensive new membrane contact sites between damaged lysosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. The ORPs subsequently catalyse robust endoplasmic reticulum-to-lysosome transfer of phosphatidylserine and cholesterol to support rapid lysosomal repair. Finally, the lipid transfer protein ATG2 is also recruited to damaged lysosomes where its activity is potently stimulated by phosphatidylserine. Independent of macroautophagy, ATG2 mediates rapid membrane repair through direct lysosomal lipid transfer. Together, our findings identify that the PITT pathway maintains lysosomal membrane integrity, with important implications for numerous age-related diseases characterized by impaired lysosomal function.


Subject(s)
Lysosomes , Phosphatidylinositols , Signal Transduction , Autophagy-Related Proteins/metabolism , Biological Transport , Cholesterol/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Lysosomes/pathology , Oxysterols/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositols/metabolism , Phosphatidylserines/metabolism , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/metabolism , Proteomics , Receptors, Steroid/metabolism
2.
Mol Genet Metab ; 132(2): S2-S6, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091577
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