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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(10): e1010891, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112643

ABSTRACT

Although antibody-inducing split virus vaccines (SV) are currently the most effective way to combat seasonal influenza, their efficacy can be modest, especially in immunologically-naïve individuals. We investigated immune responses towards inactivated whole influenza virus particle vaccine (WPV) formulations, predicated to be more immunogenic, in a non-human primate model, as an important step towards clinical testing in humans. Comprehensive analyses were used to capture 46 immune parameters to profile how WPV-induced responses differed to those elicited by antigenically-similar SV formulations. Naïve cynomolgus macaques vaccinated with either monovalent or quadrivalent WPV consistently induced stronger antibody responses and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres against vaccine-matched viruses compared to SV formulations, while acute reactogenic effects were similar. Responses in WPV-primed animals were further increased by boosting with the same formulation, conversely to modest responses after priming and boosting with SV. 28-parameter multiplex bead array defined key antibody features and showed that while both WPV and SV induced elevated IgG responses against A/H1N1 nucleoprotein, only WPV increased IgG responses against A/H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) and HA-Stem, and higher IgA responses to A/H1N1-HA after each vaccine dose. Antibodies to A/H1N1-HA and HA-Stem that could engage FcγR2a and FcγR3a were also present at higher levels after one dose of WPV compared to SV and remained elevated after the second dose. Furthermore, WPV-enhanced antibody responses were associated with higher frequencies of HA-specific B-cells and IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T-cell responses. Our data additionally demonstrate stronger boosting of HI titres by WPV following prior infection and support WPV administered as a priming dose irrespective of the follow up vaccine for the second dose. Our findings thus show that compared to SV vaccination, WPV-induced humoral responses are significantly increased in scope and magnitude, advocating WPV vaccination regimens for priming immunologically-naïve individuals and also in the event of a pandemic outbreak.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Animals , Humans , Hemagglutinins , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Vaccines, Inactivated , Macaca fascicularis , Virion , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Nucleoproteins
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18694, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106469

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 exhibits a diverse host species range with variable outcomes, enabling differential host susceptibility studies to assess suitability for pre-clinical countermeasure and pathogenesis studies. Baseline virological, molecular and pathological outcomes were determined among multiple species-one Old World non-human primate (NHP) species (cynomolgus macaques), two New World NHP species (red-bellied tamarins; common marmosets) and Syrian hamsters-following single-dose, atraumatic intranasal administration of SARS-CoV-2/Victoria-01. After serial sacrifice 2, 10 and 28-days post-infection (dpi), hamsters and cynomolgus macaques displayed differential virus biodistribution across respiratory, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Uniquely, New World tamarins, unlike marmosets, exhibited high levels of acute upper airway infection, infectious virus recovery associated with mild lung pathology representing a host previously unrecognized as susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Across all species, lung pathology was identified post-clearance of virus shedding (antigen/RNA), with an association of virus particles within replication organelles in lung sections analysed by electron microscopy. Disrupted cell ultrastructure and lung architecture, including abnormal morphology of mitochondria 10-28 dpi, represented on-going pathophysiological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 in predominantly asymptomatic hosts. Infection kinetics and host pathology comparators using standardized methodologies enables model selection to bridge differential outcomes within upper and lower respiratory tracts and elucidate longer-term consequences of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Animals , Tissue Distribution , Administration, Intranasal , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Macaca fascicularis
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6439, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096707

ABSTRACT

Measles is the most contagious airborne viral infection and the leading cause of child death among vaccine-preventable diseases. We show here that aerosolized lipopeptide fusion inhibitor, derived from heptad-repeat regions of the measles virus (MeV) fusion protein, blocks respiratory MeV infection in a non-human primate model, the cynomolgus macaque. We use a custom-designed mesh nebulizer to ensure efficient aerosol delivery of peptide to the respiratory tract and demonstrate the absence of adverse effects and lung pathology in macaques. The nebulized peptide efficiently prevents MeV infection, resulting in the complete absence of MeV RNA, MeV-infected cells, and MeV-specific humoral responses in treated animals. This strategy provides an additional means to fight against respiratory infection in non-vaccinated people, that can be readily translated to human trials. It presents a proof-of-concept for the aerosol delivery of fusion inhibitory peptides to protect against measles and other airborne viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, in case of high-risk exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Animals , Humans , Measles virus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Measles/prevention & control , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Peptides/pharmacology , Macaca fascicularis/metabolism
4.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 647, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an attractive animal model for the study of human disease and is extensively used in biomedical research. Cynomolgus macaques share behavioral, physiological, and genomic traits with humans and recapitulate human disease manifestations not observed in other animal species. To improve the use of the cynomolgus macaque model to investigate immune responses, we defined and characterized the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. RESULT: We identified and analyzed the alpha (TRA), beta (TRB), gamma (TRG), and delta (TRD) TCR loci of the cynomolgus macaque. The expressed repertoire was determined using 22 unique lung samples from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected cynomolgus macaques by single cell RNA sequencing. Expressed TCR alpha (TRAV) and beta (TRBV) variable region genes were enriched and identified using gene specific primers, which allowed their functional status to be determined. Analysis of the primers used for cynomolgus macaque TCR variable region gene enrichment showed they could also be used to amplify rhesus macaque (M. mulatta) variable region genes. CONCLUSION: The genomic organization of the cynomolgus macaque has great similarity with the rhesus macaque and they shared > 90% sequence similarity with the human TCR repertoire. The identification of the TCR repertoire facilitates analysis of T cell immunity in cynomolgus macaques.


Subject(s)
Genome , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Animals , Genomics , Humans , Macaca fascicularis/genetics , Macaca mulatta/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 954121, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022737

ABSTRACT

Although tremendous effort has been exerted to elucidate the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 cases, the detailed mechanism of moderate cases, which accounts for 90% of all patients, remains unclear yet, partly limited by lacking the biopsy tissues. Here, we established the COVID-19 infection model in cynomolgus macaques (CMs), monitored the clinical and pathological features, and analyzed underlying pathogenic mechanisms at early infection stage by performing proteomic and metabolomic profiling of lung tissues and sera samples from COVID-19 CMs models. Our data demonstrated that innate immune response, neutrophile and platelet activation were mainly dysregulated in COVID-19 CMs. The symptom of neutrophilia, lymphopenia and massive "cytokines storm", main features of severe COVID-19 patients, were greatly weakened in most of the challenged CMs, which are more semblable as moderate patients. Thus, COVID-19 model in CMs is rational to understand the pathogenesis of moderate COVID-19 and may be a candidate model to assess the safety and efficacy of therapeutics and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Proteomics
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5108, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016699

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has exemplified that rigorous evaluation in large animal models is key for translation from promising in vitro results to successful clinical implementation. Among the drugs that have been largely tested in clinical trials but failed so far to bring clear evidence of clinical efficacy is favipiravir, a nucleoside analogue with large spectrum activity against several RNA viruses in vitro and in small animal models. Here, we evaluate the antiviral activity of favipiravir against Zika or SARS-CoV-2 virus in cynomolgus macaques. In both models, high doses of favipiravir are initiated before infection and viral kinetics are evaluated during 7 to 15 days after infection. Favipiravir leads to a statistically significant reduction in plasma Zika viral load compared to untreated animals. However, favipiravir has no effects on SARS-CoV-2 viral kinetics, and 4 treated animals have to be euthanized due to rapid clinical deterioration, suggesting a potential role of favipiravir in disease worsening in SARS-CoV-2 infected animals. To summarize, favipiravir has an antiviral activity against Zika virus but not against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the cynomolgus macaque model. Our results support the clinical evaluation of favipiravir against Zika virus but they advocate against its use against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Amides , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Pandemics , Primates , Pyrazines , SARS-CoV-2 , Zika Virus Infection/drug therapy
7.
Pharm Res ; 39(9): 2191-2201, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959062

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neutralizing antibodies, administrated through intravenous infusion, have shown to be highly efficacious in treating mild and moderate COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lung. However, antibodies do not transport across the plasma-lung barrier efficiently, and up to 100 mg/kg dose was used in human causing significant supply and cost burdens. This study was to explore the feasibility of nebulized antibodies inhalation delivery as an alternative route. METHODS: HB27, a potent RBD-specific humanized monoclonal antibody (Zhu et al. in National Sci Rev. 8:nwaa297, 2020), showed excellent protection against SARS-CoV-2 in animal model and good safety profile in clinical studies. The pharmacokinetics and preliminary safety of HB27 administrated through the respiratory tract were studied in mice and cynomolgus monkeys here. RESULTS: At a single 5 mg/kg dose, the peak HB27 concentration in mice pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) reached 857.8 µg/mL, 670-fold higher than the PRNT90 value of 1.28 µg/mL, and maintained above PRNT90 over 240 h. In contrast, when administrated by intravenous injection at a 5 mg/kg dose, the antibody concentrations in mice ELF were below PRNT90 value throughout, and were about 50-fold lower than that in the serum. In cynomolgus monkeys administrated with a single dose through inhalation, the antibody concentration in ELF remained high within 3 days. No drug-related safety concerns were observed in the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that nebulized neutralizing antibody delivery though inhalation could be a more efficient and efficacious alternative approach for treating COVID-19 and other respiratory infectious diseases, and warrants further evaluation in clinical studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/drug therapy , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Mice
8.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938924

ABSTRACT

Dietary composition is associated with the differential prevalence of psychiatric disorders; the Western diet confers increased risk, while the Mediterranean diet appears to reduce risk. In nonhuman primates, anxiety-like behaviors and social isolation have been linked to both Western diet consumption and increased inflammatory disease risk, and recent evidence suggests that diet composition may affect immune system function in part through its effects on behavior. This is particularly important in the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic in which social isolation has been associated with disease. Here, we examined the effects of Western- and Mediterranean-like diets on social behavior in a randomized, 34-month preclinical trial in middle-aged female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Diet induced rapid and persistent changes in a suite of behaviors. After just three months of experimental diet consumption, a composite measure of diet-altered behavior (DAB) significantly differed between the two diets (p = 0.014) and remained different throughout the 24-month experimental observation period (p = 2.2 × 10-8). Monkeys fed the Western diet spent more time alone (FDR = 4.4 × 10-5) and displayed more anxiety behavior (FDR = 0.048), whereas monkeys fed the Mediterranean diet spent more time resting (FDR = 0.0013), attentive (FDR = 0.017), and in body contact with groupmates (FDR = 4.1 × 10-8). These differences were largely due to changes in behavior of animals fed the Mediterranean diet, while Western-diet-fed-animals exhibited similar behaviors compared to the eight-month baseline period, during which all monkeys consumed a common laboratory diet. These observations provide experimental support in a nonhuman primate model, demonstrating a potential therapeutic benefit of the Mediterranean diet consumption to reduce social isolation and anxiety and thus mitigate social isolation-associated disorders that often accompany illness and disability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , Animals , Anxiety , Female , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Pandemics , Social Isolation
9.
Toxicol Pathol ; 50(5): 560-573, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902220

ABSTRACT

Cynomolgus macaques, the most commonly utilized nonhuman primate in nonclinical toxicology studies, are acquired from purpose-bred colonies across various geographic locations, including China, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Importation challenges and limited availability have restricted animals suitable for inclusion in nonclinical studies. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak further stressed supply chains, reducing the ability to source animals from a singular location to complete a drug development program. These challenges raised concerns of increased variability in study endpoints due to heterogeneity of animals and that this could subsequently impact historical control data and toxicology study interpretation. To investigate the impact of Chinese, Vietnamese, or Cambodian geographic origin on standard nonclinical toxicology study endpoints, historical control data from studies conducted at a single facility from 2005 to 2020 were compiled and evaluated for the following: clinical observations, body weight, ophthalmoscopic examinations, and clinical and anatomic pathology data. Study populations consisted of 2- to 5-year-old cynomolgus macaques sourced from China (n = 750 males/741 females), Cambodia (n = 282 males/271 females), and Vietnam (n = 122 males/120 females). Interpretation of the various data demonstrated no notable differences in standard toxicology study endpoints or background findings among cynomolgus macaques originating from China, Cambodia, or Vietnam.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Asians , China , Female , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Vietnam
10.
Vaccine ; 40(31): 4231-4241, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882604

ABSTRACT

The vaccine S-268019-b is a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S)-protein vaccine consisting of full-length recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S-protein (S-910823) as antigen, mixed with the squalene-based adjuvant A-910823. The current study evaluated the immunogenicity of S-268019-b using various doses of S-910823 and its vaccine efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in cynomolgus monkeys. The different doses of S-910823 combined with A-910823 were intramuscularly administered twice at a 3-week interval. Two weeks after the second dosing, dose-dependent humoral immune responses were observed with neutralizing antibody titers being comparable to that of human convalescent plasma. Pseudoviruses harboring S proteins from Beta and Gamma SARS-CoV-2 variants displayed approximately 3- to 4-fold reduced sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies induced after two vaccine doses compared with that against ancestral viruses, whereas neutralizing antibody titers were reduced >14-fold against the Omicron variant. Cellular immunity was also induced with a relative Th1 polarized response. No adverse clinical signs or weight loss associated with the vaccine were observed, suggesting safety of the vaccine in cynomolgus monkeys. Immunization with 10 µg of S-910823 with A-910823 demonstrated protective efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 challenge according to genomic and subgenomic viral RNA transcript levels in nasopharyngeal, throat, and rectal swab specimens. Pathological analysis revealed no detectable vaccine-dependent enhancement of disease in the lungs of challenged vaccinated monkeys. The current findings provide fundamental information regarding vaccine doses for human trials and support the development of S-268019-b as a safe and effective vaccine for controlling the current pandemic, as well as general protection against SARS-CoV-2 moving forward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Macaca fascicularis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869804

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the subsequent pandemic has highlighted the need for animal models that faithfully replicate the salient features of COVID-19 disease in humans. These models are necessary for the rapid selection, testing, and evaluation of potential medical countermeasures. Here, we performed a direct comparison of two distinct routes of SARS-CoV-2 exposure-combined intratracheal/intranasal and small particle aerosol-in two nonhuman primate species, rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. While all four experimental groups displayed very few outward clinical signs, evidence of mild to moderate respiratory disease was present on radiographs and at necropsy. Cynomolgus macaques exposed via the aerosol route also developed the most consistent fever responses and had the most severe respiratory disease and pathology. This study demonstrates that while all four models produced suitable representations of mild COVID-like illness, aerosol exposure of cynomolgus macaques to SARS-CoV-2 produced the most severe disease, which may provide additional clinical endpoints for evaluating therapeutics and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aerosols , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Macaca fascicularis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Toxicol Pathol ; 50(5): 591-606, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807928

ABSTRACT

Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are commonly used in safety assessment and as translational models for drug development. Recent supply chain pressures, exportation bans, and increased demand for drug safety assessment studies exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic have prompted the investigation of utilizing macaques of different geographic origin in preclinical toxicity studies. This study compares routine hematology, coagulation, and clinical chemistry endpoints of 3 distinct subpopulations of mainland Asia origin (Cambodia, China, and Vietnam) with Mauritius origin macaques compiling results of 3,225 animals from 123 regulatory toxicology studies conducted at North American and European Union contract research organization facilities between 2016 and 2019. Results were generally similar amongst the subpopulations compared in this study. Few notable differences in hematology test results and several minor differences in serum biochemistry and coagulation test results were identified when 3 distinct subpopulations of mainland Asia origin macaques were compared with Mauritius origin macaques. Our findings support the use of different origin macaques in drug development programs; however, emphasizes the importance of maintaining consistency in geographic origin of animals within a study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , Animals , Blood Coagulation Tests , Cambodia , Chemistry, Clinical , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Mauritius , Pandemics , Vietnam
13.
Nature ; 604(7907): 723-731, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799583

ABSTRACT

Studying tissue composition and function in non-human primates (NHPs) is crucial to understand the nature of our own species. Here we present a large-scale cell transcriptomic atlas that encompasses over 1 million cells from 45 tissues of the adult NHP Macaca fascicularis. This dataset provides a vast annotated resource to study a species phylogenetically close to humans. To demonstrate the utility of the atlas, we have reconstructed the cell-cell interaction networks that drive Wnt signalling across the body, mapped the distribution of receptors and co-receptors for viruses causing human infectious diseases, and intersected our data with human genetic disease orthologues to establish potential clinical associations. Our M. fascicularis cell atlas constitutes an essential reference for future studies in humans and NHPs.


Subject(s)
Macaca fascicularis , Transcriptome , Animals , Cell Communication , Macaca fascicularis/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Wnt Signaling Pathway
14.
Toxicol Pathol ; 50(5): 638-659, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775137

ABSTRACT

Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are the most frequently used nonhuman primate (NHP) species for biomedical research and toxicology studies of novel therapeutics. In recent years, there has been a shortage of laboratory macaques due to a variety of competing factors. This was most recently exacerbated by the surge in NHP research required to address the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus 2 pandemic. Continued support of these important studies has required the use of more varied cohorts of macaques, including animals with different origins, increased exposure to naturally occurring pathogens, and a wider age range. Diarrhea and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are the most frequently occurring spontaneous findings in macaques of all origins and ages. The purpose of this review is to alert pathologists and scientists involved in NHP research to these findings and their impact on animal health and study endpoints, which may otherwise confound the interpretation of data generated using macaques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Gastrointestinal Tract , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta
15.
Med (N Y) ; 3(3): 157-158, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734815

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic and prophylactic uses of monoclonal antibodies (mABs) against SARS-CoV-2 are limited by their short half-life and need for intravenous delivery. In this issue, Cobb et al.1 engineer a neutralizing mAB cocktail with extended half-life that can be delivered intramuscularly to provide prophylactic protection against infection in rhesus macaques.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Macaca fascicularis/immunology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
16.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100528, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649494

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused an ongoing global health crisis. Here, we present as a vaccine candidate synthetic SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein-coated lipid vesicles that resemble virus-like particles. Soluble S glycoprotein trimer stabilization by formaldehyde cross-linking introduces two major inter-protomer cross-links that keep all receptor-binding domains in the "down" conformation. Immunization of cynomolgus macaques with S coated onto lipid vesicles (S-LVs) induces high antibody titers with potent neutralizing activity against the vaccine strain, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma variants as well as T helper (Th)1 CD4+-biased T cell responses. Although anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibody responses are initially predominant, the third immunization boosts significant non-RBD antibody titers. Challenging vaccinated animals with SARS-CoV-2 shows a complete protection through sterilizing immunity, which correlates with the presence of nasopharyngeal anti-S immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA titers. Thus, the S-LV approach is an efficient and safe vaccine candidate based on a proven classical approach for further development and clinical testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Liposomes , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Th1 Cells/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology , Vero Cells
17.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100520, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633496

ABSTRACT

Effective vaccines are essential for the control of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Currently developed vaccines inducing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S)-antigen-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are effective, but the appearance of NAb-resistant S variant viruses is of great concern. A vaccine inducing S-independent or NAb-independent SARS-CoV-2 control may contribute to containment of these variants. Here, we investigate the efficacy of an intranasal vaccine expressing viral non-S antigens against intranasal SARS-CoV-2 challenge in cynomolgus macaques. Seven vaccinated macaques exhibit significantly reduced viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs on day 2 post-challenge compared with nine unvaccinated controls. The viral control in the absence of SARS-CoV-2-specific NAbs is significantly correlated with vaccine-induced, viral-antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Our results indicate that CD8+ T cell induction by intranasal vaccination can result in NAb-independent control of SARS-CoV-2 infection, highlighting a potential of vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell responses to contribute to COVID-19 containment.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intranasal/methods , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus M Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Vero Cells , Viral Load
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 438, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585880

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine technology has shown its power in preventing the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Two mRNA vaccines targeting the full-length S protein of SARS-CoV-2 have been authorized for emergency use. Recently, we have developed a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated mRNA (mRNA-LNP) encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 (termed ARCoV), which confers complete protection in mouse model. Herein, we further characterized the protection efficacy of ARCoV in nonhuman primates and the long-term stability under normal refrigerator temperature. Intramuscular immunization of two doses of ARCoV elicited robust neutralizing antibodies as well as cellular response against SARS-CoV-2 in cynomolgus macaques. More importantly, ARCoV vaccination in macaques significantly protected animals from acute lung lesions caused by SARS-CoV-2, and viral replication in lungs and secretion in nasal swabs were completely cleared in all animals immunized with low or high doses of ARCoV. No evidence of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection was observed throughout the study. Finally, extensive stability assays showed that ARCoV can be stored at 2-8 °C for at least 6 months without decrease of immunogenicity. All these promising results strongly support the ongoing clinical trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , /pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Vero Cells , /immunology
19.
Nature ; 601(7893): 410-414, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521758

ABSTRACT

The CVnCoV (CureVac) mRNA vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was recently evaluated in a phase 2b/3 efficacy trial in humans1. CV2CoV is a second-generation mRNA vaccine containing non-modified nucleosides but with optimized non-coding regions and enhanced antigen expression. Here we report the results of a head-to-head comparison of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of CVnCoV and CV2CoV in non-human primates. We immunized 18 cynomolgus macaques with two doses of 12 µg lipid nanoparticle-formulated CVnCoV or CV2CoV or with sham (n = 6 per group). Compared with CVnCoV, CV2CoV induced substantially higher titres of binding and neutralizing antibodies, memory B cell responses and T cell responses as well as more potent neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the Delta variant. Moreover, CV2CoV was found to be comparably immunogenic to the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) vaccine in macaques. Although CVnCoV provided partial protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, CV2CoV afforded more robust protection with markedly lower viral loads in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Binding and neutralizing antibody titres were correlated with protective efficacy. These data demonstrate that optimization of non-coding regions can greatly improve the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a non-modified mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in non-human primates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Nucleosides/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , Female , Macaca fascicularis/immunology , Male , Nucleosides/genetics , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/standards , Viral Load , /standards
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6097, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475295

ABSTRACT

Effective treatments against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are urgently needed. Monoclonal antibodies have shown promising results in patients. Here, we evaluate the in vivo prophylactic and therapeutic effect of COVA1-18, a neutralizing antibody highly potent against the B.1.1.7 isolate. In both prophylactic and therapeutic settings, SARS-CoV-2 remains undetectable in the lungs of treated hACE2 mice. Therapeutic treatment also causes a reduction in viral loads in the lungs of Syrian hamsters. When administered at 10 mg kg-1 one day prior to a high dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in cynomolgus macaques, COVA1-18 shows very strong antiviral activity in the upper respiratory compartments. Using a mathematical model, we estimate that COVA1-18 reduces viral infectivity by more than 95% in these compartments, preventing lymphopenia and extensive lung lesions. Our findings demonstrate that COVA1-18 has a strong antiviral activity in three preclinical models and could be a valuable candidate for further clinical evaluation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tissue Distribution , Viral Load
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