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1.
AAPS J ; 24(1): 19, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605878

ABSTRACT

Over the past decade, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have become the breakthrough technology most anticipated to have a transformative effect on pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). This is partially driven by revolutionary advances in computational technology and the parallel dissipation of previous constraints to the collection/processing of large volumes of data. Meanwhile, the cost of bringing new drugs to market and to patients has become prohibitively expensive. Recognizing these headwinds, AI/ML techniques are appealing to the pharmaceutical industry due to their automated nature, predictive capabilities, and the consequent expected increase in efficiency. ML approaches have been used in drug discovery over the past 15-20 years with increasing sophistication. The most recent aspect of drug development where positive disruption from AI/ML is starting to occur, is in clinical trial design, conduct, and analysis. The COVID-19 pandemic may further accelerate utilization of AI/ML in clinical trials due to an increased reliance on digital technology in clinical trial conduct. As we move towards a world where there is a growing integration of AI/ML into R&D, it is critical to get past the related buzz-words and noise. It is equally important to recognize that the scientific method is not obsolete when making inferences about data. Doing so will help in separating hope from hype and lead to informed decision-making on the optimal use of AI/ML in drug development. This manuscript aims to demystify key concepts, present use-cases and finally offer insights and a balanced view on the optimal use of AI/ML methods in R&D.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Clinical Trials as Topic , Computational Biology , Drug Development , Machine Learning , Pharmaceutical Research , Research Design , Animals , Artificial Intelligence/trends , Computational Biology/trends , Diffusion of Innovation , Drug Development/trends , Forecasting , Humans , Machine Learning/trends , Pharmaceutical Research/trends , Research Design/trends
2.
Nature ; 594(7862): 265-270, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246377

ABSTRACT

Fast and reliable detection of patients with severe and heterogeneous illnesses is a major goal of precision medicine1,2. Patients with leukaemia can be identified using machine learning on the basis of their blood transcriptomes3. However, there is an increasing divide between what is technically possible and what is allowed, because of privacy legislation4,5. Here, to facilitate the integration of any medical data from any data owner worldwide without violating privacy laws, we introduce Swarm Learning-a decentralized machine-learning approach that unites edge computing, blockchain-based peer-to-peer networking and coordination while maintaining confidentiality without the need for a central coordinator, thereby going beyond federated learning. To illustrate the feasibility of using Swarm Learning to develop disease classifiers using distributed data, we chose four use cases of heterogeneous diseases (COVID-19, tuberculosis, leukaemia and lung pathologies). With more than 16,400 blood transcriptomes derived from 127 clinical studies with non-uniform distributions of cases and controls and substantial study biases, as well as more than 95,000 chest X-ray images, we show that Swarm Learning classifiers outperform those developed at individual sites. In addition, Swarm Learning completely fulfils local confidentiality regulations by design. We believe that this approach will notably accelerate the introduction of precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Confidentiality , Datasets as Topic , Machine Learning , Precision Medicine/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Leukemia/diagnosis , Leukemia/pathology , Leukocytes/pathology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Machine Learning/trends , Male , Software , Tuberculosis/diagnosis
3.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; 16(9): 961-975, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219967

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Drug design and discovery of new antivirals will always be extremely important in medicinal chemistry, taking into account known and new viral diseases that are yet to come. Although machine learning (ML) have shown to improve predictions on the biological potential of chemicals and accelerate the discovery of drugs over the past decade, new methods and their combinations have improved their performance and established promising perspectives regarding ML in the search for new antivirals.Areas covered: The authors consider some interesting areas that deal with different ML techniques applied to antivirals. Recent innovative studies on ML and antivirals were selected and analyzed in detail. Also, the authors provide a brief look at the past to the present to detect advances and bottlenecks in the area.Expert opinion: From classical ML techniques, it was possible to boost the searches for antivirals. However, from the emergence of new algorithms and the improvement in old approaches, promising results will be achieved every day, as we have observed in the case of SARS-CoV-2. Recent experience has shown that it is possible to use ML to discover new antiviral candidates from virtual screening and drug repurposing.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Design , Machine Learning/trends , Algorithms , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery/methods , Drug Discovery/trends , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/virology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(3)2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050613

ABSTRACT

With many successful stories, machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) have been widely used in our everyday lives in a number of ways. They have also been instrumental in tackling the outbreak of Coronavirus (COVID-19), which has been happening around the world. The SARS-CoV-2 virus-induced COVID-19 epidemic has spread rapidly across the world, leading to international outbreaks. The COVID-19 fight to curb the spread of the disease involves most states, companies, and scientific research institutions. In this research, we look at the Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based ML and DL methods for COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, in the battle against COVID-19, we summarize the AI-based ML and DL methods and the available datasets, tools, and performance. This survey offers a detailed overview of the existing state-of-the-art methodologies for ML and DL researchers and the wider health community with descriptions of how ML and DL and data can improve the status of COVID-19, and more studies in order to avoid the outbreak of COVID-19. Details of challenges and future directions are also provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Deep Learning/trends , Machine Learning/trends , Humans
5.
Br J Anaesth ; 126(3): 578-589, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring mechanical ventilation have high mortality and resource utilisation. The ability to predict which patients may require mechanical ventilation allows increased acuity of care and targeted interventions to potentially mitigate deterioration. METHODS: We included hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in this single-centre retrospective observational study. Our primary outcome was mechanical ventilation or death within 24 h. As clinical decompensation is more recognisable, but less modifiable, as the prediction window shrinks, we also assessed 4, 8, and 48 h prediction windows. Model features included demographic information, laboratory results, comorbidities, medication administration, and vital signs. We created a Random Forest model, and assessed performance using 10-fold cross-validation. The model was compared with models derived from generalised estimating equations using discrimination. RESULTS: Ninety-three (23%) of 398 patients required mechanical ventilation or died within 14 days of admission. The Random Forest model predicted pending mechanical ventilation with good discrimination (C-statistic=0.858; 95% confidence interval, 0.841-0.874), which is comparable with the discrimination of the generalised estimating equation regression. Vitals sign data including SpO2/FiO2 ratio (Random Forest Feature Importance Z-score=8.56), ventilatory frequency (5.97), and heart rate (5.87) had the highest predictive utility. In our highest-risk cohort, the number of patients needed to identify a single new case was 3.2, and for our second quintile it was 5.0. CONCLUSION: Machine learning techniques can be leveraged to improve the ability to predict which patients with COVID-19 are likely to require mechanical ventilation, identifying unrecognised bellwethers and providing insight into the constellation of accompanying signs of respiratory failure in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Machine Learning/trends , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies
6.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(8): 1435-1443, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-718479

ABSTRACT

Among patients with Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the ability to identify patients at risk for deterioration during their hospital stay is essential for effective patient allocation and management. To predict patient risk for critical COVID-19 based on status at admission using machine-learning models. Retrospective study based on a database of tertiary medical center with designated departments for patients with COVID-19. Patients with severe COVID-19 at admission, based on low oxygen saturation, low partial arterial oxygen pressure, were excluded. The primary outcome was risk for critical disease, defined as mechanical ventilation, multi-organ failure, admission to the ICU, and/or death. Three different machine-learning models were used to predict patient deterioration and compared to currently suggested predictors and to the APACHEII risk-prediction score. Among 6995 patients evaluated, 162 were hospitalized with non-severe COVID-19, of them, 25 (15.4%) patients deteriorated to critical COVID-19. Machine-learning models outperformed the all other parameters, including the APACHE II score (ROC AUC of 0.92 vs. 0.79, respectively), reaching 88.0% sensitivity, 92.7% specificity and 92.0% accuracy in predicting critical COVID-19. The most contributory variables to the models were APACHE II score, white blood cell count, time from symptoms to admission, oxygen saturation and blood lymphocytes count. Machine-learning models demonstrated high efficacy in predicting critical COVID-19 compared to the most efficacious tools available. Hence, artificial intelligence may be applied for accurate risk prediction of patients with COVID-19, to optimize patients triage and in-hospital allocation, better prioritization of medical resources and improved overall management of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Machine Learning/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Risk Assessment/methods , APACHE , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/trends
7.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 265, 2020 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378159
8.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(4): 569-573, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197540

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Science and technology sector constituting of data science, machine learning and artificial intelligence are contributing towards COVID-19. The aim of the present study is to discuss the various aspects of modern technology used to fight against COVID-19 crisis at different scales, including medical image processing, disease tracking, prediction outcomes, computational biology and medicines. METHODS: A progressive search of the database related to modern technology towards COVID-19 is made. Further, a brief review is done on the extracted information by assessing the various aspects of modern technologies for tackling COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: We provide a window of thoughts on review of the technology advances used to decrease and smother the substantial impact of the outburst. Though different studies relating to modern technology towards COVID-19 have come up, yet there are still constrained applications and contributions of technology in this fight. CONCLUSIONS: On-going progress in the modern technology has contributed in improving people's lives and hence there is a solid conviction that validated research plans including artificial intelligence will be of significant advantage in helping people to fight this infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/trends , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Machine Learning/trends , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Telemedicine/trends , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Data Mining , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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