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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 866186, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865449

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus pneumoniae upper respiratory infections and pneumonia are often treated with macrolides, but recently macrolide resistance is becoming an increasingly important problem. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in the National Immunization Program of Peru in 2015. This study aimed to evaluate the temporal evolution of macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae isolates collected in five cross-sectional studies conducted before and after this vaccine introduction, from 2006 to 2019 in Lima, Peru. A total of 521 and 242 S. pneumoniae isolates recovered from nasopharyngeal swabs from healthy carrier children < 2 years old (2 carriage studies) and samples from normally sterile body areas from pediatric patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (3 IPD studies), respectively, were included in this study. Phenotypic macrolide resistance was detected using the Kirby-Bauer method and/or MIC test. We found a significant increase in macrolide resistance over time, from 33.5% to 50.0% in carriage studies, and from 24.8% to 37.5% and 70.8% in IPD studies. Macrolide resistance genes [erm(B) and mef(A/E)] were screened using PCR. In carriage studies, we detected a significant decrease in the frequency of mef(A/E) genes among macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae strains (from 66.7% to 50.0%) after introduction of PCV13. The most common mechanism of macrolide-resistant among IPD strains was the presence of erm(B) (96.0%, 95.2% and 85.1% in the 3 IPD studies respectively). Macrolide resistance was more common in serotype 19A strains (80% and 90% among carriage and IPD strains, respectively) vs. non-serotype 19A (35.5% and 34.4% among carriage and IPD strains, respectively). In conclusion, S. pneumoniae macrolide resistance rates are very high among Peruvian children. Future studies are needed in order to evaluate macrolide resistance trends among pneumococcal strains, especially now after the COVID-19 pandemic, since azithromycin was vastly used as empiric treatment of COVID-19 in Peru.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Infant , Macrolides/pharmacology , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Serogroup , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vaccines, Conjugate
2.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(7): 948-954, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851524

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Macrolide antibiotics have immunomodulatory properties which may be beneficial in viral infections. However, the precise effects of macrolides on T cell responses to COVID, differences between different macrolides, and synergistic effects with other antibiotics have not been explored. METHODS: We investigated the effect of antibiotics (amoxicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and combined amoxicillin with clarithromycin) on lymphocyte intracellular cytokine levels and monocyte phagocytosis in healthy volunteer PBMCs stimulated ex vivo with SARS-CoV-2 S1+2 spike protein. A retrospective cohort study was performed on intensive care COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Co-incubation of clarithromycin with spike protein-stimulated healthy volunteer PBMCs ex vivo resulted in an increase in CD8+ (p = 0.004) and CD4+ (p = 0.007) IL-2, with a decrease in CD8+ (p = 0.032) and CD4+ (p = 0.007) IL-10. The addition of amoxicillin to clarithromycin resulted in an increase in CD8+ IL-6 (p = 0.010), decrease in CD8+ (p = 0.014) and CD4+ (p = 0.022) TNF-alpha, and decrease in CD8+ IFN-alpha (p = 0.038). Amoxicillin alone had no effect on CD4+ or CD8+ cytokines. Co-incubation of azithromycin resulted in increased CD8+ (p = 0.007) and CD4+ (p = 0.011) IL-2. There were no effects on monocyte phagocytosis. 102 COVID-19 ICU patients received antibiotics on hospital admission; 62 (61%) received clarithromycin. Clarithromycin use was associated with reduction in mortality on univariate analysis (p = 0.023), but not following adjustment for confounders (HR = 0.540; p = 0.076). CONCLUSIONS: Clarithromycin has immunomodulatory properties over and above azithromycin. Amoxicillin in addition to clarithromycin is associated with synergistic ex vivo immunomodulatory properties. The potential benefit of clarithromycin in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and other viral pneumonitis merits further exploration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clarithromycin , Amoxicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-2 , Macrolides/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 787299, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775992

ABSTRACT

Background: Macrolides have been widely used to treat moderate-to-severe acne for more than 50 years. However, the prevalent antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes, along with the absence of clinically available resistance tests, has made macrolide misuse a frequent occurrence around the globe, with serious consequences. Objective: We developed Cutibacterium acnes quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based antibiotics resistance assay (ACQUIRE) to enable fast and accurate detection of C. acnes macrolide resistance in clinical settings, representing an opportunity to administer antibiotics more wisely and improve the quality of care. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study (n = 915) was conducted to probe into the macrolide resistance of C. acnes in patients with acne. Results: The high sensitivity of ACQUIRE enabled us to reveal a much higher C. acnes 23S recombinant DNA (rDNA) point mutation rate (52%) and thus a higher macrolide resistance (75.5%) compared to previous reports. Carriage of ermX gene was discovered on 472 (53%) subjects, which concurs with previous studies. Conclusion: The macrolide resistance of C. acnes is much higher than previously reported. Integrating ACQUIRE into acne treatment modalities may eliminate macrolide misuse and achieve better clinical improvements.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Acne Vulgaris/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Humans , Macrolides/pharmacology , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
4.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636836

ABSTRACT

Human adenoviruses (HAdV) cause a variety of infections in human hosts, from self-limited upper respiratory tract infections in otherwise healthy people to fulminant pneumonia and death in immunocompromised patients. Many HAdV enter polarized epithelial cells by using the primary receptor, the Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Recently published data demonstrate that a potent neutrophil (PMN) chemoattractant, interleukin-8 (IL-8), stimulates airway epithelial cells to increase expression of the apical isoform of CAR (CAREx8), which results in increased epithelial HAdV type 5 (HAdV5) infection. However, the mechanism for PMN-enhanced epithelial HAdV5 transduction remains unclear. In this manuscript, the molecular mechanisms behind PMN mediated enhancement of epithelial HAdV5 transduction are characterized using an MDCK cell line that stably expresses human CAREx8 under a doxycycline inducible promoter (MDCK-CAREx8 cells). Contrary to our hypothesis, PMN exposure does not enhance HAdV5 entry by increasing CAREx8 expression nor through activation of non-specific epithelial endocytic pathways. Instead, PMN serine proteases are responsible for PMN-mediated enhancement of HAdV5 transduction in MDCK-CAREx8 cells. This is evidenced by reduced transduction upon inhibition of PMN serine proteases and increased transduction upon exposure to exogenous human neutrophil elastase (HNE). Furthermore, HNE exposure activates epithelial autophagic flux, which, even when triggered through other mechanisms, results in a similar enhancement of epithelial HAdV5 transduction. Inhibition of F-actin with cytochalasin D partially attenuates PMN mediated enhancement of HAdV transduction. Taken together, these findings suggest that HAdV5 can leverage innate immune responses to establish infections.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human/pathogenicity , Epithelial Cells/virology , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Virus Internalization , Adenoviruses, Human/immunology , Adenoviruses, Human/physiology , Animals , Autophagy , Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein/metabolism , Cytochalasin B/pharmacology , Dogs , Endocytosis , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Macrolides/pharmacology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Receptors, Virus/metabolism
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 277-283, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585239

ABSTRACT

The novel SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529), first found in early November 2021, has sparked considerable global concern and it has >50 mutations, many of which are known to affect transmissibility or cause immune escape. In this study, we sought to investigate the virological characteristics of the Omicron variant and compared it with the Delta variant which has dominated the world since mid-2021. Omicron variant replicated more slowly than the Delta variant in transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2)-overexpressing VeroE6 (VeroE6/TMPRSS2) cells. Notably, the Delta variant replicated well in Calu3 cell line which has robust TMPRSS2 expression, while the Omicron variant replicated poorly in this cell line. Competition assay showed that Delta variant outcompeted Omicron variant in VeroE6/TMPRSS2 and Calu3 cells. To confirm the difference in entry pathway between the Omicron and Delta variants, we assessed the antiviral effect of bafilomycin A1, chloroquine (inhibiting endocytic pathway), and camostat (inhibiting TMPRSS2 pathway). Camostat potently inhibited the Delta variant but not the Omicron variant, while bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine could inhibit both Omicron and Delta variants. Moreover, the Omicron variant also showed weaker cell-cell fusion activity when compared with Delta variant in VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that Omicron variant infection is not enhanced by TMPRSS2 but is largely mediated via the endocytic pathway. The difference in entry pathway between Omicron and Delta variants may have an implication on the clinical manifestations or disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication , Animals , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Endocytosis/drug effects , Esters/pharmacology , Guanidines/pharmacology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Macrolides/pharmacology , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Cultivation , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Whole Genome Sequencing
6.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 71: 102095, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504574

ABSTRACT

Macrolide antibiotics are well known for their antibacterial properties, but extensive research in the context of inflammatory lung disease has revealed that they also have powerful immunomodulatory properties. It has been demonstrated that these drugs are therapeutically beneficial in various lung diseases, with evidence they significantly reduce exacerbations in patients with COPD, asthma, bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis. The efficacy demonstrated in patients infected with macrolide tolerant organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa supports the concept that their efficacy is at least partly related to immunomodulatory rather than antibacterial effects. Inconsistent data and an incomplete understanding of their mechanisms of action hampers the use of macrolide antibiotics as immunomodulatory therapies. Macrolides recently demonstrated no clinically relevant immunomodulatory effects in the context of COVID-19 infection. This review provides an overview of macrolide antibiotics and discusses their immunomodulatory effects and mechanisms of action in the context of inflammatory lung disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Humans , Immunomodulation , Macrolides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Pharmacol Rev ; 73(4): 233-262, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494905

ABSTRACT

Macrolides are among the most widely prescribed broad spectrum antibacterials, particularly for respiratory infections. It is now recognized that these drugs, in particular azithromycin, also exert time-dependent immunomodulatory actions that contribute to their therapeutic benefit in both infectious and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Their increased chronic use in airway inflammation and, more recently, of azithromycin in COVID-19, however, has led to a rise in bacterial resistance. An additional crucial aspect of chronic airway inflammation, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as other inflammatory disorders, is the loss of epithelial barrier protection against pathogens and pollutants. In recent years, azithromycin has been shown with time to enhance the barrier properties of airway epithelial cells, an action that makes an important contribution to its therapeutic efficacy. In this article, we review the background and evidence for various immunomodulatory and time-dependent actions of macrolides on inflammatory processes and on the epithelium and highlight novel nonantibacterial macrolides that are being studied for immunomodulatory and barrier-strengthening properties to circumvent the risk of bacterial resistance that occurs with macrolide antibacterials. We also briefly review the clinical effects of macrolides in respiratory and other inflammatory diseases associated with epithelial injury and propose that the beneficial epithelial effects of nonantibacterial azithromycin derivatives in chronic inflammation, even given prophylactically, are likely to gain increasing attention in the future. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Based on its immunomodulatory properties and ability to enhance the protective role of the lung epithelium against pathogens, azithromycin has proven superior to other macrolides in treating chronic respiratory inflammation. A nonantibiotic azithromycin derivative is likely to offer prophylactic benefits against inflammation and epithelial damage of differing causes while preserving the use of macrolides as antibiotics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macrolides , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Humans , Macrolides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Cell Biochem ; 123(2): 155-160, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473858

ABSTRACT

Drug repurposing is an attractive option for identifying new treatment strategies, in particular in extraordinary situations of urgent need such as the current coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Recently, the World Health Organization announced testing of three drugs as potential Covid-19 therapeutics that are known for their dampening effect on the immune system. Thus, the underlying concept of selecting these drugs is to temper the potentially life-threatening overshooting of the immune system reacting to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This viewpoint discusses the possibility that the impact of these and other drugs on autophagy contributes to their therapeutic effect by hampering the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Artesunate/pharmacology , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , Infliximab/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Artesunate/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Development , Endoplasmic Reticulum/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum/physiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Intracellular Membranes/drug effects , Intracellular Membranes/physiology , Intracellular Membranes/virology , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Macrolides/pharmacology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Niclosamide/pharmacology , Niclosamide/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication
9.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463765

ABSTRACT

Pladienolides, an emerging class of naturally occurring spliceosome modulators, exhibit interesting structural features, such as highly substituted 12-membered macrocycles and epoxide-containing diene side chains. The potential of pladienolides as anti-cancer agents is confirmed by H3B-8800, a synthetic analog of this natural product class, which is currently under Phase I clinical trials. Since its isolation in 2004 and the first total synthesis in 2007, a dozen total syntheses and synthetic approaches toward the pladienolide class have been reported to date. This review focuses on the eight completed total syntheses of naturally occurring pladienolides or their synthetic analogs, in addition to a synthetic approach to the main framework of the natural product.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Epoxy Compounds/pharmacology , Macrolides/pharmacology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Spliceosomes/drug effects , Animals , Humans , Neoplasms/pathology
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5536, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428813

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important human pathogens for which no specific treatment is available. Here, we provide evidence that pharmacological reprogramming of ER stress pathways can be exploited to suppress CoV replication. The ER stress inducer thapsigargin efficiently inhibits coronavirus (HCoV-229E, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2) replication in different cell types including primary differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells, (partially) reverses the virus-induced translational shut-down, improves viability of infected cells and counteracts the CoV-mediated downregulation of IRE1α and the ER chaperone BiP. Proteome-wide analyses revealed specific pathways, protein networks and components that likely mediate the thapsigargin-induced antiviral state, including essential (HERPUD1) or novel (UBA6 and ZNF622) factors of ER quality control, and ER-associated protein degradation complexes. Additionally, thapsigargin blocks the CoV-induced selective autophagic flux involving p62/SQSTM1. The data show that thapsigargin hits several central mechanisms required for CoV replication, suggesting that this compound (or derivatives thereof) may be developed into broad-spectrum anti-CoV drugs.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Autophagy/drug effects , Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Extracts , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Macrolides/pharmacology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Proteome/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Unfolded Protein Response/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0019721, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381169

ABSTRACT

The emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genetic variants that may alter viral fitness highlights the urgency of widespread next-generation sequencing (NGS) surveillance. To profile genetic variants of the entire SARS-CoV-2 genome, we developed and clinically validated a hybridization capture SARS-CoV-2 NGS assay, integrating novel methods for panel design using double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) biotin-labeled probes, and built accompanying software. This test is the first hybrid capture-based NGS assay given Food and Drug Administration (FDA) emergency use authorization for detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The positive and negative percent agreement (PPA and NPA, respectively) were defined in comparison to the results for an orthogonal real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay (PPA and NPA, 96.7 and 100%, respectively). The limit of detection was established to be 800 copies/ml with an average fold enrichment of 46,791. Furthermore, utilizing the research-use-only analysis to profile the variants, we identified 55 novel mutations, including 11 in the functionally important spike protein. Finally, we profiled the full nasopharyngeal microbiome using metagenomics and found overrepresentation of 7 taxa and evidence of macrolide resistance in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. This hybrid capture NGS assay, coupled with optimized software, is a powerful approach to detect and comprehensively map SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants for tracking viral evolution and guiding vaccine updates. IMPORTANCE This is the first FDA emergency-use-authorized hybridization capture-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay to detect the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Viral metagenomics and the novel hybrid capture NGS-based assay, along with its research-use-only analysis, can provide important genetic insights into SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging pathogens and improve surveillance and early detection, potentially preventing or mitigating new outbreaks. Better understanding of the continuously evolving SARS-CoV-2 viral genome and the impact of genetic variants may provide individual risk stratification, precision therapeutic options, improved molecular diagnostics, and population-based therapeutic solutions.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Limit of Detection , Macrolides/pharmacology , Metagenomics/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009706, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305581

ABSTRACT

Many viruses utilize the host endo-lysosomal network for infection. Tracing the endocytic itinerary of SARS-CoV-2 can provide insights into viral trafficking and aid in designing new therapeutic strategies. Here, we demonstrate that the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is internalized via the pH-dependent CLIC/GEEC (CG) endocytic pathway in human gastric-adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells expressing undetectable levels of ACE2. Ectopic expression of ACE2 (AGS-ACE2) results in RBD traffic via both CG and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Endosomal acidification inhibitors like BafilomycinA1 and NH4Cl, which inhibit the CG pathway, reduce the uptake of RBD and impede Spike-pseudoviral infection in both AGS and AGS-ACE2 cells. The inhibition by BafilomycinA1 was found to be distinct from Chloroquine which neither affects RBD uptake nor alters endosomal pH, yet attenuates Spike-pseudovirus entry. By screening a subset of FDA-approved inhibitors for functionality similar to BafilomycinA1, we identified Niclosamide as a SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitor. Further validation using a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 in AGS-ACE2 and Vero cells confirmed its antiviral effect. We propose that Niclosamide, and other drugs which neutralize endosomal pH as well as inhibit the endocytic uptake, could provide broader applicability in subverting infection of viruses entering host cells via a pH-dependent endocytic pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Ammonium Chloride/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Clathrin/metabolism , Drug Synergism , Endocytosis/drug effects , Endocytosis/physiology , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Macrolides/pharmacology , Niclosamide/administration & dosage , Niclosamide/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Vero Cells
13.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(4): 2016-2025, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139703

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is threatening the health and economic systems worldwide. Despite the enormous efforts of scientists and clinicians around the world, there is still no drug or vaccine available worldwide for the treatment and prevention of the infection. A rapid strategy for the identification of new treatments is based on repurposing existing clinically approved drugs that show antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, after developing a quantitative structure activity relationship analysis based on molecular topology, several macrolide antibiotics are identified as promising SARS-CoV-2 spike protein inhibitors. To confirm the in silico results, the best candidates were tested against two human coronaviruses (i.e., 229E-GFP and SARS-CoV-2) in cell culture. Time-of-addition experiments and a surrogate model of viral cell entry were used to identify the steps in the virus life cycle inhibited by the compounds. Infection experiments demonstrated that azithromycin, clarithromycin, and lexithromycin reduce the intracellular accumulation of viral RNA and virus spread as well as prevent virus-induced cell death, by inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Even though the three macrolide antibiotics display a narrow antiviral activity window against SARS-CoV-2, it may be of interest to further investigate their effect on the viral spike protein and their potential in combination therapies for the coronavirus disease 19 early stage of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Macrolides/pharmacology , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
14.
Virol J ; 18(1): 46, 2021 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and broke out as a global pandemic in late 2019. The acidic pH environment of endosomes is believed to be essential for SARS-CoV-2 to be able to enter cells and begin replication. However, the clinical use of endosomal acidification inhibitors, typically chloroquine, has been controversial with this respect. METHODS: In this study, RT-qPCR method was used to detect the SARS-CoV-2N gene to evaluate viral replication. The CCK-8 assay was also used to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of SARS-CoV-2. In situ hybridization was used to examine the distribution of the SARS-CoV-2 gene in lung tissues. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was also used to evaluate virus-associated pathological changes in lung tissues. RESULTS: In this study, analysis showed that endosomal acidification inhibitors, including chloroquine, bafilomycin A1 and NH4CL, significantly reduced the viral yields of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6, Huh-7 and 293T-ACE2 cells. Chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 also improved the viability and proliferation of Vero E6 cells after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, in the hACE2 transgenic mice model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 reduced viral replication in lung tissues and alleviated viral pneumonia with reduced inflammatory exudation and infiltration in peribronchiolar and perivascular tissues, as well as improved structures of alveolar septum and pulmonary alveoli. CONCLUSIONS: Our research investigated the antiviral effects of endosomal acidification inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 in several infection models and provides an experimental basis for further mechanistic studies and drug development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Endosomes/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Ammonium Chloride/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Endosomes/metabolism , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lung/pathology , Macrolides/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Random Allocation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
15.
J Nat Prod ; 84(2): 537-543, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104420

ABSTRACT

A new bafilomycin derivative (1) and another seven known bafilomycins (2-8) were isolated from feces-derived Streptomyces sp. HTL16. The structure of 1 was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. Biological testing demonstrated that these bafilomycins exhibited potent antiviral activities against the influenza A and SARS-CoV-2 viruses, with IC50 values in the nanomolar range, by inhibiting the activity of endosomal ATP-driven proton pumps.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Feces/microbiology , Macrolides/pharmacology , Proton-Translocating ATPases/antagonists & inhibitors , Streptomyces/metabolism , Animals , Dogs , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
16.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(9): 1202-1210, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) and human Angiotensin- converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), are both considered the key factors for the initiation of virus infection. The present work is an effort for computational target to block the spike proteins (S) and ACE2 receptor proteins with Macrolide antibiotics like Azithromycin, (AZM), Clarithromycin (CLAM) and Erythromycin (ERY) along with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). METHODS: Three-dimensional structure of the SARS-CoV-2RdRp was built by the SWISS-MODEL server, the generated structure showed 96.35% identity to the available structure of SARS-Coronavirus NSP12 (6NUR), for model validity, we utilized the SWISS-model server quality parameters and Ramachandran plots. RESULTS: These compounds were able to block the residues (Arg553, Arg555, and Ala558) surrounding the deep grove catalytic site (Val557) of RdRp and thus plays an important role in tight blocking of enzyme active site. Reference drug Remdesivir was used to compare the docking score of antibiotics with RdRp. Docking value exhibited good binding energy (-7.7 up to -8.2 kcal/mol) with RdRp, indicating their potential as a potent RdRp inhibitor. Interaction of CLAM and ERY presented low binding energy (-6.8 and -6.6) with the ACE2 receptor. At the same time, CLAM exhibited a good binding affinity of -6.4 kcal/mol, making it an excellent tool to block the attachment of spike protein to ACE2 receptors. Macrolides not only affected the attachment to ACE2 but also blocked the spike proteins further, consequently inhibiting the internalization in the host cell. Three Alkyl bonds between Arg555, Ala558, and Met542 by CLAM and two Alkyl bonds of Arg624 and Lys621 by ERY plays an important role for RdRp inactivation, that can prevent the rise of newly budded progeny virus. These macrolides interacted with the main protease protein in the pocket responsible for the dimerization and catalytic function of this protein. The interaction occurred with residue Glu166, along with the catalytic residues (Tyr343, and His235) of Endoribonuclease (NSP15) protein. CONCLUSION: The present study gives three-way options either by blocking S proteins or ACE2 receptor proteins or inhibiting RdRp to counter any effect of COVID-19 by macrolide and could be useful in the treatment of COVID-19 till some better option available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Macrolides/pharmacology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Antivir Chem Chemother ; 28: 2040206620961712, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797242

ABSTRACT

Macrolides are a large group of antibiotics characterised by the presence of a macro-lactone ring of variable size. The prototype of macrolide antibiotics, erythromycin was first produced by Streptomyces and associated species more than half a century ago; other related drugs were developed. These drugs have been shown to have several pharmacological properties: in addition to their antibiotic activity, they possess some anti-inflammatory properties and have been also considered against non-bacterial infections. In this review, we analysed the available clinical evidences regarding the potential anti-viral activity of macrolides, by focusing on erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin. Overall, there is no significant evidences so far that macrolides might have a direct benefit on most of viral infections considered in this review (RSV, Influenza, coronaviruses, Ebola and Zika viruses). However, their clinical benefit cannot be ruled out without further and focused clinical studies. Macrolides may improve the clinical course of viral respiratory infections somehow, at least through indirect mechanisms relying on some and variable anti-inflammatory and/or immunomodulatory effects, in addition to their well-known antibacterial activity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Macrolides/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Humans , Macrolides/pharmacokinetics , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17195-17203, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624792

ABSTRACT

The vast majority of intracellular protein targets are refractory toward small-molecule therapeutic engagement, and additional therapeutic modalities are needed to overcome this deficiency. Here, the identification and characterization of a natural product, WDB002, reveals a therapeutic modality that dramatically expands the currently accepted limits of druggability. WDB002, in complex with the FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), potently and selectively binds the human centrosomal protein 250 (CEP250), resulting in disruption of CEP250 function in cells. The recognition mode is unprecedented in that the targeted domain of CEP250 is a coiled coil and is topologically featureless, embodying both a structural motif and surface topology previously considered on the extreme limits of "undruggability" for an intracellular target. Structural studies reveal extensive protein-WDB002 and protein-protein contacts, with the latter being distinct from those seen in FKBP12 ternary complexes formed by FK506 and rapamycin. Outward-facing structural changes in a bound small molecule can thus reprogram FKBP12 to engage diverse, otherwise "undruggable" targets. The flat-targeting modality demonstrated here has the potential to expand the druggable target range of small-molecule therapeutics. As CEP250 was recently found to be an interaction partner with the Nsp13 protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 disease, it is possible that WDB002 or an analog may exert useful antiviral activity through its ability to form high-affinity ternary complexes containing CEP250 and FKBP12.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Genome, Bacterial , Macrolides/pharmacology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A/chemistry , Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A/metabolism , Actinobacteria/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Autoantigens/genetics , Autoantigens/metabolism , Calcineurin/genetics , Calcineurin/metabolism , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Macrolides/chemistry , Macrolides/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Sequence Homology , Sirolimus/chemistry , Sirolimus/metabolism , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
19.
Biosci Trends ; 14(2): 159-160, 2020 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-30847

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic that has developed in late 2019 and 2020 is a serious threat to human health. With no vaccines or drugs approved for prevention and treatment until now, all efforts at drug design and/or clinical trials of already approved drugs are worthy and creditable. Using structure-based drug selection for identification of SARS-CoV-2 protease inhibitors, old drugs such as macrolides (MAC) were predicted to be effective for COVID-19. Lately, the anti-viral effects of macrolides have attracted considerable attention. Very recently, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin treatment was reported to be effective for COVID-19. We believe that treatments with macrolides alone or in combination with other drugs are promising and open the possibility of an international strategy to fight this emerging viral infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Macrolides/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Macrolides/chemistry , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Structure-Activity Relationship
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