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1.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1194: 123184, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701949

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ferritin is the major iron-storage glycoprotein found in all tissues. Ferritin glycosylation can be assessed by the differential affinities of ferritin glycoforms for Concanavalin A (ConA), a lectin. The fraction of serum ferritin bound to ConA is called "glycosylated ferritin" (GF). Low GF reflects macrophagic activation and is an essential biomarker used in adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD), macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and Gaucher disease diagnosis and therapeutic management. To date, no complete assay description and method validation according to the ISO 15189 standard has been published. This study aimed to describe and validate our method used for GF measurement and describe GF values observed in patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ferritin glycoforms were separated based on their affinities for ConA using commercially available TRIS-barbital buffer, Sepharose and ConA/Sepharose 4B gels. Ferritin concentrations were measured on the Siemens Dimension Vista 1500®. We analysed 16,843 GF values obtained between 2000 and 2021 from our database of patients. RESULTS: Optimal separation of ferritin glycoforms was obtained by 15-min incubation of serum with ConA/Sepharose at pH 8. The optimized volume were 0.4 mL for total serum ferritin (TSF) 30-1000 µg/L and 0.5 mL for TSF 1000-2500 µg/L. Serum with higher TSF should be pre-diluted in the TRIS-barbital buffer. Reproducibility of ferritin measurement in the TRIS-barbital buffer matrix was excellent (intra-assay CV < 1%; inter-assay CV < 4%). Reproducibility of GF assay was good (intra-assay CV < 10% for low and high ferritin samples, respectively; and inter-assay CV < 10%). Inter-operator variability was 21.6% for GF < 20%. Ferritin was stable for up to 3 days in the TRIS-barbital buffer. An inter-laboratory exchange program conducted with another French hospital showed good agreement between results. In our database, <20% GF levels were scarce, compatible with the low prevalence of Still's disease, MAS, and Gaucher disease. The 95% confidence interval for GF was [26-58]%, lower than values described in the literature for healthy individuals. CONCLUSION: Thanks to good performances, this technique can become readily available for laboratories servicing patients with AOSD, MAS (including severe COVID-19 patients) and Gaucher disease patients.


Subject(s)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical/methods , Concanavalin A/metabolism , Ferritins/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , Ferritins/metabolism , Gaucher Disease/blood , Gaucher Disease/metabolism , Humans , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/metabolism , Protein Binding , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/metabolism
2.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211048026, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440891

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly heterogeneous and complex medical disorder; indeed, severe COVID-19 is probably amongst the most complex of medical conditions known to medical science. While enormous strides have been made in understanding the molecular pathways involved in patients infected with coronaviruses an overarching and comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is lacking. Such an understanding is essential in the formulation of effective prophylactic and treatment strategies. Based on clinical, proteomic, and genomic studies as well as autopsy data severe COVID-19 disease can be considered to be the connection of three basic pathologic processes, namely a pulmonary macrophage activation syndrome with uncontrolled inflammation, a complement-mediated endothelialitis together with a procoagulant state with a thrombotic microangiopathy. In addition, platelet activation with the release of serotonin and the activation and degranulation of mast cells contributes to the hyper-inflammatory state. Auto-antibodies have been demonstrated in a large number of hospitalized patients which adds to the end-organ damage and pro-thrombotic state. This paper provides a clinical overview of the major pathogenetic mechanism leading to severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Complement Activation , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/virology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/physiopathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/virology , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serotonin/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/blood , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/immunology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/physiopathology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/virology
3.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(10): 1791-1799, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 triggers severe illness with high mortality in a subgroup of patients. Such a critical course of COVID-19 is thought to be associated with the development of cytokine storm, a condition seen in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). However, specific data demonstrating a clear association of cytokine storm with severe COVID-19 are still lacking. The aim of this study was to directly address whether immune activation in COVID-19 does indeed mimic the conditions found in these classic cytokine storm syndromes. METHODS: Levels of 22 biomarkers were quantified in serum samples from patients with COVID-19 (n = 30 patients, n = 83 longitudinal samples in total), patients with secondary HLH/MAS (n = 50), and healthy controls (n = 9). Measurements were performed using bead array assays and single-marker enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum biomarker levels were assessed for correlations with disease outcome. RESULTS: In patients with secondary HLH/MAS, we observed pronounced activation of the interleukin-18 (IL-18)-interferon-γ axis, increased serum levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and IL-8, and strongly reduced levels of soluble Fas ligand in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These observations appeared to discriminate immune dysregulation in critical COVID-19 from the well-recognized characteristics of other cytokine storm syndromes. CONCLUSION: Serum biomarker profiles clearly separate COVID-19 from MAS or secondary HLH in terms of distinguishing the severe systemic hyperinflammation that occurs following SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings could be useful in determining the efficacy of drugs targeting key molecules and pathways specifically associated with systemic cytokine storm conditions in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Interleukin-18/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
4.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 48, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially fatal complication of systemic inflammation. HMGB1 is a nuclear protein released extracellularly during proinflammatory lytic cell death or secreted by activated macrophages, NK cells, and additional cell types during infection or sterile injury. Extracellular HMGB1 orchestrates central events in inflammation as a prototype alarmin. TLR4 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products operate as key HMGB1 receptors to mediate inflammation. METHODS: Standard ELISA and cytometric bead array-based methods were used to examine the kinetic pattern for systemic release of HMGB1, ferritin, IL-18, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 before and during treatment of four children with critical MAS. Three of the patients with severe underlying systemic rheumatic diseases were treated with biologics including tocilizumab or anakinra when MAS developed. All patients required intensive care therapy due to life-threatening illness. Add-on etoposide therapy was administered due to insufficient clinical response with standard treatment. Etoposide promotes apoptotic rather than proinflammatory lytic cell death, conceivably ameliorating subsequent systemic inflammation. RESULTS: This therapeutic intervention brought disease control coinciding with a decline of the increased systemic HMGB1, IFN-γ, IL-18, and ferritin levels whereas MCP-1 levels evolved independently. CONCLUSION: Systemic HMGB1 levels in MAS have not been reported before. Our results suggest that the molecule is not merely a biomarker of inflammation, but most likely also contributes to the pathogenesis of MAS. These observations encourage further studies of HMGB1 antagonists. They also advocate therapeutic etoposide administration in severe MAS and provide a possible biological explanation for its mode of action.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Etoposide/administration & dosage , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Male , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5474-5480, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219314

ABSTRACT

In this study, laboratorial parameters of hospitalized novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients, who were complicated with severe pneumonia, were compared with the findings of cytokine storm developing in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Severe pneumonia occurred as a result of cytokine storm in some patients who needed intensive care unit (ICU), and it is aimed to determine the precursive parameters in this situation. Also in this study, the aim is to identify laboratory criteria that predict worsening disease and ICU intensification, as well as the development of cytokine storm. This article comprises a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a single institution with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study includes 150 confirmed COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. When they were considered as severe pneumonia patients, the clinic and laboratory parameters of this group are compared with H-score criteria. Patients are divided into two subgroups; patients with worsened symptoms who were transferred into tertiary ICU, and patients with stable symptoms followed in the clinic. For the patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, after they become complicated with severe pneumonia, lymphocytopenia (55.3%), anemia (12.0%), thrombocytopenia (19.3%), hyperferritinemia (72.5%), hyperfibrinogenemia (63.7%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (90.8%), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) (31.3%), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) (20.7%) are detected. There were no significant changes in other parameters. Blood parameters between the pre-ICU period and the ICU period (in which their situation had been worsened and acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] was developed) were also compared. In the latter group lymphocyte levels were found significantly reduced (p = 0.01), and LDH, highly sensitive troponin (hs-troponin), procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no change in hemoglobin, leukocyte, platelet, ferritin, and liver function test levels, including patients who developed ARDS, similar to the cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. COVID-19 pneumonia has similar findings as hyperinflammatory syndromes but does not seem to have typical features as in cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. In the severe patient group who has started to develop ARDS signs, a decrease in lymphocyte level in addition to the elevated LDH, hs-troponin, procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels can be a predictor in progression to ICU admission and could help in the planning of anti-cytokine therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/immunology , Anemia/pathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/diagnosis , Hyperferritinemia/immunology , Hyperferritinemia/pathology , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Triglycerides/blood , Troponin/blood
6.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 24(4): 542-547, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072521

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Recently, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has been recognized in association with coronavirus disease 2019 as a cytokine storm syndrome. MIS-C presents with symptoms similar to Kawasaki disease and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). We aimed to better understand this cytokine storm syndrome by comparing the initial laboratory findings of MIS-C and MAS. METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with MAS due to systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in our clinic between March 2002 and November 2020 and with MIS-C between 20 September and 20 October 2020 were enrolled into the study. The medical files of all patients were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 13 MAS (9 boys, 4 girls) and 26 MIS-C (16 boys,10 girls) patients were included in the study. Hemoglobin, absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, fibrinogen and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels showed significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.05). Patients with MAS had lower hemoglobin (10.10 g/dL) and fibrinogen (2.72 g/dL), but higher ferritin (17 863 mg/dL) and LDH (890.61 U/L) at the time of diagnosis. Patients with MIS-C had higher absolute neutrophil count (12 180/mm3 ) and CRP (194.23 mg/dL) values, but lower absolute lymphocyte count (1140/mm3 ) at the time of diagnosis. Left ventricle ejection fraction was significantly lower in the MIS-C group in echocardiographic evaluation (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Ferritin, hemoglobin, LDH, and fibrinogen levels were significantly changed in MAS compared with MIS-C. However, patients with MIS-C have more severe signs than MAS, such as cardiac involvement.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Ferritins/blood , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
7.
J Clin Invest ; 130(11): 5942-5950, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDPediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection can be complicated by a dangerous hyperinflammatory condition termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The clinical and immunologic spectrum of MIS-C and its relationship to other inflammatory conditions of childhood have not been studied in detail.METHODSWe retrospectively studied confirmed cases of MIS-C at our institution from March to June 2020. The clinical characteristics, laboratory studies, and treatment response were collected. Data were compared with historic cohorts of Kawasaki disease (KD) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS).RESULTSTwenty-eight patients fulfilled the case definition of MIS-C. Median age at presentation was 9 years (range: 1 month to 17 years); 50% of patients had preexisting conditions. All patients had laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Seventeen patients (61%) required intensive care, including 7 patients (25%) who required inotrope support. Seven patients (25%) met criteria for complete or incomplete KD, and coronary abnormalities were found in 6 cases. Lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevation in inflammatory markers, D-dimer, B-type natriuretic peptide, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were common but not ubiquitous. Cytopenias distinguished MIS-C from KD and the degree of hyperferritinemia and pattern of cytokine production differed between MIS-C and MAS. Immunomodulatory therapy given to patients with MIS-C included intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) (71%), corticosteroids (61%), and anakinra (18%). Clinical and laboratory improvement were observed in all cases, including 6 cases that did not require immunomodulatory therapy. No mortality was recorded in this cohort.CONCLUSIONMIS-C encompasses a broad phenotypic spectrum with clinical and laboratory features distinct from KD and MAS.FUNDINGThis work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Rheumatology Research Foundation Investigator Awards and Medical Education Award; Boston Children's Hospital Faculty Career Development Awards; the McCance Family Foundation; and the Samara Jan Turkel Center.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Immunomodulation , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Infant , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/drug therapy , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology
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