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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081827

ABSTRACT

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and its complication, macrophage activation syndrome (sJIA-MAS), are rare but sometimes very serious or even critical diseases of childhood that can occasionally be characterized by nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms at onset-such as non-remitting high fever, headache, rash, or arthralgia-and are biologically accompanied by an increase in acute-phase reactants. For a correct positive diagnosis, it is necessary to rule out bacterial or viral infections, neoplasia, and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Delays in diagnosis will result in late initiation of targeted therapy. A set of biomarkers is useful to distinguish sJIA or sJIA-MAS from similar clinical entities, especially when arthritis is absent. Biomarkers should be accessible to many patients, with convenient production and acquisition prices for pediatric medical laboratories, as well as being easy to determine, having high sensitivity and specificity, and correlating with pathophysiological disease pathways. The aim of this review was to identify the newest and most powerful biomarkers and their synergistic interaction for easy and accurate recognition of sJIA and sJIA-MAS, so as to immediately guide clinicians in correct diagnosis and in predicting disease outcomes, the response to treatment, and the risk of relapses. Biomarkers constitute an exciting field of research, especially due to the heterogeneous nature of cytokine storm syndromes (CSSs) in the COVID era. They must be selected with utmost care-a fact supported by the increasingly improved genetic and pathophysiological comprehension of sJIA, but also of CSS-so that new classification systems may soon be developed to define homogeneous groups of patients, although each with a distinct disease.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , COVID-19 , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Humans , Child , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/drug therapy , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Arthritis, Juvenile/diagnosis , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biomarkers
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 953730, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065508

ABSTRACT

Adult onset Still disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by skin rash, spiking fever, arthritis, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. Although the etiology of this disease has not been fully clarified, both innate and acquired immune responses could contribute to its pathogenesis. Hyperactivation of macrophages and neutrophils along with low activation of natural killer (NK) cells in innate immunity, as well as hyperactivation of Th1 and Th17 cells, whereas low activation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in acquired immunity are involved in the pathogenic process of AOSD. In innate immunity, activation of monocytes/macrophages might play central roles in the development of AOSD and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), a severe life-threating complication of AOSD. Regarding the activation mechanisms of monocytes/macrophages in AOSD, in addition to type II interferon (IFN) stimulation, several pathways have recently been identified, such as the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)-pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) axis, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)-DNA. These stimulations on monocytes/macrophages cause activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat, and pyrin domain (NLRP) 3 inflammasomes, which trigger capase-1 activation, resulting in conversion of pro-IL-1ß and pro-IL-18 into mature forms. Thereafter, IL-1ß and IL-18 produced by activated monocytes/macrophages contribute to various clinical features in AOSD. We identified placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8) as a specifically increased molecule in monocytes of active AOSD, which correlated with serum levels of CRP, ferritin, IL-1ß, and IL-18. Interestingly, PLAC8 could suppress the synthesis of pro-IL-1ß and pro-IL-18 via enhanced autophagy; thus, PLAC8 seems to be a regulatory molecule in AOSD. These findings for the activation mechanisms of monocytes/macrophages could shed light on the pathogenesis and development of a novel therapeutic strategy for AOSD.


Subject(s)
Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset , Humans , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/metabolism , Macrophages , Monocytes/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(8)2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019953

ABSTRACT

Haemophagocytic lymphocytic histiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, life-threatening condition caused by abnormal activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer cells and macrophages resulting in hypercytokinaemia and immune-mediated injury of multiple organ systems. Secondary HLH occurs in the setting of a malignant, infectious or autoimmune stimulus. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is the term used to describe HLH that develops secondary to rheumatological diseases such as lupus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis, among others. Commonly observed and documented symptoms include fever, organomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Given the potential for multiorgan failure in HLH/MAS, early identification, diagnosis and initiation of treatment is essential. We present a case of secondary HLH/MAS with acute inflammatory gastroenteritis in a middle-aged woman with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , Gastroenteritis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Arthritis, Juvenile/complications , Female , Gastroenteritis/complications , Gastroenteritis/diagnosis , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/complications , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Middle Aged
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785752

ABSTRACT

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is a serious multifactorial autoinflammatory disease with a significant mortality rate due to macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Recent research has deepened the knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanisms of sJIA-MAS, facilitating new targeted treatments, and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs), which significantly changed the course of the disease and prognosis. This review highlights that children are less likely to suffer severe COVID-19 infection, but at approximately 2-4 weeks, some cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been reported, with a fulminant course. Previous established treatments for cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) have guided COVID-19 therapeutics. sJIA-MAS is different from severe cases of COVID-19, a unique immune process in which a huge release of cytokines will especially flood the lungs. In this context, MIS-C should be reinterpreted as a special MAS, and long-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection can only be provided by the vaccine, but we do not yet have sufficient data. COVID-19 does not appear to have a substantial impact on rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) activity in children treated with bDMARDs, but the clinical features, severity and outcome in these patients under various drugs are not yet easy to predict. Multicenter randomized controlled trials are still needed to determine when and by what means immunoregulatory products should be administered to patients with sJIA-MAS with a negative corticosteroid response or contraindications, to optimize their health and safety in the COVID era.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Juvenile , COVID-19 , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/drug therapy , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Multicenter Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6653-6659, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530185

ABSTRACT

Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the pentraxin 3 (PTX3) gene polymorphisms rs2305619 (281A/G) and rs1840680 (1449A/G) and the development of MAS in patients with COVID-19. The study included a total of 94 patients aged 18-45 who were diagnosed as having COVID-19 between June and December 2020. PTX3 281A/G and 1449A/G polymorphism frequencies were evaluated. PTX3 281A/G allele and genotype frequencies did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium in the MAS or non-MAS group (χ2 : 0.049, df: 2, p = 0.976, χ2 : 0.430, df: 2, p = 0.806). PTX3 1449A/G allele and genotype frequencies deviated significantly from HW equilibrium in the non-MAS group (χ2 : 6.794, df: 2, p = 0.033) but not in the MAS group (χ2 : 2.256, df: 2, p = 0.324). The AG genotype was significantly more frequent in the non-MAS group, while the AA genotype was significantly more frequent in the MAS group (χ2 : 11.099, df: 2, p= 0.004). Analysis of the PTX3 1449A/G polymorphism showed that individuals with the GG genotype had higher serum PTX3 levels than those with the AA and AG genotypes (p = 0.001 for both). Analysis of the PTX3 1449A/G polymorphism in patients with COVID-19 showed that those with the AG genotype were relatively more protected from MAS compared with individuals with the AA genotype. In addition, lower serum PTX3 levels are observed in patients carrying the A allele.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Serum Amyloid P-Component/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Alleles , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Genotype , Humans , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
7.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(5): 879-889, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400097

ABSTRACT

To compare the clinical and laboratory findings of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) and with macrophage activating syndrome due to systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA-MAS) on real-life data. Patients diagnosed with MIS-C, KD, and sJIA-MAS from 12 different centers in Turkey who were followed for at least 6 months were included in the study. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings of all patients were analyzed. A total of 154 MIS-C, 59 KD, and 31 sJIA-MAS patients were included. The median age of patients with MIS-C were higher than those with KD while lower than those with sJIA-MAS (8.2, 3, 12 years, respectively). Myalgia (39.6%), cardiac (50.6%), gastrointestinal (72.7%), and neurological (22.1%) involvements were more common in patients with MIS-C compared to others. MIS-C patients had lower levels of lymphocyte (950 vs 1700 cells/µl) and thrombocyte (173,000 vs 355,000 cells/µl) counts and higher pro-BNP (1108 vs 55 pg/ml) levels than KD. Ferritin levels were higher in patients with MIS-C compared to patients with KD while they were lower than patients with sJIA-MAS (440, 170, 10,442 ng/ml, respectively). Patients with MIS-C had a shorter duration of hospitalization than sJIA-MAS (p = 0.02) while they required intensive care unit admission more frequently (55 vs 8 patients, p < 0.001). The median MAS/sJIA score of MIS-C patients was - 1.64 (- 5.23 to 9.68) and the median MAS/sJIA score of sJIA-MAS patients was -2.81 ([- 3.79] to [- 1.27]). MIS-C patients displayed certain differences in clinical and laboratory features when compared to KD and sJIA-MAS. Definition of the differences and similarities between MIS-C and the other intense inflammatory syndromes of childhood such as KD and MAS will help the clinicians while making timely diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Arthritis, Juvenile/complications , Arthritis, Juvenile/diagnosis , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Child , Ferritins , Humans , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Macrophages , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
9.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 48, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially fatal complication of systemic inflammation. HMGB1 is a nuclear protein released extracellularly during proinflammatory lytic cell death or secreted by activated macrophages, NK cells, and additional cell types during infection or sterile injury. Extracellular HMGB1 orchestrates central events in inflammation as a prototype alarmin. TLR4 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products operate as key HMGB1 receptors to mediate inflammation. METHODS: Standard ELISA and cytometric bead array-based methods were used to examine the kinetic pattern for systemic release of HMGB1, ferritin, IL-18, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 before and during treatment of four children with critical MAS. Three of the patients with severe underlying systemic rheumatic diseases were treated with biologics including tocilizumab or anakinra when MAS developed. All patients required intensive care therapy due to life-threatening illness. Add-on etoposide therapy was administered due to insufficient clinical response with standard treatment. Etoposide promotes apoptotic rather than proinflammatory lytic cell death, conceivably ameliorating subsequent systemic inflammation. RESULTS: This therapeutic intervention brought disease control coinciding with a decline of the increased systemic HMGB1, IFN-γ, IL-18, and ferritin levels whereas MCP-1 levels evolved independently. CONCLUSION: Systemic HMGB1 levels in MAS have not been reported before. Our results suggest that the molecule is not merely a biomarker of inflammation, but most likely also contributes to the pathogenesis of MAS. These observations encourage further studies of HMGB1 antagonists. They also advocate therapeutic etoposide administration in severe MAS and provide a possible biological explanation for its mode of action.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Etoposide/administration & dosage , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Male , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(2)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240899

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic affecting many countries and millions of people. Physicians have encountered some rare and challenging cases related to SARS-CoV-2, a novel virus with still many unknowns. In order to share our experience of a such clinical picture, we present here a child with SARS-CoV-2-induced macrophage activation syndrome in the setting of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , COVID-19 , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Arthritis, Juvenile/complications , Child , Humans , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 53: 151744, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Assess the pathologic changes in the lungs of COVID-19 decedents and correlate these changes with demographic data, clinical course, therapies, and duration of illness. METHODS: Lungs of 12 consecutive COVID-19 decedents consented for autopsy were evaluated for gross and histopathologic abnormalities. A complete Ghon "en block" dissection was performed on all cases; lung weights and gross characteristics recorded. Immunohistochemical studies were performed to characterize lymphocytic infiltrates and to assess SARS-CoV-2 capsid protein. RESULTS: Two distinct patterns of pulmonary involvement were identified. Three of 12 cases demonstrated a predominance of acute alveolar damage (DAD) while 9 of 12 cases demonstrated a marked increase in intra-alveolar macrophages in a fashion resembling desquamative interstitial pneumonia or macrophage activation syndrome (DIP/MAS). Two patterns were correlated solely with a statistically significant difference in the duration of illness. The group exhibiting DAD had duration of illness of 5.7 days while the group with DIP/MAS had duration of illness of 21.5 days (t-test p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: The pulmonary pathology of COVID-19 patients demonstrates a biphasic pattern, an acute phase demonstrating DAD changes while the patients with a more prolonged course exhibit a different pattern that resembles DIP/MAS-like pattern. The potential mechanisms and clinical significance are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Lung/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Lymphocytes/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/virology , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Alveoli/immunology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sick Leave
13.
Transl Res ; 232: 1-12, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118707

ABSTRACT

Although interest in "cytokine storms" has surged over the past decade, it was massively amplified in 2020 when it was suggested that a subset of patients with COVID-19 developed a form of cytokine storm. The concept of cytokine storm syndromes (CSS) encompasses diverse conditions or circumstances that coalesce around potentially lethal hyperinflammation with hemodynamic compromise and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a prototypic form of CSS that develops in the context of rheumatic diseases, particularly systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The treatment of MAS relies heavily upon corticosteroids and cytokine inhibitors, which have proven to be lifesaving therapies in MAS, as well as in other forms of CSS. Within months of the recognition of SARS-CoV2 as a human pathogen, descriptions of COVID-19 patients with hyperinflammation emerged. Physicians immediately grappled with identifying optimal therapeutic strategies for these patients, and despite clinical distinctions such as marked coagulopathy with endothelial injury associated with COVID-19, borrowed from the experiences with MAS and other CSS. Initial reports of patients treated with anti-cytokine agents in COVID-19 were promising, but recent large, better-controlled studies of these agents have had mixed results suggesting a more complex pathophysiology. Here, we discuss how the comparison of clinical features, immunologic parameters and therapeutic response data between MAS and hyperinflammation in COVID-19 can provide new insight into the pathophysiology of CSS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/therapy
14.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 24(4): 542-547, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072521

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Recently, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has been recognized in association with coronavirus disease 2019 as a cytokine storm syndrome. MIS-C presents with symptoms similar to Kawasaki disease and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). We aimed to better understand this cytokine storm syndrome by comparing the initial laboratory findings of MIS-C and MAS. METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with MAS due to systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in our clinic between March 2002 and November 2020 and with MIS-C between 20 September and 20 October 2020 were enrolled into the study. The medical files of all patients were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 13 MAS (9 boys, 4 girls) and 26 MIS-C (16 boys,10 girls) patients were included in the study. Hemoglobin, absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, fibrinogen and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels showed significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.05). Patients with MAS had lower hemoglobin (10.10 g/dL) and fibrinogen (2.72 g/dL), but higher ferritin (17 863 mg/dL) and LDH (890.61 U/L) at the time of diagnosis. Patients with MIS-C had higher absolute neutrophil count (12 180/mm3 ) and CRP (194.23 mg/dL) values, but lower absolute lymphocyte count (1140/mm3 ) at the time of diagnosis. Left ventricle ejection fraction was significantly lower in the MIS-C group in echocardiographic evaluation (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Ferritin, hemoglobin, LDH, and fibrinogen levels were significantly changed in MAS compared with MIS-C. However, patients with MIS-C have more severe signs than MAS, such as cardiac involvement.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Ferritins/blood , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
15.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 17(3): 145-157, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065891

ABSTRACT

A hyperinflammatory 'cytokine storm' state termed macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), culminating from a complex interplay of genetics, immunodeficiency, infectious triggers and dominant innate immune effector responses, can develop across disparate entities including systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and its counterpart adult-onset Still disease (AOSD), connective tissue diseases, sepsis, infection, cancers and cancer immunotherapy. Classifying MAS using the immunological disease continuum model, with strict boundaries that define the limits of innate and adaptive immunity, at one boundary is MAS with loss of immune function, as occurs in the 'perforinopathies' and some cases of sJIA-AOSD. Conversely, at the other boundary, immune hypersensitivity with gain of immune function in MHC class II-associated sJIA-AOSD and with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy also triggers MAS. This provides a benchmark for evaluating severe inflammation in some patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, which cripples primary type I interferon immunity and usually culminates in a lung-centric 'second wave' cytokine-driven alveolitis with associated immunothrombosis; this phenomenon is generally distinct from MAS but can share features with the proposed 'loss of immune function' MAS variant. This loss and gain of function MAS model offers immune cartography for a novel mechanistic classification of MAS with therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology
16.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110073, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625601

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic due to infection with SARS-CoV-2 has led to the death of thousands of adults worldwide. It is now clear that the hyper-inflammatory response triggered by SARS-CoV-2 plays a major role in disease severity and lethality of the infection. Macrophages are innate immune cells that sense and respond to infections by producing a plethora of inflammatory molecules and by interacting with other inflammatory cells. Therefore, macrophages may be diriment on eliminating pathogens and promoting organ repair. However, macrophages can be a major player of the so called cytokine storm and may be damaging to the tissues. It is believed that macrophage activation syndrome is induced by SARS-CoV to be lethal. Surprisingly and fortunately few children die from COVID-19. For instance, in Italy, out of more than 30.000 deaths for COVID-19, three are children. Therefore, we must wonder why? Are macrophages different in children compared to adults? In my opinion they are different. It has been demonstrated that macrophages populate the lung in three "developmental waves", and it has been suggested that similar waves may be observed in other important organs, such as the heart and kidney. It is most likely that macrophages heterogeneity is involved in determining the severity. There are no doubts that macrophages are important in determining life or death in these patients. Comparing macrophages of children with those of adults with different degrees of disease severity is, therefore, mandatory.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Macrophages/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Macrophage Activation , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Macrophages/classification , Models, Biological , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(7): 2085-2094, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436778

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection has a heterogenous disease course; it may be asymptomatic or causes only mild symptoms in the majority of the cases, while immunologic complications such as macrophage activation syndrome also known as secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, resulting in cytokine storm syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome, may also occur in some patients. According to current literature, impairment of SARS-CoV-2 clearance due to genetic and viral features, lower levels of interferons, increased neutrophil extracellular traps, and increased pyroptosis and probable other unknown mechanisms create a background for severe disease course complicated by macrophage activation syndrome and cytokine storm. Various genetic mutations may also constitute a risk factor for severe disease course and occurrence of cytokine storm in COVID-19. Once, immunologic complications like cytokine storm occur, anti-viral treatment alone is not enough and should be combined with appropriate anti-inflammatory treatment. Anti-rheumatic drugs, which are tried for managing immunologic complications of COVID-19 infection, will also be discussed including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, JAK inhibitors, IL-6 inhibitors, IL-1 inhibitors, anti-TNF-α agents, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and colchicine. Early recognition and appropriate treatment of immunologic complications will decrease the morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 infection, which requires the collaboration of infectious disease, lung, and intensive care unit specialists with other experts such as immunologists, rheumatologists, and hematologists.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Coronavirus Infections , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Antirheumatic Agents/classification , Antirheumatic Agents/immunology , Antirheumatic Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/therapy , Patient Selection , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment
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