Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 339
Filter
1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 863449, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865450

ABSTRACT

The resolution of inflammation is a temporally and spatially coordinated process that in its innate manifestations, primarily involves neutrophils and macrophages. The shutdown of infection or injury-induced acute inflammation requires termination of neutrophil accumulation within the affected sites, neutrophil demise, and clearance by phagocytes (efferocytosis), such as tissue-resident and monocyte-derived macrophages. This must be followed by macrophage reprogramming from the inflammatory to reparative and consequently resolution-promoting phenotypes and the production of resolution-promoting lipid and protein mediators that limit responses in various cell types and promote tissue repair and return to homeostatic architecture and function. Recent studies suggest that these events, and macrophage reprogramming to pro-resolving phenotypes in particular, are not only important in the acute setting, but might be paramount in limiting chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, and various uncontrolled cytokine-driven pathologies. The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a worldwide health and economic crisis. Severe COVID-19 cases that lead to high morbidity are tightly associated with an exuberant cytokine storm that seems to trigger shock-like pathologies, leading to vascular and multiorgan failures. In other cases, the cytokine storm can lead to diffuse alveolar damage that results in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and lung failure. Here, we address recent advances on effectors in the resolution of inflammation and discuss how pro-resolution mechanisms with particular emphasis on macrophage reprogramming, might be harnessed to limit the universal COVID-19 health threat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation , Macrophages , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Immunol ; 23(1): 25, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1857991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) is an intracelluar transcriotion factor and NLRP3 (Nod-like receptor containing a pyrin domain 3) is a component of NLRP3 inflammasome in pyroptotic cells. There was increased activation of STAT6 and expression of NLRP3 in mice with murine acute lung injury (ALI). However, it is unknown their roles in the development of murine ALI. We in this study, investigated the effects of STAT6 signaling on murine ALI and pyroptosis in STAT6 knock-out (KO) mice and macrophages. RESULTS: STAT6 was activated in the lung tissues of mice 2 days after intratracheal treatmemt with 5 mg/kg LPS. Lack of STAT6 expression in KO mice induced more severe lung inflammation, associated with elevated neutrophil influx and expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1beta in the inflamed lung tissues. In addition, the expression of NLRP3, ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), p-p38 MAPK (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) and ratio of LC3-II/I (microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3) was increased, accompanied with the increased polarization of Siglec-F(-) subtype macrophages in KO mice with ALI. Further studies in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) revealed that lack of STAT6 increased the expression of NLRP3 and p-p38 MAPK, in association with elevated expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and Calreticulin in LPS-treated KO BMDMs. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of STAT6 exacerbated murine ALI through improving the expression of NLRP3 and activation of p38 MAPK in macrophages. STAT6 has an immune suppressive role in the development of ALI and would be a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of ALI and possibly among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , STAT6 Transcription Factor/genetics , STAT6 Transcription Factor/metabolism , STAT6 Transcription Factor/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855640

ABSTRACT

Macrophages are present in most human tissues and have very diverse functions. Activated macrophages are usually divided into two phenotypes, M1 macrophages and M2 macrophages, which are altered by various factors such as microorganisms, tissue microenvironment, and cytokine signals. Macrophage polarity is very important for infections, inflammatory diseases, and malignancies; its management can be key in the prevention and treatment of diseases. In this review, we assess the current state of knowledge on macrophage polarity and report on its prospects as a therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Cell Polarity/physiology , Macrophages/pathology , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease , Humans , Macrophages/metabolism
4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 108: 108847, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Different quickly-developed vaccines are introduced against COVID-19 with inconclusive results especially against some recent variants. Eventually, somewhere COVID-19 cases decline and in some countries it revived with some new mutant-variants (i.e. D614G, Delta and Omicron). OBJECTIVES: Proposing a universal vaccination strategy by screening globally-conserved SARS-CoV-2 spike-epitopes. METHODS: Presently, several conserved (186-countries) sequences including multiple-variants (ClustalX2) epitopic-regions (SVMTriP and IEDB) and in-silico mutants of SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein-fragments (Cut1-4) were screened for their stability against proteases, antigenicity (VaxiJen V2.0 and for glycosylation effects NetOGlyc-NetNGlyc), MHCI/II reactivity (IEDB-TOOLS) and CD4+ responses by molecular-docking (Haddock2.4/PatchDock). We also examined Molecular-Dynamic-Simulation (myPresto verson-5) of MHC-II 3LQZ with 3-Cuts and T-cell 2-molecules (1KGC/4JRX) with SM3-Cut. The MD-simulation was run with 5000-cycles after 300 k-heating/1-atm pressure adjustment for the system-equilibration. Finally, 1000 fs production was run. RESULTS: The cut4-mutant (SRLFRKSNLKPFERD) showed the highest combined-score 48.23548 and Immunogenicity-Score of 92.0887. The core-sequence SRLFRKSNL showed the highest Median-Percentile-Rank (7-HLA-allele) of 19. CD4+ immunogenicity also confirms the representation of the CUT4TM2 epitope SRLFRKSNL by MHC Class II. The epitope YNYKYRLFR from CUT4 showed an IC50 of ∼30 nM with allele HLA-DRB1*11:01 and HLA-DRB5*01:01 with plenty H-bonding. Cut4 double-mutants strongly interact with the exposed T-cell surface and are facilitated by its receptors. The MD-simulation data suggest that TM2 has a maximum RMSD value of 1.7 Å, DM2 is at 1.55 Å and SM3 is at 1.5 Å. These variations correspond to structural adjustments and involve binding/unbinding chemical interactions. The RMSD plot shows that 1KGC T-cell molecule is at 2.2 Å and the 4JRX is at 1.2 Å, which increases with the simulation time. CONCLUSIONS: Screening of conserved SARS-CoV-2 spike fragments helps to find the most stable antigenic-determinant which with some mutations showed better antigenicity. Further studies are necessary to develop global vaccination strategies against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , Macrophages , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(6): 301, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850297

ABSTRACT

Escalated innate immunity plays a critical role in SARS-CoV-2 pathology; however, the molecular mechanism is incompletely understood. Thus, we aim to characterize the molecular mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein advances human macrophage (MÏ´) inflammatory and glycolytic phenotypes and uncover novel therapeutic strategies. We found that human MÏ´s exposed to Spike protein activate IRAK4 phosphorylation. Blockade of IRAK4 in Spike protein-stimulated MÏ´s nullifies signaling of IRAK4, AKT, and baseline p38 without affecting ERK and NF-κB activation. Intriguingly, IRAK4 inhibitor (IRAK4i) rescues the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytotoxic effect in ACE2+HEK 293 cells. Moreover, the inflammatory reprogramming of MÏ´s by Spike protein was blunted by IRAK4i through IRF5 and IRF7, along with the reduction of monokines, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, and CCL2. Notably, in Spike protein-stimulated MÏ´s, suppression of the inflammatory markers by IRAK4i was coupled with the rebalancing of oxidative phosphorylation over metabolic activity. This metabolic adaptation promoted by IRAK4i in Spike protein-activated MÏ´s was shown to be in part through constraining PFKBF3, HIF1α, cMYC, LDHA, lactate expression, and reversal of citrate and succinate buildup. IRAK4 knockdown could comparably impair Spike protein-enhanced inflammatory and metabolic imprints in human MÏ´s as those treated with ACE2, TLR2, and TLR7 siRNA. Extending these results, in murine models, where human SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein was not recognized by mouse ACE2, TLRs were responsible for the inflammatory and glycolytic responses instigated by Spike protein and were dysregulated by IRAK4i therapy. In conclusion, IRAK4i may be a promising strategy for severe COVID-19 patients by counter-regulating ACE2 and TLR-mediated MÏ´ hyperactivation. IRAK4i therapy counteracts MÏ´ inflammatory and glycolytic reprogramming triggered by Spike protein. This study illustrates that SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein activates IRAK4 signaling via ACE2 as well as TLR2 and TLR7 sensing in human MÏ´s. Remarkably, IRAK4i treatment can dysregulate both ACE-dependent and independent (via TLR sensing) SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-activated inflammatory and metabolic imprints.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factors/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factors/pharmacology , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/genetics , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism
6.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 38(5): 401-405, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840021

ABSTRACT

S100A8 and S100A9 are members of the Alarmin family; these proteins are abundantly expressed in neutrophils, form a heterodimer complex, and are secreted in plasma on pathogen infection or acute inflammatory diseases. Recently, both proteins were identified as novel biomarkers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and were shown to play key roles in inducing an aggressive inflammatory response by mediating the release of large amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, called the "cytokine storm." Although co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 in people living with HIV-1 may result in an immunocompromised status, the role of the S100A8/A9 complex in HIV-1 replication in primary T cells and macrophages is still unclear. Here, we evaluated the roles of the proteins in HIV replication to elucidate their functions. We found that the complex had no impact on virus replication in both cell types; however, the subunits of S100A8 and S100A9 inhibit HIV in macrophages. These findings provide important insights into the regulation of HIV viral loads during SARS-CoV-2 co-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , HIV Infections , Biomarkers/metabolism , Calgranulin A/metabolism , Calgranulin B , HIV Infections/metabolism , Humans , Macrophages , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(5): e1010471, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833668

ABSTRACT

The ability to treat severe viral infections is limited by our understanding of the mechanisms behind virus-induced immunopathology. While the role of type I interferons (IFNs) in early control of viral replication is clear, less is known about how IFNs can regulate the development of immunopathology and affect disease outcomes. Here, we report that absence of type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) is associated with extensive immunopathology following mucosal viral infection. This pathology occurred independent of viral load or type II immunity but required the presence of macrophages and IL-6. The depletion of macrophages and inhibition of IL-6 signaling significantly abrogated immunopathology. Tissue destruction was mediated by macrophage-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as MMP inhibition by doxycycline and Ro 28-2653 reduced the severity of tissue pathology. Analysis of post-mortem COVID-19 patient lungs also displayed significant upregulation of the expression of MMPs and accumulation of macrophages. Overall, we demonstrate that IFNs inhibit macrophage-mediated MMP production to prevent virus-induced immunopathology and uncover MMPs as a therapeutic target towards viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Proteolysis
8.
Nature ; 606(7914): 585-593, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815563

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by persistent lung inflammation, inflammatory cytokine production, viral RNA and a sustained interferon (IFN) response, all of which are recapitulated and required for pathology in the SARS-CoV-2-infected MISTRG6-hACE2 humanized mouse model of COVID-19, which has a human immune system1-20. Blocking either viral replication with remdesivir21-23 or the downstream IFN-stimulated cascade with anti-IFNAR2 antibodies in vivo in the chronic stages of disease attenuates the overactive immune inflammatory response, especially inflammatory macrophages. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in lung-resident human macrophages is a critical driver of disease. In response to infection mediated by CD16 and ACE2 receptors, human macrophages activate inflammasomes, release interleukin 1 (IL-1) and IL-18, and undergo pyroptosis, thereby contributing to the hyperinflammatory state of the lungs. Inflammasome activation and the accompanying inflammatory response are necessary for lung inflammation, as inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway reverses chronic lung pathology. Notably, this blockade of inflammasome activation leads to the release of infectious virus by the infected macrophages. Thus, inflammasomes oppose host infection by SARS-CoV-2 through the production of inflammatory cytokines and suicide by pyroptosis to prevent a productive viral cycle.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Animals , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 40: 525-557, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813277

ABSTRACT

Macrophages and conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) are distributed throughout the body, maintaining tissue homeostasis and tolerance to self and orchestrating innate and adaptive immunity against infection and cancer. As they complement each other, it is important to understand how they cooperate and the mechanisms that integrate their functions. Both are exposed to commensal microbes, pathogens, and other environmental challenges that differ widely among anatomical locations and over time. To adjust to these varying conditions, macrophages and cDCs acquire spatiotemporal adaptations (STAs) at different stages of their life cycle that determine how they respond to infection. The STAs acquired in response to previous infections can result in increased responsiveness to infection, termed training, or in reduced responses, termed paralysis, which in extreme cases can cause immunosuppression. Understanding the developmental stage and location where macrophages and cDCs acquire their STAs, and the molecular and cellular players involved in their induction, may afford opportunities to harness their beneficial outcomes and avoid or reverse their deleterious effects. Here we review our current understanding of macrophage and cDC development, life cycle, function, and STA acquisition before, during, and after infection.We propose a unified framework to explain how these two cell types adjust their activities to changing conditions over space and time to coordinate their immunosurveillance functions.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Dendritic Cells , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Macrophages
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2028, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805608

ABSTRACT

Dysfunctional immune responses contribute critically to the progression of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), with macrophages as one of the main cell types involved. It is urgent to understand the interactions among permissive cells, macrophages, and the SARS-CoV-2 virus, thereby offering important insights into effective therapeutic strategies. Here, we establish a lung and macrophage co-culture system derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), modeling the host-pathogen interaction in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We find that both classically polarized macrophages (M1) and alternatively polarized macrophages (M2) have inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, M1 and non-activated (M0) macrophages, but not M2 macrophages, significantly up-regulate inflammatory factors upon viral infection. Moreover, M1 macrophages suppress the growth and enhance apoptosis of lung cells. Inhibition of viral entry using an ACE2 blocking antibody substantially enhances the activity of M2 macrophages. Our studies indicate differential immune response patterns in distinct macrophage phenotypes, which could lead to a range of COVID-19 disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Humans , Lung , Macrophages , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 435: 128980, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796501

ABSTRACT

The ingestion and accumulation of microplastics is a serious threat to the health and survival of humans and other organisms given the increasing use of daily-use plastic products, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, whether direct microplastic contamination from plastic packaging is a threat to human health remains unclear. We analyzed the market demand for plastic packaging in Asia-Pacific, North America, and Europe and identified the commonly used plastic food packaging products. We found that food containers exposed to high-temperature released more than 10 million microplastics per mL in water. Recycled plastic food packaging was demonstrated to continuously leach micro- and nanoplastics. In vitro cell engulfing experiments revealed that both micro- and nanoplastic leachates are readily taken up by murine macrophages without any preconditioning, and that short-term microplastic exposure may induce inflammation while exposure to nanoplastic substantially suppressed the lysosomal activities of macrophages. We demonstrated that the ingestion of micro- and nanoplastics released from food containers can exert differential negative effects on macrophage activities, proving that the explosive growth in the use of plastic packaging can poses significant health risks to consumers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Animals , Food Packaging , Humans , Lysosomes , Macrophages , Mice , Microplastics/toxicity , Pandemics , Plastics/analysis , Plastics/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
12.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(4): 507-519, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791951

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, life-threatening disorder of immune regulation that can eventually result in end-organ damage and death. HLH is characterized by uncontrolled activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and macrophages that can lead to a cytokine storm. The diagnosis of HLH is often challenging due to the diverse clinical manifestations and the presence of several diagnostic mimics. The prognosis is generally poor, warranting rapid diagnosis and aggressive management. OBJECTIVE.­: To provide a comprehensive review of the pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of HLH. DATA SOURCES.­: Peer-reviewed literature. CONCLUSIONS.­: HLH is a condition where a complete understanding of the pathogenesis, early diagnosis, and proper management has an important role in determining patient outcome. Genetic mutations causing impairment in the function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells have been identified as the root cause of familial HLH; however, the specific pathogenesis of acquired HLH is unclear. The HLH-2004 protocol used in the diagnosis of HLH was originally developed for the pediatric population. The HLH-2004 protocol still forms the basis of the diagnosis of HLH in adults, although its use in adults has not been formally validated yet. Treatment of HLH is primarily based on the HLH-94 protocol, which involves suppressing the inflammatory response, but the treatment needs to be modified in adults depending on the underlying cause and comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Child , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/genetics , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Macrophages
13.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 96, 2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793837

ABSTRACT

Genome-wide association studies have identified 3p21.31 as the main risk locus for severe COVID-19, although underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We perform an epigenomic dissection of 3p21.31, identifying a CTCF-dependent tissue-specific 3D regulatory chromatin hub that controls the activity of several chemokine receptor genes. Risk SNPs colocalize with regulatory elements and are linked to increased expression of CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 in monocytes and macrophages. As excessive organ infiltration of inflammatory monocytes and macrophages is a hallmark of severe COVID-19, our findings provide a rationale for the genetic association of 3p21.31 variants with elevated risk of hospitalization upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monocytes , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , Receptors, Chemokine/genetics , Receptors, Chemokine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(3): e1010361, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793486

Subject(s)
Macrophages , Succinates
15.
Cell Res ; 32(3): 229-230, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783973

Subject(s)
Macrophages , Neurons
16.
Cell Rep ; 39(3): 110714, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773158

ABSTRACT

The human immunological mechanisms defining the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection remain elusive. This knowledge gap is mostly driven by the lack of appropriate experimental platforms recapitulating human immune responses in a controlled human lung environment. Here, we report a mouse model (i.e., HNFL mice) co-engrafted with human fetal lung xenografts (fLX) and a myeloid-enhanced human immune system to identify cellular and molecular correlates of lung protection during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Unlike mice solely engrafted with human fLX, HNFL mice are protected against infection, severe inflammation, and histopathological phenotypes. Lung tissue protection from infection and severe histopathology associates with macrophage infiltration and differentiation and the upregulation of a macrophage-enriched signature composed of 11 specific genes mainly associated with the type I interferon signaling pathway. Our work highlights the HNFL model as a transformative platform to investigate, in controlled experimental settings, human myeloid immune mechanisms governing lung tissue protection during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/pathology , Macrophages , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Theranostics ; 12(6): 2639-2657, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771696

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Macrophages are the frontline immune cells in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) serves as the binding receptor to SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein for fusion and internalization into the human host cells. However, the mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2-elicited macrophage inflammatory responses remain elusive. Neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 by human ACE2 (hACE2) decoys has been proposed as a therapeutic approach to ameliorate SARS-CoV-2-stimulated inflammation. This study aims to investigate whether an engineered decoy receptor can abrogate SARS-CoV-2-induced macrophage inflammation. Methods: hACE2 was biotinylated to the surface of nano-liposomes (d = 100 nm) to generate Liposome-human ACE2 complex (Lipo-hACE2). Lentivirus expressing Spike protein (D614G) was also created as a pseudo-SARS-CoV-2 (Lenti-Spike). Liposome-hACE2 was used as a decoy receptor or competitive inhibitor to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 or Lenti-Spike-induced macrophage inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Results: Both SARS-CoV-2 and Lenti-Spike stimulated strong inflammatory responses by inducing the expression of key cytokine and chemokines, including IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα, CCL-2, and CXCL-10, in murine and human macrophages in vitro, whereas Lipo-hACE2 decoy abolished these effects in macrophages. Furthermore, intravenous injection of Lenti-Spike led to increased macrophage and tissue inflammation in wild type mice, which was also abolished by Lipo-hACE2 treatment. Mechanistically, Spike protein stimulated macrophage inflammation by activating canonical NF-κB signaling. RNA sequencing analysis revealed that Lenti-Spike induced over 2,000 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in murine macrophages, but deficiency of IκB kinase ß (IKKß), a key regulator for NF-κB activation, abrogated Lenti-Spike-elicited macrophage inflammatory responses. Conclusions: We demonstrated that the engineered Lipo-hACE2 acts as a molecular decoy to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 or Spike protein-induced inflammation in both murine and human macrophages, and activation of the canonical IKKß/NF-κB signaling is essential for SARS-CoV-2-elicited macrophage inflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , I-kappa B Kinase , Inflammation , Liposomes , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
18.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol ; 367: 1-28, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767807

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the largest global pandemic in living memory, with between 4.5 and 15M deaths globally from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This has led to an unparalleled global, collaborative effort to understand the pathogenesis of this devastating disease using state-of-the-art technologies. A consistent feature of severe COVID-19 is dysregulation of pulmonary macrophages, cells that under normal physiological conditions play vital roles in maintaining lung homeostasis and immunity. In this article, we will discuss a selection of the pivotal findings examining the role of monocytes and macrophages in SARS-CoV-2 infection and place this in context of recent advances made in understanding the fundamental immunobiology of these cells to try to understand how key homeostatic cells come to be a central pathogenic component of severe COVID-19 and key cells to target for therapeutic gain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Macrophages , Macrophages, Alveolar , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Virol ; 96(7): e0005722, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759284

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused over 5 million deaths worldwide. Pneumonia and systemic inflammation contribute to its high mortality. Many viruses use heparan sulfate proteoglycans as coreceptors for viral entry, and heparanase (HPSE) is a known regulator of both viral entry and inflammatory cytokines. We evaluated the heparanase inhibitor Roneparstat, a modified heparin with minimum anticoagulant activity, in pathophysiology and therapy for COVID-19. We found that Roneparstat significantly decreased the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and retroviruses (human T-lymphotropic virus 1 [HTLV-1] and HIV-1) in vitro. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis of cells from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of COVID-19 patients revealed a marked increase in HPSE gene expression in CD68+ macrophages compared to healthy controls. Elevated levels of HPSE expression in macrophages correlated with the severity of COVID-19 and the expression of inflammatory cytokine genes, including IL6, TNF, IL1B, and CCL2. In line with this finding, we found a marked induction of HPSE and numerous inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages challenged with SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein. Treatment with Roneparstat significantly attenuated SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein-mediated inflammatory cytokine release from human macrophages, through disruption of NF-κB signaling. HPSE knockdown in a macrophage cell line also showed diminished inflammatory cytokine production during S1 protein challenge. Taken together, this study provides a proof of concept that heparanase is a target for SARS-CoV-2-mediated pathogenesis and that Roneparstat may serve as a dual-targeted therapy to reduce viral infection and inflammation in COVID-19. IMPORTANCE The complex pathogenesis of COVID-19 consists of two major pathological phases: an initial infection phase elicited by SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication and an inflammation phase that could lead to tissue damage, which can evolve into acute respiratory failure or even death. While the development and deployment of vaccines are ongoing, effective therapy for COVID-19 is still urgently needed. In this study, we explored HPSE blockade with Roneparstat, a phase I clinically tested HPSE inhibitor, in the context of COVID-19 pathogenesis. Treatment with Roneparstat showed wide-spectrum anti-infection activities against SARS-CoV-2, HTLV-1, and HIV-1 in vitro. In addition, HPSE blockade with Roneparstat significantly attenuated SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein-induced inflammatory cytokine release from human macrophages through disruption of NF-κB signaling. Together, this study provides a proof of principle for the use of Roneparstat as a dual-targeting therapy for COVID-19 to decrease viral infection and dampen the proinflammatory immune response mediated by macrophages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Cytokines/metabolism , Fenofibrate , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Glucuronidase/genetics , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Inflammation , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , NF-kappa B , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010268, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753212

ABSTRACT

Next generation sequencing has revealed the presence of numerous RNA viruses in animal reservoir hosts, including many closely related to known human pathogens. Despite their zoonotic potential, most of these viruses remain understudied due to not yet being cultured. While reverse genetic systems can facilitate virus rescue, this is often hindered by missing viral genome ends. A prime example is Lloviu virus (LLOV), an uncultured filovirus that is closely related to the highly pathogenic Ebola virus. Using minigenome systems, we complemented the missing LLOV genomic ends and identified cis-acting elements required for LLOV replication that were lacking in the published sequence. We leveraged these data to generate recombinant full-length LLOV clones and rescue infectious virus. Similar to other filoviruses, recombinant LLOV (rLLOV) forms filamentous virions and induces the formation of characteristic inclusions in the cytoplasm of the infected cells, as shown by electron microscopy. Known target cells of Ebola virus, including macrophages and hepatocytes, are permissive to rLLOV infection, suggesting that humans could be potential hosts. However, inflammatory responses in human macrophages, a hallmark of Ebola virus disease, are not induced by rLLOV. Additional tropism testing identified pneumocytes as capable of robust rLLOV and Ebola virus infection. We also used rLLOV to test antivirals targeting multiple facets of the replication cycle. Rescue of uncultured viruses of pathogenic concern represents a valuable tool in our arsenal for pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
Ebolavirus/genetics , Filoviridae Infections/virology , Filoviridae/genetics , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genetic Complementation Test , Genome, Viral , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/virology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Inclusion Bodies/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Macrophages/virology , RNA, Viral , Reverse Genetics , Vero Cells , Virion/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL